The magic washing machine | Hans Rosling

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2011-03-21・ 7001    127


http://www.ted.com What was the greatest invention of the industrial revolution? Hans Rosling makes the case for the washing machine. With newly designed graphics from Gapminder, Rosling shows us the magic that pops up when economic growth and electricity turn a boring wash day into an intellectual day of reading. TODAY: From 11:30am-1:30pm EDT, Hans Rosling will be answering questions in TED Conversations. Pop over!

Instruction

Double-click on the English captions to play the video from there.

Translator: Nika Kotnik Reviewer: Tilen Pigac - EFZG
00:15
I was only four years old
Bil sem star samo 4 leta
00:17
when I saw my mother load a washing machine
ko sem videl svojo mamo nalagati perilo v pralni stroj
00:20
for the very first time in her life.
prvič v njenem življenju.
00:23
That was a great day for my mother.
To je bil velik dan za mojo mamo.
00:25
My mother and father had been saving money for years
Moja mama in oče sta varčevala leta in leta
00:28
to be able to buy that machine,
da sta lahko kupila to napravo
00:30
and the first day it was going to be used,
in ko naj bi ga prvič uporabili
00:32
even Grandma was invited to see the machine.
smo povabili celo babico,
da ga bo videla.
00:35
(Laughter)
in babica je bila še bolj vznemirjena.
00:37
And Grandma was even more excited.
00:39
Throughout her life, she had been heating water with firewood,
Skozi svoje celo življenje
je grela vodo na ognjišču
00:43
and she had hand-washed laundry for seven children.
in z rokami prala perilo
za sedem otrok.
00:47
And now, she was going to watch electricity do that work.
In zdaj bo videla
kako elektrika opravlja to delo.
00:53
My mother carefully opened the door,
Moja mama je pazljivo odprla vrata
00:57
and she loaded the laundry into the machine,
in naložila perilo
v stroj,
takole.
01:02
like this.
01:03
And then, when she closed the door,
In potem, ko je zaprla vrata,
01:05
Grandma said, "No, no, no, no!
je babica rekla, "Ne, ne, ne, ne.
01:07
Let me! Let me push the button!"
Naj jaz, naj jaz pritisnem na gumb."
01:10
(Laughter)
01:11
And Grandma pushed the button,
In babica je pritisnila na gumb
in rekla, "Oh, fantastično!
01:14
and she said, "Oh, fantastic!
01:16
I want to see this! Give me a chair! Give me a chair! I want to see it,"
To hočem videti! Dajte mi stol!
Dajte mi stol! To hočem videti! "
01:20
and she sat down in front of the machine,
in usedla se je pred pralni stroj,
01:23
and she watched the entire washing program.
in gledala celoten pralni program.
01:27
(Laughter)
Bila je očarana.
01:28
She was mesmerized.
01:29
To my grandmother, the washing machine was a miracle.
Za mojo babico,
je bil pralni stroj čudež.
01:35
Today, in Sweden and other rich countries,
Danes, na Švedskem in v drugih bogatih državah
01:38
people are using so many different machines.
ljudje uporabljajo
toliko različnih naprav.
01:42
Look -- the homes are full of machines.
Poglejte, domovi so jih polni.
01:44
I can't even name them all.
Vseh sploh ne znam poimenovati.
01:46
And they also, when they want to travel,
In prav tako, ko hočejo potovati,
uporabljajo naprave za letenje
01:50
they use flying machines
01:52
that can take them to remote destinations.
ki jih lahko odpeljejo na oddaljene kraje.
01:54
And yet, in the world,
Ampak, na svetu je še vedno toliko ljudi
01:56
there are so many people who still heat the water on fire,
ki še zmeraj grejejo vodo na ognjišču
in kuhajo hrano na ognjišču.
02:00
and they cook their food on fire.
02:02
Sometimes they don't even have enough food.
Včasih nimajo niti dovolj hrane
in živijo pod mejo revščine.
02:05
And they live below the poverty line.
02:07
There are two billion fellow human beings
Na svetu sta dve miljardi soljudi
02:10
who live on less than two dollars a day.
ki živita z manj kot dvema dolarjema na dan.
In najbogatejši ljudje tukaj --
02:13
And the richest people over there -- there's one billion people,
to je ena miljarda--
02:16
and they live above what I call the "air line" --
živijo nad, kot jaz temu pravim "zračno linijo"
02:19
(Laughter)
02:20
because they spend more than 80 dollars a day
ker porabijo več kot 80$ na dan
za svoje potrebe.
02:24
on their consumption.
Ampak to je samo ena, dva, tri miljarde ljudi,
02:26
But this is just one, two, three billion people,
02:28
and obviously, there are seven billion people in the world,
in seveda je na svetu sedem miljard ljudi,
02:31
so there must be one, two, three, four billion people more
zato nam manjka še ena, dva, tri, štiri miljarde ljudi
ki živijo med mejo revščine in zračno linijo.
02:35
who live in between the poverty and the air line.
Oni imajo elektriko,
02:38
They have electricity,
02:40
but the question is: How many have washing machines?
ampak vprašanje je, koliko jih ima pralni stroj?
02:43
I've done the scrutiny of market data, and I've found that, indeed,
Naredil sem pregled podatkov na trgu
in odkril da, res,
02:48
the washing machine has penetrated below the air line,
je pralni stroj prestopil zračno linijo
in zdaj je na svetu dodatna miljarda ljudi
02:52
and today, there's an additional one billion people out there
ki živijo nad "pralno linijo".
02:55
who live above the "wash line."
02:57
(Laughter)
(Smeh)
02:59
And they consume for more than 40 dollars per day.
In oni porabijo več kot 40$ na dan.
03:03
So two billion have access to washing machines.
Torej dve miljardi ljudi imata dostop do pralnega stroja.
03:06
And the remaining five billion --
In preostalih pet miljard,
kako perejo oni?
03:09
how do they wash?
03:10
Or, to be more precise,
Oziroma, bodimo bolj natančni,
03:12
how do most of the women in the world wash?
kako pere večina žensk na svetu?
03:15
Because it remains the hard work for women to wash.
Ker pranje perila še zmeraj ostaja težko delo za ženske.
03:19
They wash like this: by hand.
Takole perejo: na roke.
03:22
It's hard, time-consuming labor,
To je težko, zamudno delo,
ki ga opravljajo ure in ure vsak teden.
03:27
which they have to do for hours every week.
In včasih morajo vodo prinesti od daleč stran
03:30
And sometimes they also have to bring water from far away
da lahko perejo doma,
03:33
to do the laundry at home,
03:34
or they have to bring the laundry away to a stream far off.
ali pa morajo prinesti perilo k potoku daleč stran.
03:38
And they want the washing machine.
In one hočejo pralni stroj.
03:41
They don't want to spend such a large part of their life
Nočejo zapraviti tako velikega dela življenja
03:44
doing this hard work
z opravljanjem tega težkega dela
03:46
with so relatively low productivity.
z relativno malo produktivnostjo.
In njihova želja ni prav nič drugačna
03:49
And there's nothing different in their wish
kot je bila želja moje babice.
03:51
than it was for my grandma.
Poglejte tukaj, dve generaciji nazaj na Švedskem --
03:53
Look here, two generations ago in Sweden --
03:55
picking water from the stream,
zbiranje vode v potoku,
03:57
heating with firewood and washing like that.
gretje na ognjišču in pranje.
04:00
They want the washing machine in exactly the same way.
Prav tako si želijo pralnega stroja kot oni.
04:03
But when I lecture to environmentally concerned students,
Ampak ko predavam okoljsko ozaveščenim študentom
04:06
they tell me, "No, everybody in the world cannot have cars and washing machines."
mi pravijo, "Ne, vsak na svetu ne more imeti avtomobila in pralnega stroja."
04:11
How can we tell this woman
Kako lahko rečemo tej ženski,
04:13
that she isn't going to have a washing machine?
da ne bo imela pralnega stroja?
04:15
And then I ask my students -- over the last two years, I've asked --
In nato vprašam svoje študente,
sprašujem jih zadnji dve leti,
04:19
"How many of you don't use a car?"
"Kdo od vas ne uporablja avtomobila?"
04:21
And some of them proudly raise their hand and say, "I don't use a car."
In nekateri od njih ponosno dvignejo roko
in rečejo: "Ne uporabljam avtomobila."
04:25
And then I put the really tough question:
In nato jim zastavim res težko vprašanje:
04:27
"How many of you hand-wash your jeans and your bedsheets?"
"Koliko od vas
si na roke pere kavbojke in rjuhe?"
04:31
And no one raised their hand.
In nihče ne dvigne roke.
Celo najbolj zagrizeni v "zelenem gibanju"
04:35
Even the hardcore in the green movement use washing machines.
uporabljajo pralni stroj.
04:39
(Laughter)
(Smeh)
04:43
So how come [this is] something that everyone uses
Kako je torej to stvar, ki jo vsi uporabljajo
04:45
and they think others will not stop it?
in mislijo, da je drugi ne bodo? Kaj je posebnega na tem?
04:47
What is special with this?
04:48
I had to do an analysis about the energy use in the world.
Moral sem narediti analizo porabe energije na svetu.
04:51
Here we are.
Tukaj je.
04:52
Look here. You see the seven billion people up there?
Poglejte, tu lahko vidite 7 miljard ljudi:
04:55
The air people, the wash people,
Ljudje v zraku, ljudje s pralnim strojem,
04:57
the bulb people and the fire people.
ljudje z žarnico in ljudje z ognjiščem.
05:00
One unit like this
Ena enota tu
05:02
is an energy unit of fossil fuel -- oil, coal or gas.
je energijska enota fosilnega goriva --
olje, premog ali plin.
05:07
That's what most of the electricity and the energy in the world is.
To je večina elektrike in energije na svetu.
05:11
And it's 12 units used in the entire world,
In to je 12 enot za cel svet,
05:14
and the richest one billion, they use six of them.
in najbogatejša miljarda ljudi, oni jih porabijo šest.
05:17
Half of the energy is used by one seventh of the world population.
Polovico energije porabi sedmina prebivalstva.
05:20
And these ones, who have washing machines
In tile tu, ki imajo pralni stroj,
a ne hiše polne drugih naprav,
05:23
but not a house full of other machines,
oni porabijo dve.
05:25
they use two.
05:26
This group uses three, one each.
ta skupina porabi tri, vsak eno.
In oni imajo prav tako elektriko.
05:29
And they also have electricity.
In oni tam ne porabijo niti ene enote.
05:31
And over there, they don't even use one each.
05:33
That makes 12 of them.
Tako jih je 12.
05:35
But the main concern
Ampak glavna skrb
05:37
for the environmentally interested students -- and they are right --
okoljsko zaskrbljenih študentov -- in prav imajo --
05:40
is about the future.
se tiče prihodnosti.
Kakšni so trendi? Če samo projeciramo trende
05:43
What are the trends?
05:44
If we just prolong the trends, without any real advanced analysis,
brez kakršnekoli napredne analize, do leta 2050,
05:48
to 2050,
sta tu dve stvari ki lahko povečata porabo energije.
05:49
there are two things that can increase the energy use:
Prvič, rast prebivalstva.
05:52
first, population growth; second, economic growth.
Drugič, ekonomska rast.
05:55
Population growth will mainly occur among the poorest people here,
Rast prebivalstva se bo zgodila večinoma med najbolj revnimi ljudmi tu,
ker imajo veliko umrljivost otrok
05:59
because they have high child mortality
in veliko otrok na žensko.
06:01
and they have many children per woman.
In s tem dobite dve dodatni miljardi,
06:03
And that will get you two extra,
ampak to ne bo veliko spremenilo porabe energije.
06:05
but that won't change the energy use very much.
Kar se bo zgodilo, je ekonomska rast.
06:07
What will happen is economic growth.
06:09
The best of here in the emerging economies --
Najboljši tu izmed rastočih gospodarstev --
jaz jim pravim Novi vzhod --
06:12
I call them "the New East" --
06:13
they will jump the air line.
preskočili bodo zračno linijo.
06:15
"Wopp!" they will say.
"Hop!" bodo rekli.
06:17
And they will start to use as much as the Old West are doing already.
In začeli bodo porabljati toliko kot stari zahod počne že sedaj.
06:20
(Laughter)
In ti ljudje, hočejo pralni stroj.
06:21
And these people, they want the washing machine.
Povedal sem vam. Prišli bodo tja.
06:24
I told you. They'll go there.
06:25
And they will double their energy use.
In podvojili bodo porabo energije.
06:27
And we hope that the poor people will get into the electric light.
In upamo da bodo revni ljudje dobili električno luč.
06:30
And they'll get a two-child family without a stop in population growth.
In dobili bodo družino z dvema otrokoma brez da bi se ustavila rast prebivalstva.
Ampak celotna poraba energije
06:33
But the total energy consumption will increase to 22 units.
se bo povečala na 22 enot.
In teh 22 enot --
06:37
And these 22 units --
še zmeraj bodo najbogatejši porabili največji del.
06:40
still, the richest people use most of them.
Kaj moramo torej storiti?
06:44
So what needs to be done?
06:45
Because the risk,
Ker tveganje,
06:47
the high probability of climate change is real.
velika verjetnost klimatskih sprememb, je resnična.
06:50
It's real.
Resnična je.
06:52
Of course, they must be more energy efficient.
Seveda morajo biti bolj učinkoviti pri rabi energije.
06:55
They must change their behavior in some way.
Spremeniti morajo svoje obnašanje na nek način.
06:57
They must also start to produce green energy,
Prav tako morajo začeti s proizvodnjo zelene energije,
veliko več zelene energije.
07:00
much more green energy.
07:01
But until they have the same energy consumption per person,
Ampak dokler imajo enako porabo energije po osebi,
ne bi smeli svetovati drugim --
07:05
they shouldn't give advice to others --
07:06
what to do and what not to do.
kaj naj počnejo in kaj ne.
07:08
(Laughter)
(Aplavz)
07:09
(Applause)
07:10
Here, we can get more green energy all over.
Tukaj lahko dobimo več zelene energije.
To upamo da se bo zgodilo.
07:15
This is what we hope might happen.
To je pravi izziv za prihodnost.
07:17
It's a real challenge in the future.
07:19
But I can assure you that this woman in the favela in Rio,
Ampak lahko vam zagotovim da si ta ženska v faveli v Riu
želi pralnega stroja.
07:23
she wants a washing machine.
Zelo je zadovoljna s svojo ministrico za energijo
07:25
She's very happy about her minister of energy
07:27
that provided electricity to everyone --
ki je vsem priskrbela elektriko --
07:29
so happy that she even voted for her.
tako zadovoljna da je celo volila zanjo.
In ona je postala Dilma Roisseff,
07:33
And she became Dilma Rousseff,
07:34
the president-elect of one of the biggest democracies in the world,
izvoljena predsednica
ene izmed največjih demokracij na svetu --
premaknila se s položaja ministrice za energijo na položaj predsednice.
07:39
moving from minister of energy to president.
Če imate demokracijo,
07:42
If you have democracy, people will vote for washing machines.
bodo ljudje glasovali za pralne stroje.
Ljubijo jih.
07:46
They love them!
07:47
(Laughter)
07:49
And what's the magic with them?
In v čem je njihova čarovnija?
07:51
My mother explained the magic with this machine
Moja mama mi je razložila čarovnijo tega stroja
07:54
the very, very first day.
čisto prvi dan.
Rekla je, "Zdaj Hans,
07:57
She said, "Now, Hans.
sva naložila perilo.
07:59
We have loaded the laundry.
Stroj bo opravil svoje delo.
08:01
The machine will make the work.
08:02
And now we can go to the library."
In midva greva lahko v knjižnico."
Ker to je čarovnija:
08:05
Because this is the magic: you load the laundry,
naložiš perilo,
08:08
and what do you get out of the machine?
in kaj dobiš ven iz stroja?
08:10
You get books out of the machines,
Knjige dobiš iz njega,
otroške knjige.
08:14
children's books.
08:15
And mother got time to read for me.
In mama je imela čas da mi je lahko brala.
08:17
She loved this.
Bila je navdušena. Dobil sem Abecedo --
08:18
I got the "ABC's" -- this is why I started my career as a professor,
tu sem začel svojo kariero kot profesor,
08:22
when my mother had time to read for me.
ko je moja mama imela čas da mi je lahko brala.
08:24
And she also got books for herself.
In dobila je knjige tudi zase.
08:26
She managed to study English and learn that as a foreign language.
Uspela se je učiti angleško
in se je naučila kot tuj jezik.
08:30
And she read so many novels,
In toliko romanov je prebrala,
08:32
so many different novels here.
toliko različnih romanov.
08:35
And we really, we really loved this machine.
In res, res smo imeli radi ta stroj.
08:38
(Laughter)
08:39
And what we said, my mother and me,
In to sva rekla, moja mama in jaz,
08:42
"Thank you, industrialization.
"Hvala industrializacija.
08:45
Thank you, steel mill.
Hvala jeklarna.
08:47
Thank you, power station.
Hvala elektrarna.
08:49
And thank you, chemical processing industry
In hvala industrija kemične predelave,
08:52
that gave us time to read books."
da si nam dala čas za branje knjig."
08:54
Thank you very much.
Najlepša hvala.
08:55
(Laughter)
08:56
(Applause)
(Aplavz)
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