The magic washing machine | Hans Rosling

648,670 views

2011-03-21・ TED

The magic washing machine | Hans Rosling

648,670 views・2011-03-21

TED


Please double-click on the English subtitles below to play the video.

Translator: Nika Kotnik Reviewer: Tilen Pigac - EFZG
00:15
I was only four years old
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Bil sem star samo 4 leta
00:17
when I saw my mother load a washing machine
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ko sem videl svojo mamo nalagati perilo v pralni stroj
00:20
for the very first time in her life.
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prvič v njenem življenju.
00:23
That was a great day for my mother.
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To je bil velik dan za mojo mamo.
00:25
My mother and father had been saving money for years
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Moja mama in oče sta varčevala leta in leta
00:28
to be able to buy that machine,
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da sta lahko kupila to napravo
00:30
and the first day it was going to be used,
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in ko naj bi ga prvič uporabili
00:32
even Grandma was invited to see the machine.
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smo povabili celo babico,
da ga bo videla.
00:35
(Laughter)
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in babica je bila še bolj vznemirjena.
00:37
And Grandma was even more excited.
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00:39
Throughout her life, she had been heating water with firewood,
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Skozi svoje celo življenje
je grela vodo na ognjišču
00:43
and she had hand-washed laundry for seven children.
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in z rokami prala perilo
za sedem otrok.
00:47
And now, she was going to watch electricity do that work.
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In zdaj bo videla
kako elektrika opravlja to delo.
00:53
My mother carefully opened the door,
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Moja mama je pazljivo odprla vrata
00:57
and she loaded the laundry into the machine,
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in naložila perilo
v stroj,
takole.
01:02
like this.
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01:03
And then, when she closed the door,
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In potem, ko je zaprla vrata,
01:05
Grandma said, "No, no, no, no!
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je babica rekla, "Ne, ne, ne, ne.
01:07
Let me! Let me push the button!"
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Naj jaz, naj jaz pritisnem na gumb."
01:10
(Laughter)
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01:11
And Grandma pushed the button,
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In babica je pritisnila na gumb
in rekla, "Oh, fantastično!
01:14
and she said, "Oh, fantastic!
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01:16
I want to see this! Give me a chair! Give me a chair! I want to see it,"
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To hočem videti! Dajte mi stol!
Dajte mi stol! To hočem videti! "
01:20
and she sat down in front of the machine,
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in usedla se je pred pralni stroj,
01:23
and she watched the entire washing program.
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in gledala celoten pralni program.
01:27
(Laughter)
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Bila je očarana.
01:28
She was mesmerized.
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01:29
To my grandmother, the washing machine was a miracle.
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Za mojo babico,
je bil pralni stroj čudež.
01:35
Today, in Sweden and other rich countries,
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Danes, na Švedskem in v drugih bogatih državah
01:38
people are using so many different machines.
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ljudje uporabljajo
toliko različnih naprav.
01:42
Look -- the homes are full of machines.
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Poglejte, domovi so jih polni.
01:44
I can't even name them all.
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Vseh sploh ne znam poimenovati.
01:46
And they also, when they want to travel,
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In prav tako, ko hočejo potovati,
uporabljajo naprave za letenje
01:50
they use flying machines
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01:52
that can take them to remote destinations.
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ki jih lahko odpeljejo na oddaljene kraje.
01:54
And yet, in the world,
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Ampak, na svetu je še vedno toliko ljudi
01:56
there are so many people who still heat the water on fire,
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ki še zmeraj grejejo vodo na ognjišču
in kuhajo hrano na ognjišču.
02:00
and they cook their food on fire.
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02:02
Sometimes they don't even have enough food.
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Včasih nimajo niti dovolj hrane
in živijo pod mejo revščine.
02:05
And they live below the poverty line.
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02:07
There are two billion fellow human beings
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Na svetu sta dve miljardi soljudi
02:10
who live on less than two dollars a day.
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ki živita z manj kot dvema dolarjema na dan.
In najbogatejši ljudje tukaj --
02:13
And the richest people over there -- there's one billion people,
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to je ena miljarda--
02:16
and they live above what I call the "air line" --
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živijo nad, kot jaz temu pravim "zračno linijo"
02:19
(Laughter)
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02:20
because they spend more than 80 dollars a day
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ker porabijo več kot 80$ na dan
za svoje potrebe.
02:24
on their consumption.
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Ampak to je samo ena, dva, tri miljarde ljudi,
02:26
But this is just one, two, three billion people,
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02:28
and obviously, there are seven billion people in the world,
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in seveda je na svetu sedem miljard ljudi,
02:31
so there must be one, two, three, four billion people more
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zato nam manjka še ena, dva, tri, štiri miljarde ljudi
ki živijo med mejo revščine in zračno linijo.
02:35
who live in between the poverty and the air line.
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Oni imajo elektriko,
02:38
They have electricity,
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02:40
but the question is: How many have washing machines?
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ampak vprašanje je, koliko jih ima pralni stroj?
02:43
I've done the scrutiny of market data, and I've found that, indeed,
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Naredil sem pregled podatkov na trgu
in odkril da, res,
02:48
the washing machine has penetrated below the air line,
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je pralni stroj prestopil zračno linijo
in zdaj je na svetu dodatna miljarda ljudi
02:52
and today, there's an additional one billion people out there
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ki živijo nad "pralno linijo".
02:55
who live above the "wash line."
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02:57
(Laughter)
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(Smeh)
02:59
And they consume for more than 40 dollars per day.
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In oni porabijo več kot 40$ na dan.
03:03
So two billion have access to washing machines.
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Torej dve miljardi ljudi imata dostop do pralnega stroja.
03:06
And the remaining five billion --
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In preostalih pet miljard,
kako perejo oni?
03:09
how do they wash?
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03:10
Or, to be more precise,
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Oziroma, bodimo bolj natančni,
03:12
how do most of the women in the world wash?
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kako pere večina žensk na svetu?
03:15
Because it remains the hard work for women to wash.
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Ker pranje perila še zmeraj ostaja težko delo za ženske.
03:19
They wash like this: by hand.
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Takole perejo: na roke.
03:22
It's hard, time-consuming labor,
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To je težko, zamudno delo,
ki ga opravljajo ure in ure vsak teden.
03:27
which they have to do for hours every week.
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In včasih morajo vodo prinesti od daleč stran
03:30
And sometimes they also have to bring water from far away
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da lahko perejo doma,
03:33
to do the laundry at home,
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03:34
or they have to bring the laundry away to a stream far off.
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ali pa morajo prinesti perilo k potoku daleč stran.
03:38
And they want the washing machine.
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In one hočejo pralni stroj.
03:41
They don't want to spend such a large part of their life
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Nočejo zapraviti tako velikega dela življenja
03:44
doing this hard work
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z opravljanjem tega težkega dela
03:46
with so relatively low productivity.
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z relativno malo produktivnostjo.
In njihova želja ni prav nič drugačna
03:49
And there's nothing different in their wish
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kot je bila želja moje babice.
03:51
than it was for my grandma.
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Poglejte tukaj, dve generaciji nazaj na Švedskem --
03:53
Look here, two generations ago in Sweden --
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03:55
picking water from the stream,
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zbiranje vode v potoku,
03:57
heating with firewood and washing like that.
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gretje na ognjišču in pranje.
04:00
They want the washing machine in exactly the same way.
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Prav tako si želijo pralnega stroja kot oni.
04:03
But when I lecture to environmentally concerned students,
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Ampak ko predavam okoljsko ozaveščenim študentom
04:06
they tell me, "No, everybody in the world cannot have cars and washing machines."
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mi pravijo, "Ne, vsak na svetu ne more imeti avtomobila in pralnega stroja."
04:11
How can we tell this woman
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Kako lahko rečemo tej ženski,
04:13
that she isn't going to have a washing machine?
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da ne bo imela pralnega stroja?
04:15
And then I ask my students -- over the last two years, I've asked --
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In nato vprašam svoje študente,
sprašujem jih zadnji dve leti,
04:19
"How many of you don't use a car?"
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"Kdo od vas ne uporablja avtomobila?"
04:21
And some of them proudly raise their hand and say, "I don't use a car."
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In nekateri od njih ponosno dvignejo roko
in rečejo: "Ne uporabljam avtomobila."
04:25
And then I put the really tough question:
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In nato jim zastavim res težko vprašanje:
04:27
"How many of you hand-wash your jeans and your bedsheets?"
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"Koliko od vas
si na roke pere kavbojke in rjuhe?"
04:31
And no one raised their hand.
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In nihče ne dvigne roke.
Celo najbolj zagrizeni v "zelenem gibanju"
04:35
Even the hardcore in the green movement use washing machines.
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uporabljajo pralni stroj.
04:39
(Laughter)
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(Smeh)
04:43
So how come [this is] something that everyone uses
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Kako je torej to stvar, ki jo vsi uporabljajo
04:45
and they think others will not stop it?
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in mislijo, da je drugi ne bodo? Kaj je posebnega na tem?
04:47
What is special with this?
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04:48
I had to do an analysis about the energy use in the world.
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Moral sem narediti analizo porabe energije na svetu.
04:51
Here we are.
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Tukaj je.
04:52
Look here. You see the seven billion people up there?
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Poglejte, tu lahko vidite 7 miljard ljudi:
04:55
The air people, the wash people,
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Ljudje v zraku, ljudje s pralnim strojem,
04:57
the bulb people and the fire people.
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ljudje z žarnico in ljudje z ognjiščem.
05:00
One unit like this
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Ena enota tu
05:02
is an energy unit of fossil fuel -- oil, coal or gas.
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je energijska enota fosilnega goriva --
olje, premog ali plin.
05:07
That's what most of the electricity and the energy in the world is.
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To je večina elektrike in energije na svetu.
05:11
And it's 12 units used in the entire world,
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In to je 12 enot za cel svet,
05:14
and the richest one billion, they use six of them.
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in najbogatejša miljarda ljudi, oni jih porabijo šest.
05:17
Half of the energy is used by one seventh of the world population.
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Polovico energije porabi sedmina prebivalstva.
05:20
And these ones, who have washing machines
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In tile tu, ki imajo pralni stroj,
a ne hiše polne drugih naprav,
05:23
but not a house full of other machines,
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oni porabijo dve.
05:25
they use two.
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05:26
This group uses three, one each.
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ta skupina porabi tri, vsak eno.
In oni imajo prav tako elektriko.
05:29
And they also have electricity.
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In oni tam ne porabijo niti ene enote.
05:31
And over there, they don't even use one each.
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05:33
That makes 12 of them.
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Tako jih je 12.
05:35
But the main concern
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Ampak glavna skrb
05:37
for the environmentally interested students -- and they are right --
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okoljsko zaskrbljenih študentov -- in prav imajo --
05:40
is about the future.
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se tiče prihodnosti.
Kakšni so trendi? Če samo projeciramo trende
05:43
What are the trends?
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05:44
If we just prolong the trends, without any real advanced analysis,
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brez kakršnekoli napredne analize, do leta 2050,
05:48
to 2050,
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sta tu dve stvari ki lahko povečata porabo energije.
05:49
there are two things that can increase the energy use:
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Prvič, rast prebivalstva.
05:52
first, population growth; second, economic growth.
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Drugič, ekonomska rast.
05:55
Population growth will mainly occur among the poorest people here,
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Rast prebivalstva se bo zgodila večinoma med najbolj revnimi ljudmi tu,
ker imajo veliko umrljivost otrok
05:59
because they have high child mortality
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in veliko otrok na žensko.
06:01
and they have many children per woman.
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In s tem dobite dve dodatni miljardi,
06:03
And that will get you two extra,
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ampak to ne bo veliko spremenilo porabe energije.
06:05
but that won't change the energy use very much.
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Kar se bo zgodilo, je ekonomska rast.
06:07
What will happen is economic growth.
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06:09
The best of here in the emerging economies --
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Najboljši tu izmed rastočih gospodarstev --
jaz jim pravim Novi vzhod --
06:12
I call them "the New East" --
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06:13
they will jump the air line.
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preskočili bodo zračno linijo.
06:15
"Wopp!" they will say.
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"Hop!" bodo rekli.
06:17
And they will start to use as much as the Old West are doing already.
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In začeli bodo porabljati toliko kot stari zahod počne že sedaj.
06:20
(Laughter)
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In ti ljudje, hočejo pralni stroj.
06:21
And these people, they want the washing machine.
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Povedal sem vam. Prišli bodo tja.
06:24
I told you. They'll go there.
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06:25
And they will double their energy use.
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In podvojili bodo porabo energije.
06:27
And we hope that the poor people will get into the electric light.
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In upamo da bodo revni ljudje dobili električno luč.
06:30
And they'll get a two-child family without a stop in population growth.
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In dobili bodo družino z dvema otrokoma brez da bi se ustavila rast prebivalstva.
Ampak celotna poraba energije
06:33
But the total energy consumption will increase to 22 units.
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se bo povečala na 22 enot.
In teh 22 enot --
06:37
And these 22 units --
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še zmeraj bodo najbogatejši porabili največji del.
06:40
still, the richest people use most of them.
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Kaj moramo torej storiti?
06:44
So what needs to be done?
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06:45
Because the risk,
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Ker tveganje,
06:47
the high probability of climate change is real.
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velika verjetnost klimatskih sprememb, je resnična.
06:50
It's real.
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Resnična je.
06:52
Of course, they must be more energy efficient.
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Seveda morajo biti bolj učinkoviti pri rabi energije.
06:55
They must change their behavior in some way.
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Spremeniti morajo svoje obnašanje na nek način.
06:57
They must also start to produce green energy,
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Prav tako morajo začeti s proizvodnjo zelene energije,
veliko več zelene energije.
07:00
much more green energy.
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07:01
But until they have the same energy consumption per person,
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Ampak dokler imajo enako porabo energije po osebi,
ne bi smeli svetovati drugim --
07:05
they shouldn't give advice to others --
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07:06
what to do and what not to do.
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kaj naj počnejo in kaj ne.
07:08
(Laughter)
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(Aplavz)
07:09
(Applause)
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07:10
Here, we can get more green energy all over.
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Tukaj lahko dobimo več zelene energije.
To upamo da se bo zgodilo.
07:15
This is what we hope might happen.
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To je pravi izziv za prihodnost.
07:17
It's a real challenge in the future.
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07:19
But I can assure you that this woman in the favela in Rio,
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Ampak lahko vam zagotovim da si ta ženska v faveli v Riu
želi pralnega stroja.
07:23
she wants a washing machine.
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Zelo je zadovoljna s svojo ministrico za energijo
07:25
She's very happy about her minister of energy
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07:27
that provided electricity to everyone --
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ki je vsem priskrbela elektriko --
07:29
so happy that she even voted for her.
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tako zadovoljna da je celo volila zanjo.
In ona je postala Dilma Roisseff,
07:33
And she became Dilma Rousseff,
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07:34
the president-elect of one of the biggest democracies in the world,
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izvoljena predsednica
ene izmed največjih demokracij na svetu --
premaknila se s položaja ministrice za energijo na položaj predsednice.
07:39
moving from minister of energy to president.
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Če imate demokracijo,
07:42
If you have democracy, people will vote for washing machines.
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bodo ljudje glasovali za pralne stroje.
Ljubijo jih.
07:46
They love them!
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07:47
(Laughter)
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07:49
And what's the magic with them?
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In v čem je njihova čarovnija?
07:51
My mother explained the magic with this machine
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Moja mama mi je razložila čarovnijo tega stroja
07:54
the very, very first day.
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čisto prvi dan.
Rekla je, "Zdaj Hans,
07:57
She said, "Now, Hans.
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sva naložila perilo.
07:59
We have loaded the laundry.
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Stroj bo opravil svoje delo.
08:01
The machine will make the work.
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08:02
And now we can go to the library."
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In midva greva lahko v knjižnico."
Ker to je čarovnija:
08:05
Because this is the magic: you load the laundry,
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naložiš perilo,
08:08
and what do you get out of the machine?
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in kaj dobiš ven iz stroja?
08:10
You get books out of the machines,
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Knjige dobiš iz njega,
otroške knjige.
08:14
children's books.
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08:15
And mother got time to read for me.
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In mama je imela čas da mi je lahko brala.
08:17
She loved this.
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Bila je navdušena. Dobil sem Abecedo --
08:18
I got the "ABC's" -- this is why I started my career as a professor,
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tu sem začel svojo kariero kot profesor,
08:22
when my mother had time to read for me.
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ko je moja mama imela čas da mi je lahko brala.
08:24
And she also got books for herself.
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In dobila je knjige tudi zase.
08:26
She managed to study English and learn that as a foreign language.
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Uspela se je učiti angleško
in se je naučila kot tuj jezik.
08:30
And she read so many novels,
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In toliko romanov je prebrala,
08:32
so many different novels here.
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toliko različnih romanov.
08:35
And we really, we really loved this machine.
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In res, res smo imeli radi ta stroj.
08:38
(Laughter)
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08:39
And what we said, my mother and me,
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In to sva rekla, moja mama in jaz,
08:42
"Thank you, industrialization.
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"Hvala industrializacija.
08:45
Thank you, steel mill.
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Hvala jeklarna.
08:47
Thank you, power station.
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Hvala elektrarna.
08:49
And thank you, chemical processing industry
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In hvala industrija kemične predelave,
08:52
that gave us time to read books."
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da si nam dala čas za branje knjig."
08:54
Thank you very much.
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Najlepša hvala.
08:55
(Laughter)
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08:56
(Applause)
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(Aplavz)
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