The magic washing machine | Hans Rosling

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2011-03-21・ 7001    127


http://www.ted.com What was the greatest invention of the industrial revolution? Hans Rosling makes the case for the washing machine. With newly designed graphics from Gapminder, Rosling shows us the magic that pops up when economic growth and electricity turn a boring wash day into an intellectual day of reading. TODAY: From 11:30am-1:30pm EDT, Hans Rosling will be answering questions in TED Conversations. Pop over!

Instruction

Double-click on the English captions to play the video from there.

Translator: Alvaro Moya Reviewer: Tania Filgueira
00:15
I was only four years old
Nik 4 urte besterik ez nituen
00:17
when I saw my mother load a washing machine
nire ama arropekin garbitzaile bat betetzen ikusi nuenean
00:20
for the very first time in her life.
lehenengo aldiz.
00:23
That was a great day for my mother.
Nire amarentzako garrantzi handiko egun bat zen.
00:25
My mother and father had been saving money for years
Nire gurasoak urte askotan zehar egon ziren aurrezten
00:28
to be able to buy that machine,
garbitzaile hori erosteko.
00:30
and the first day it was going to be used,
Eta estreinaldian,
00:32
even Grandma was invited to see the machine.
nire amona ere gonbidatu zuten
garbitzailea ikustera.
00:35
(Laughter)
Eta nire amona gero eta hunkiberagoa zen.
00:37
And Grandma was even more excited.
00:39
Throughout her life, she had been heating water with firewood,
Bere bizitza osoaren zehar
beti ura berotu behar zuen egurrez,
00:43
and she had hand-washed laundry for seven children.
eta arropa garbitu eskuz
zazpi seme-alabentzat.
00:47
And now, she was going to watch electricity do that work.
Eta orain zuzenean ikusiko zuen
elektrizitateak horrelako lana egiten.
00:53
My mother carefully opened the door,
Nire amak atea arretaz zabaldu zuen,
00:57
and she loaded the laundry into the machine,
arropa sartu
garbitzailean,
horrela.
01:02
like this.
01:03
And then, when she closed the door,
Eta, orduan, atea itxi zuenean,
01:05
Grandma said, "No, no, no, no!
Nire amonak esan zuen: "Ez, ez, ez, ez, ...
01:07
Let me! Let me push the button!"
... utzi niri, utzi botoia sakatzen."
01:10
(Laughter)
01:11
And Grandma pushed the button,
Eta berak botoia sakatu zuen.
eta zion: "Oh, zoragarria da ...
01:14
and she said, "Oh, fantastic!
01:16
I want to see this! Give me a chair! Give me a chair! I want to see it,"
... Hau ikusi nahi dut. Emaidazu aulkia ...
... Emaidazu aulkia. Ikusi nahi dut."
01:20
and she sat down in front of the machine,
Eta garbitzailearen aurrean eseri zen,
01:23
and she watched the entire washing program.
eta garbiketa-prozesu osoa ikusi zuen.
01:27
(Laughter)
Harrituta zegoen.
01:28
She was mesmerized.
01:29
To my grandmother, the washing machine was a miracle.
Nire amonarentzat,
garbitzailea miraria zen.
01:35
Today, in Sweden and other rich countries,
Gaur egun, Suedian, eta beste herri aberatsetan,
01:38
people are using so many different machines.
pertsonek erabiltzen dituzte
oso makina desberdinak.
01:42
Look -- the homes are full of machines.
Aizue, etxeak aparagailuz beteta daude.
01:44
I can't even name them all.
Horiek guztiak nola deitzen diren ere ez dakit.
01:46
And they also, when they want to travel,
Eta gainera, bidaiatu nahi dutenean,
makina hegalari batzuk erabiltzen dituzte
01:50
they use flying machines
01:52
that can take them to remote destinations.
urruneko helbideetara iristeko.
01:54
And yet, in the world,
Nahiz eta jende asko munduan egon,
01:56
there are so many people who still heat the water on fire,
zeintzuek ura sutan berotu behar duten,
eta euren sutan janaria prestatu behar duten.
02:00
and they cook their food on fire.
02:02
Sometimes they don't even have enough food.
Batzuetan ez daukate janari nahikorik.
Txirotasunaren atariaren behetik bizi dira.
02:05
And they live below the poverty line.
02:07
There are two billion fellow human beings
Badaude 2.000 milioi pertsonak
02:10
who live on less than two dollars a day.
zeintzuk egunero 2 dolarrekin baino gutxiagorekin bizi diren.
Eta hemengo aberatsak
02:13
And the richest people over there -- there's one billion people,
orokorrean, 1.000 milioi pertsonak,
02:16
and they live above what I call the "air line" --
zeruaren atariaren gainetik bizi dira, horrela diot,
02:19
(Laughter)
02:20
because they spend more than 80 dollars a day
egunero 80 dolar baino gehiago gastatzen dutelako
kontsumoan.
02:24
on their consumption.
Baina aipatutakoak 1.000, 2.000, 3.000 milioi dira,
02:26
But this is just one, two, three billion people,
02:28
and obviously, there are seven billion people in the world,
eta jakina, munduan 7.000 milioi pertsonak daude,
02:31
so there must be one, two, three, four billion people more
orduan 1.000, 2.000, 3.000, 4.000 milioi gehiago egongo dira,
zeintzuk zeruaren eta txirotasunaren atarien artean bizi diren.
02:35
who live in between the poverty and the air line.
Haiek elektrizitatea dute,
02:38
They have electricity,
02:40
but the question is: How many have washing machines?
baina galdera da, zenbat dute garbitzailea?
02:43
I've done the scrutiny of market data, and I've found that, indeed,
Merkatuaren datuak aztertu ditut,
eta aurkitu dut, benetan,
02:48
the washing machine has penetrated below the air line,
garbitzailea zeruaren ataritik jaitsi egin dela,
eta gaur egun badaude 1.000 milioi pertsona gehiagok
02:52
and today, there's an additional one billion people out there
zeintzuk garbiketaren atariren gainetik bizi diren.
02:55
who live above the "wash line."
02:57
(Laughter)
(Algarak)
02:59
And they consume for more than 40 dollars per day.
Eta haiek egunero 40 dolar baino gehiago kontsumitzen dituzte.
03:03
So two billion have access to washing machines.
Hots, 2.000 milioi pertsona horiek garbitzaileetara sarbidea daukate.
03:06
And the remaining five billion --
Eta gainerako 5.000 milioi horiek.
nola garbitzen dute arropa?
03:09
how do they wash?
03:10
Or, to be more precise,
Edo, zehatzagoa izateko,
03:12
how do most of the women in the world wash?
nola garbitzen dute arropa munduaren emakume gehienek?
03:15
Because it remains the hard work for women to wash.
Oso lan gogorra delako emakumeentzat.
03:19
They wash like this: by hand.
Haiek horrela, eskuz, garbitzen dute.
03:22
It's hard, time-consuming labor,
Oso lan gogorra eta neketsua da,
eta astero ordu dexente igaro behar dituzte.
03:27
which they have to do for hours every week.
Eta, batzuetan, ura urrutik ekarri behar dute
03:30
And sometimes they also have to bring water from far away
etxean garbitzeko.
03:33
to do the laundry at home,
03:34
or they have to bring the laundry away to a stream far off.
Edo arropa urrun eraman behar dute, ur-korrenteraino.
03:38
And they want the washing machine.
Haiek garbitzailea nahi dute.
03:41
They don't want to spend such a large part of their life
Ez dute euren bizitzen hainbeste denbora galdu nahi
03:44
doing this hard work
lan gogor hori egiten
03:46
with so relatively low productivity.
emankor gutxiko lana.
Eta euren nahia ez da batere desberdina
03:49
And there's nothing different in their wish
nire amonak zeukanetik.
03:51
than it was for my grandma.
Begira ezazue hemen, orain dela bi belaunaldi Suedian
03:53
Look here, two generations ago in Sweden --
03:55
picking water from the stream,
ibaitik ura hartzen zuten,
03:57
heating with firewood and washing like that.
egurrez berotzen eta eskuz garbitzen.
04:00
They want the washing machine in exactly the same way.
Aldi berean, haiek garbitzailea nahi dute.
04:03
But when I lecture to environmentally concerned students,
Baina ikasle ekologisteei proposatzen diedanean,
04:06
they tell me, "No, everybody in the world cannot have cars and washing machines."
esaten didate: "Ez, mundu osoak ezin du kotxerik ezta garbitzailerik izan"
04:11
How can we tell this woman
Nola esango ote diegu emakume horiei
04:13
that she isn't going to have a washing machine?
inoiz ez dutela garbitzailerik izango?
04:15
And then I ask my students -- over the last two years, I've asked --
Orduan nire ikasleei galdetzen diet ...
Azkenengo 2 urtetan galdera bera egin diet:
04:19
"How many of you don't use a car?"
"Zenbat ez duzue kotxerik erabiltzen?"
04:21
And some of them proudly raise their hand and say, "I don't use a car."
Eta batzuek harro eskuak altxatzen dituzte
eta diote: "Nik ez dut kotxerik erabiltzen"
04:25
And then I put the really tough question:
Eta gero galdera zaila egiten diet:
04:27
"How many of you hand-wash your jeans and your bedsheets?"
"Zenbat
garbitzen duzue eskuz prakak eta izarak?"
04:31
And no one raised their hand.
Ez du inork eskua altxatzen.
Mugimendu ekologistaren amorratuenek ere
04:35
Even the hardcore in the green movement use washing machines.
garbitzaileak erabiltzen dituzte.
04:39
(Laughter)
(Algarak)
04:43
So how come [this is] something that everyone uses
Beraz, zergatik denok erabiltzen ditugu garbitzaileak
04:45
and they think others will not stop it?
eta jarraituko dugu egiten? Ba al dago zerbait berezirik?
04:47
What is special with this?
04:48
I had to do an analysis about the energy use in the world.
Munduan kontsumitzen den energiari buruz analisia egin behar dut.
04:51
Here we are.
Bagoaz.
04:52
Look here. You see the seven billion people up there?
Hemen 7.000 milioi pertsonak ikusten dira:
04:55
The air people, the wash people,
airearen pertsonak, garbiketarenak,
04:57
the bulb people and the fire people.
bonbilarenak, suarenak.
05:00
One unit like this
Hauetako unitate bakoitza
05:02
is an energy unit of fossil fuel -- oil, coal or gas.
fosil-erregairen zati bat da:
petrolioa, ikatza edo gasa.
05:07
That's what most of the electricity and the energy in the world is.
Hau da munduko energia eta elektrizitatea.
05:11
And it's 12 units used in the entire world,
Mundu osoan 12 zati horiek erabiltzen dira,
05:14
and the richest one billion, they use six of them.
eta mila milioi aberatsenek horietako 6 erabiltzen dituzte.
05:17
Half of the energy is used by one seventh of the world population.
Energiaren erdia mundu polulazioaren zazpirenak erabiltzen du.
05:20
And these ones, who have washing machines
Eta hauek, garbitzaileak eskuratzen dituztenek,
baina ez aparagailuz beteriko etxea,
05:23
but not a house full of other machines,
bi erabiltzen dituzte.
05:25
they use two.
05:26
This group uses three, one each.
Talde honek hiru erabiltzen ditu, bakoitzak bana.
Eta haiek ere elektrizitatea daukate.
05:29
And they also have electricity.
Eta hemendik bakoitzak bana ere ez du erabiltzen.
05:31
And over there, they don't even use one each.
05:33
That makes 12 of them.
Hau guztiak dira 12 zatiak
05:35
But the main concern
Baina ikasle ekologisten
05:37
for the environmentally interested students -- and they are right --
kezka nagusiena, eta arrazoia dute,
05:40
is about the future.
geroa da.
Zeintzuk dira joerak? Joerak luzatzen baditugu,
05:43
What are the trends?
05:44
If we just prolong the trends, without any real advanced analysis,
analisi aurreraturik egin gabe 2050. urte arte,
05:48
to 2050,
badaude energiaren erabilera handitu dezaketen bi gauzak.
05:49
there are two things that can increase the energy use:
Lehenengo eta behin, populazioaren hazkundea.
05:52
first, population growth; second, economic growth.
Bigarrena, hazkunde ekonomikoa.
05:55
Population growth will mainly occur among the poorest people here,
Hazkunde demografikoa hemengo txiroen artean gertatuko da,
umeen heriotza-tasa altua daukatelako
05:59
because they have high child mortality
eta emakume bakoitzeko seme-alaba asko dauzkatelako.
06:01
and they have many children per woman.
Eta horrela bi gehiago izango dugu.
06:03
And that will get you two extra,
baina horrek ez du hein handi batean energiaren erabilera.
06:05
but that won't change the energy use very much.
Baina hazkunde ekonomikoak sortuko du (energiaren erabilera handitzeak).
06:07
What will happen is economic growth.
06:09
The best of here in the emerging economies --
Handiena hemen, garatu bidean dauden ekonomietan.
Nik Ekialde Berria deitzen diet.
06:12
I call them "the New East" --
06:13
they will jump the air line.
Zeruaren atarira salto egingo dute.
06:15
"Wopp!" they will say.
"Wop!", diote.
06:17
And they will start to use as much as the Old West are doing already.
Eta Mendebalde Zaharrak izandako hainbeste energia erabiliko dute.
06:20
(Laughter)
Eta pertsona horiek garbitzaileak nahi dituzte.
06:21
And these people, they want the washing machine.
Benetan esaten dizuet: Haiek hara joango dira.
06:24
I told you. They'll go there.
06:25
And they will double their energy use.
Eta erabilitako energia-kantitatea bikoiztuko da.
06:27
And we hope that the poor people will get into the electric light.
Espero dugu txiroenak era argi elektrikoa hasiko direla erabiltzen,
06:30
And they'll get a two-child family without a stop in population growth.
eta bi seme-alabetako familiak izatea hazkunde demografikoa gelditu gabe.
Baina energiaren kontsumo orokorra
06:33
But the total energy consumption will increase to 22 units.
22 unitateetan handituko da.
Eta 22 unitate horietatik
06:37
And these 22 units --
aberatsenek oraindik gehiengoa erabiliko dute.
06:40
still, the richest people use most of them.
Beraz, zer egin behar da?
06:44
So what needs to be done?
06:45
Because the risk,
zeren arriskua,
06:47
the high probability of climate change is real.
aldaketa klimatikoaren aukera handia benetazkoa den.
06:50
It's real.
Benetazkoa.
06:52
Of course, they must be more energy efficient.
Jakina, energia aldetik eraginkorragoak izan behar izango dira.
06:55
They must change their behavior in some way.
Euren portaera, nola edo hala, aldatu behar dute.
06:57
They must also start to produce green energy,
Energia berdea ere hasi behar izango dira ekoizten,
askoz energia berdea ere.
07:00
much more green energy.
07:01
But until they have the same energy consumption per person,
Baina pertsona bakoitzeko energia-kontsumo berbera eskuratu arte,
besteei ez liekete ezer esan behar izango
07:05
they shouldn't give advice to others --
07:06
what to do and what not to do.
zer egin eta ez.
07:08
(Laughter)
(Txaloak)
07:09
(Applause)
07:10
Here, we can get more green energy all over.
Hemen leku guztietan energia berde eskura dezakegu.
Benetan espero dugu.
07:15
This is what we hope might happen.
Gerorako benetazko erronka da.
07:17
It's a real challenge in the future.
07:19
But I can assure you that this woman in the favela in Rio,
Baina ziurta diezazueket Rio-ko favela baten emakumea
garbitzailea nahi duela.
07:23
she wants a washing machine.
Bera oso pozik dago bere Energia ministrarekin
07:25
She's very happy about her minister of energy
07:27
that provided electricity to everyone --
zeinek guztioi energia ematen zien.
07:29
so happy that she even voted for her.
pozik dago berari botoa emateagatik.
Bera da Dilma Rousseff,
07:33
And she became Dilma Rousseff,
07:34
the president-elect of one of the biggest democracies in the world,
izendatu berriko presidentea
munduko demokrazia handinetariko batekoa.
Energia ministroa izatetik presidente izatera.
07:39
moving from minister of energy to president.
Demokrazia badago,
07:42
If you have democracy, people will vote for washing machines.
pertsonek garbitzaileen alde botoa emango dute.
Benetan maite dituzte.
07:46
They love them!
07:47
(Laughter)
07:49
And what's the magic with them?
Eta zein da garbitzaileen magia?
07:51
My mother explained the magic with this machine
Nire amak magia hori azaldu zidan
07:54
the very, very first day.
lehenengo egunean.
Esan zidan: "Aizu, Hans,
07:57
She said, "Now, Hans.
sar dezagun arropa,
07:59
We have loaded the laundry.
eta garbitzaileak lana egingo du.
08:01
The machine will make the work.
08:02
And now we can go to the library."
Eta gu liburutegira joan gaitezke".
Hau da magia hau:
08:05
Because this is the magic: you load the laundry,
batek arropa sartu,
08:08
and what do you get out of the machine?
eta, zer ateratzen da garbitzailetik?
08:10
You get books out of the machines,
Garbitzailetik liburuak ateratzen dira,
umeentzako liburuak.
08:14
children's books.
08:15
And mother got time to read for me.
Eta nire ama niri ipuinak irakurtzeko gai zen.
08:17
She loved this.
Benetan maite zuen. "ABC" nuen.
08:18
I got the "ABC's" -- this is why I started my career as a professor,
Horrela hasi nintzen nire irakasle-karrera,
08:22
when my mother had time to read for me.
nire ama ipuinak niri irakurtzeko gai zenean,
08:24
And she also got books for herself.
Eta berarentzako liburuak ere lortu zituen.
08:26
She managed to study English and learn that as a foreign language.
Ingelera ikasteko moldatu egin zuen
eta atzerriko hizkuntz bat ikasi zuen.
08:30
And she read so many novels,
Eta eleberri asko irakurri zituen,
08:32
so many different novels here.
guztiz eleberri desberdinak.
08:35
And we really, we really loved this machine.
Guk benetan maite genuen makina hori.
08:38
(Laughter)
08:39
And what we said, my mother and me,
Eta nire amak eta biok esan genuena zen:
08:42
"Thank you, industrialization.
"Mila esker, industrializazioa.
08:45
Thank you, steel mill.
Mila esker, altzairu-fabrikak.
08:47
Thank you, power station.
Mila esker, energia-estazioak.
08:49
And thank you, chemical processing industry
Eta mila esker, industria kimikoa
08:52
that gave us time to read books."
liburuak irakurtzeko denbora emateagatik".
08:54
Thank you very much.
Mila esker
08:55
(Laughter)
08:56
(Applause)
(Txaloak)
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