The magic washing machine | Hans Rosling

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2011-03-21・ 6940    125


http://www.ted.com What was the greatest invention of the industrial revolution? Hans Rosling makes the case for the washing machine. With newly designed graphics from Gapminder, Rosling shows us the magic that pops up when economic growth and electricity turn a boring wash day into an intellectual day of reading. TODAY: From 11:30am-1:30pm EDT, Hans Rosling will be answering questions in TED Conversations. Pop over!

Instruction

Double-click on the English captions to play the video from there.

Translator: Patricia Gomez-Romero Reviewer: Noemi Casadesus Viola
00:15
I was only four years old
Només tenia quatre anys
00:17
when I saw my mother load a washing machine
quan vaig veure la meva mare omplir una rentadora
00:20
for the very first time in her life.
per primera vegada en la seva vida.
00:23
That was a great day for my mother.
Va ser un gran dia per a la meva mare.
00:25
My mother and father had been saving money for years
Ella i el meu pare havien estalviat durant anys
00:28
to be able to buy that machine,
per poder comprar aquesta rentadora.
00:30
and the first day it was going to be used,
I el dia que anaven a utilitzar-la,
00:32
even Grandma was invited to see the machine.
van convidar fins i tot a la meva àvia
a veure la rentadora.
00:35
(Laughter)
I la meva àvia estava més emocionada encara.
00:37
And Grandma was even more excited.
00:39
Throughout her life, she had been heating water with firewood,
Durant la seva vida
sempre va haver d'escalfar l'aigua amb llenya,
00:43
and she had hand-washed laundry for seven children.
i rentar la roba a mà
per a set fills.
00:47
And now, she was going to watch electricity do that work.
I ara anava a presenciar
com l'electricitat feia aquest treball.
00:53
My mother carefully opened the door,
La meva mare va obrir la porta amb cura,
00:57
and she loaded the laundry into the machine,
després va ficar la roba
a la rentadora,
així.
01:02
like this.
01:03
And then, when she closed the door,
I llavors, quan va tancar la porta,
01:05
Grandma said, "No, no, no, no!
la meva àvia va dir: "No, no, no, no...
01:07
Let me! Let me push the button!"
deixa'm a mi, deixa'm prémer el botó ".
01:10
(Laughter)
01:11
And Grandma pushed the button,
I ella va pressionar el botó,
i va dir: "Oh, és fantàstic ...
01:14
and she said, "Oh, fantastic!
01:16
I want to see this! Give me a chair! Give me a chair! I want to see it,"
Vull veure això. Dóna'm una cadira.
Dóna'm una cadira. Vull veure-ho".
01:20
and she sat down in front of the machine,
I es va asseure davant de la rentadora,
01:23
and she watched the entire washing program.
i va observar tot el procés de rentat.
01:27
(Laughter)
Estava embadalida.
01:28
She was mesmerized.
01:29
To my grandmother, the washing machine was a miracle.
Per a la meva àvia,
la rentadora era un miracle.
01:35
Today, in Sweden and other rich countries,
Avui, a Suècia i en altres països rics,
01:38
people are using so many different machines.
la gent utilitza
moltes màquines diferents.
01:42
Look -- the homes are full of machines.
Mirin, les llars estan plenes d'aparells.
01:44
I can't even name them all.
Ni tan sols sé com es diuen tots.
01:46
And they also, when they want to travel,
I a més, quan volen viatjar,
utilitzen màquines voladores
01:50
they use flying machines
01:52
that can take them to remote destinations.
que els porten a destinacions remotes.
01:54
And yet, in the world,
I encara hi ha molta gent al món,
01:56
there are so many people who still heat the water on fire,
que escalfa l'aigua al foc,
i cuina el menjar al foc.
02:00
and they cook their food on fire.
02:02
Sometimes they don't even have enough food.
De vegades no tenen suficient menjar.
Viuen sota el llindar de la pobresa.
02:05
And they live below the poverty line.
02:07
There are two billion fellow human beings
Hi ha dos mil milions de persones
02:10
who live on less than two dollars a day.
que viuen amb menys de dos dòlars al dia.
I la gent rica d'aquí,
02:13
And the richest people over there -- there's one billion people,
que sumen mil milions de persones,
02:16
and they live above what I call the "air line" --
viuen per sobre del que anomeno el llindar del cel,
02:19
(Laughter)
02:20
because they spend more than 80 dollars a day
perquè gasten més de 80 dòlars diaris
en consum.
02:24
on their consumption.
Però aquests són només 1, 2, 3 mil milions de persones,
02:26
But this is just one, two, three billion people,
02:28
and obviously, there are seven billion people in the world,
i òbviament hi ha 7 mil milions en el món,
02:31
so there must be one, two, three, four billion people more
així que ha d'haver-hi 1, 2, 3, 4 mil milions més,
que viuen entre el llindar de la pobresa i el del cel.
02:35
who live in between the poverty and the air line.
Ells tenen electricitat,
02:38
They have electricity,
02:40
but the question is: How many have washing machines?
però la qüestió és, quants tenen rentadores?
02:43
I've done the scrutiny of market data, and I've found that, indeed,
He analitzat les dades de mercat,
i he trobat que, de fet,
02:48
the washing machine has penetrated below the air line,
la rentadora ha baixat del llindar del cel,
i que avui en dia hi ha mil milions de persones més
02:52
and today, there's an additional one billion people out there
que viuen sobre el llindar del rentat.
02:55
who live above the "wash line."
02:57
(Laughter)
(Riures)
02:59
And they consume for more than 40 dollars per day.
I ells consumeixen més de 40 dòlars al dia.
03:03
So two billion have access to washing machines.
Així que dos mil milions de persones tenen accés a rentadores.
03:06
And the remaining five billion --
I els cinc mil milions restants,
com renten la roba?
03:09
how do they wash?
03:10
Or, to be more precise,
O, per ser més precisos,
03:12
how do most of the women in the world wash?
com renten la roba la majoria de les dones del món?
03:15
Because it remains the hard work for women to wash.
Perquè segueix sent un treball dur per a les dones.
03:19
They wash like this: by hand.
Elles renten així, a mà.
03:22
It's hard, time-consuming labor,
És un treball dur, cansat,
que han de fer durant hores cada setmana.
03:27
which they have to do for hours every week.
I a vegades també han de portar aigua des de lluny
03:30
And sometimes they also have to bring water from far away
per fer la bugada a casa.
03:33
to do the laundry at home,
03:34
or they have to bring the laundry away to a stream far off.
O han de portar la roba lluny, fins a un corrent d'aigua.
03:38
And they want the washing machine.
Elles volen una rentadora.
03:41
They don't want to spend such a large part of their life
No volen perdre tant de temps de les seves vides
03:44
doing this hard work
fent aquest dur treball
03:46
with so relatively low productivity.
tant poc productiu.
I el seu desig no és per res diferent
03:49
And there's nothing different in their wish
del que tenia la meva àvia.
03:51
than it was for my grandma.
Mirin aquí, fa dues generacions a Suècia
03:53
Look here, two generations ago in Sweden --
03:55
picking water from the stream,
estaven agafant aigua del riu,
03:57
heating with firewood and washing like that.
escalfant a llenya i rentant així.
04:00
They want the washing machine in exactly the same way.
De la mateixa manera, elles volen una rentadora.
04:03
But when I lecture to environmentally concerned students,
Però quan ho proposo a estudiants ambientalistes,
04:06
they tell me, "No, everybody in the world cannot have cars and washing machines."
em diuen: "No, tot el món no pot tenir cotxes i rentadores".
04:11
How can we tell this woman
Com podem dir a aquestes dones
04:13
that she isn't going to have a washing machine?
que mai tindran una rentadora?
04:15
And then I ask my students -- over the last two years, I've asked --
Llavors pregunto als meus estudiants ...
els he preguntat, durant els darrers dos anys:
04:19
"How many of you don't use a car?"
"Quants de vosaltres no utilitzeu el cotxe?"
04:21
And some of them proudly raise their hand and say, "I don't use a car."
I alguns aixequen la mà orgullosos
i diuen: "Jo no utilitzo el cotxe".
04:25
And then I put the really tough question:
I després els faig una pregunta difícil:
04:27
"How many of you hand-wash your jeans and your bedsheets?"
"Quants de vosaltres
renteu a mà els vostres pantalons i els vostres llençols? "
04:31
And no one raised their hand.
I ningú va aixecar la mà.
Fins i tot els acèrrims en el moviment verd
04:35
Even the hardcore in the green movement use washing machines.
utilitzen rentadores.
04:39
(Laughter)
(Riures)
04:43
So how come [this is] something that everyone uses
Així que, com és que això és una cosa que tothom fa servir
04:45
and they think others will not stop it?
i que ningú deixarà de fer-ho?, què té d'especial?
04:47
What is special with this?
04:48
I had to do an analysis about the energy use in the world.
Vaig fer una anàlisi sobre l'energia que es consumeix al món.
04:51
Here we are.
Aquí el tenen.
04:52
Look here. You see the seven billion people up there?
Aquí veuen els set mil milions de persones:
04:55
The air people, the wash people,
la gent de l'aire, la gent del rentat,
04:57
the bulb people and the fire people.
la gent de les bombetes i la gent del foc.
05:00
One unit like this
Una unitat d'aquestes
05:02
is an energy unit of fossil fuel -- oil, coal or gas.
és una part de combustible fòssil:
petroli, carbó o gas.
05:07
That's what most of the electricity and the energy in the world is.
Aquestes són l'electricitat i l'energia principals en el món.
05:11
And it's 12 units used in the entire world,
Arreu del món es fan servir 12 unitats,
05:14
and the richest one billion, they use six of them.
i els mil milions més rics fan servir sis d'elles.
05:17
Half of the energy is used by one seventh of the world population.
La meitat de l'energia l'usa la setena part de la població mundial.
05:20
And these ones, who have washing machines
I aquests que tenen rentadores,
però no una casa plena d'altres aparells,
05:23
but not a house full of other machines,
n'utilitzen dos.
05:25
they use two.
05:26
This group uses three, one each.
Aquest grup fa servir-ne tres, una cada un.
I ells també tenen electricitat.
05:29
And they also have electricity.
I ells ni tan sols n'usen una cada un.
05:31
And over there, they don't even use one each.
05:33
That makes 12 of them.
Això suma les 12 unitats.
05:35
But the main concern
Però la principal preocupació
05:37
for the environmentally interested students -- and they are right --
dels estudiants ambientalistes, i tenen raó,
05:40
is about the future.
és el futur.
Quines són les tendències? Si prolonguem les tendències,
05:43
What are the trends?
05:44
If we just prolong the trends, without any real advanced analysis,
sense cap anàlisi avançat fins el 2050,
05:48
to 2050,
hi ha dues coses que poden augmentar l'ús d'energia.
05:49
there are two things that can increase the energy use:
Primer, el creixement de la població.
05:52
first, population growth; second, economic growth.
Segon, el creixement econòmic.
05:55
Population growth will mainly occur among the poorest people here,
El creixement demogràfic es produirà entre la gent més pobra d'aquí,
perquè tenen altes taxes de mortalitat infantil
05:59
because they have high child mortality
i tenen molts nens per dona.
06:01
and they have many children per woman.
I així tindrem dos més,
06:03
And that will get you two extra,
però això no canviarà molt l'ús de l'energia.
06:05
but that won't change the energy use very much.
El que passarà és el creixement econòmic.
06:07
What will happen is economic growth.
06:09
The best of here in the emerging economies --
El millor d'aquí a les economies emergents,
que jo anomeno el Nou Orient,
06:12
I call them "the New East" --
06:13
they will jump the air line.
es que saltaran el llindar del cel.
06:15
"Wopp!" they will say.
Diran: "Wop!".
06:17
And they will start to use as much as the Old West are doing already.
I començaran a fer servir tant com el Vell Occident.
06:20
(Laughter)
I aquesta gent vol rentadores.
06:21
And these people, they want the washing machine.
Us ho vaig dir: ells aniran allà.
06:24
I told you. They'll go there.
06:25
And they will double their energy use.
I duplicaran la quantitat d'energia que utilitzen.
06:27
And we hope that the poor people will get into the electric light.
Esperem que la gent pobra comenci a utilitzar la llum elèctrica,
06:30
And they'll get a two-child family without a stop in population growth.
i que tinguin famílies de dos fills sense aturar el creixement demogràfic.
Però el consum total d'energia
06:33
But the total energy consumption will increase to 22 units.
augmentarà a 22 unitats.
I d'aquestes 22 unitats
06:37
And these 22 units --
els més rics encara faran servir la majoria.
06:40
still, the richest people use most of them.
Així que, què s'ha de fer?
06:44
So what needs to be done?
06:45
Because the risk,
Perquè el risc,
06:47
the high probability of climate change is real.
la gran probabilitat de canvi climàtic és real.
06:50
It's real.
És real.
06:52
Of course, they must be more energy efficient.
Per descomptat hauran de ser més eficients energèticament.
06:55
They must change their behavior in some way.
Han de canviar el seu comportament d'alguna manera.
06:57
They must also start to produce green energy,
També hauran de començar a produir energia verda,
molta més energia verda.
07:00
much more green energy.
07:01
But until they have the same energy consumption per person,
Però fins que tinguin el mateix consum d'energia per persona,
no haurien de dir als altres
07:05
they shouldn't give advice to others --
07:06
what to do and what not to do.
què fer i què no.
07:08
(Laughter)
(Aplaudiments)
07:09
(Applause)
07:10
Here, we can get more green energy all over.
Aquí podem obtenir energia verda per tot arreu.
És el que desitgem que passi.
07:15
This is what we hope might happen.
És un veritable repte en el futur.
07:17
It's a real challenge in the future.
07:19
But I can assure you that this woman in the favela in Rio,
Però puc assegurar-vos que aquesta dona d'una favela de Rio
vol una rentadora.
07:23
she wants a washing machine.
Està molt contenta amb la seva ministra d'energia
07:25
She's very happy about her minister of energy
07:27
that provided electricity to everyone --
que els va donar electricitat a tots,
07:29
so happy that she even voted for her.
està contenta per haver-la votat.
Ella es va convertir en Dilma Roussef,
07:33
And she became Dilma Rousseff,
07:34
the president-elect of one of the biggest democracies in the world,
la presidenta electa
d'una de les democràcies més grans del món.
Va passar de ministra d'energia a president.
07:39
moving from minister of energy to president.
Si hi ha democràcia,
07:42
If you have democracy, people will vote for washing machines.
la gent votarà per rentadores.
Les estimen.
07:46
They love them!
07:47
(Laughter)
07:49
And what's the magic with them?
I quina és la màgia de les rentadores?
07:51
My mother explained the magic with this machine
La meva mare em va explicar aquesta màgia
07:54
the very, very first day.
el primer dia.
Em va dir: "Ara, Hans,
07:57
She said, "Now, Hans.
hem ficat la roba
07:59
We have loaded the laundry.
i la rentadora farà la feina.
08:01
The machine will make the work.
08:02
And now we can go to the library."
I nosaltres podem anar a la biblioteca ".
Perquè aquesta és la màgia:
08:05
Because this is the magic: you load the laundry,
un carrega la roba
08:08
and what do you get out of the machine?
i què surt de la rentadora?
08:10
You get books out of the machines,
De la rentadora surten llibres,
llibres per a nens.
08:14
children's books.
08:15
And mother got time to read for me.
I la meva mare va tenir temps de llegir per a mi.
08:17
She loved this.
A ella li encantava. Vaig tenir el "ABC".
08:18
I got the "ABC's" -- this is why I started my career as a professor,
Allà vaig començar la meva carrera de professor,
08:22
when my mother had time to read for me.
quan la meva mare va tenir temps de llegir per a mi.
08:24
And she also got books for herself.
I també va aconseguir llibres per a ella.
08:26
She managed to study English and learn that as a foreign language.
Se les va arreglar per estudiar anglès
i aprendre'l com a llengua estrangera.
08:30
And she read so many novels,
I va llegir moltes novel·les,
08:32
so many different novels here.
moltes novel·les diferents.
08:35
And we really, we really loved this machine.
Nosaltres realment estimàvem aquesta màquina.
08:38
(Laughter)
08:39
And what we said, my mother and me,
I el que vam dir, la meva mare i jo, va ser:
08:42
"Thank you, industrialization.
"Gràcies, industrialització.
08:45
Thank you, steel mill.
Gràcies fàbrica d'acer.
08:47
Thank you, power station.
Gràcies estació d'energia.
08:49
And thank you, chemical processing industry
I gràcies indústria química
08:52
that gave us time to read books."
per donar-nos temps per a llegir llibres ".
08:54
Thank you very much.
Moltes gràcies.
08:55
(Laughter)
08:56
(Applause)
(Aplaudiments)
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