The magic washing machine | Hans Rosling

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2011-03-21・ 6940    125


http://www.ted.com What was the greatest invention of the industrial revolution? Hans Rosling makes the case for the washing machine. With newly designed graphics from Gapminder, Rosling shows us the magic that pops up when economic growth and electricity turn a boring wash day into an intellectual day of reading. TODAY: From 11:30am-1:30pm EDT, Hans Rosling will be answering questions in TED Conversations. Pop over!

Instruction

Double-click on the English captions to play the video from there.

Translator: Janka Pazurikova Reviewer: Michal Ferenc
00:15
I was only four years old
Mal som len štyri roky,
00:17
when I saw my mother load a washing machine
keď som videl, ako dáva moja mama veci do práčky
00:20
for the very first time in her life.
prvýkrát v jej živote.
00:23
That was a great day for my mother.
Pre moju mamu to bol nádherný deň.
00:25
My mother and father had been saving money for years
Moji rodičia roky šetrili peniaze,
00:28
to be able to buy that machine,
aby si ju mohli kúpiť.
00:30
and the first day it was going to be used,
A prvý deň, keď sme ju mali použiť,
00:32
even Grandma was invited to see the machine.
sme pozvali dokonca aj starú mamu,
aby sa na to pozrela.
00:35
(Laughter)
A stará mama sa tešila ešte viac.
00:37
And Grandma was even more excited.
00:39
Throughout her life, she had been heating water with firewood,
Celý svoj život
zohrievala vodu nad ohňom
00:43
and she had hand-washed laundry for seven children.
a v rukách prala bielizeň
pre sedem detí.
00:47
And now, she was going to watch electricity do that work.
A teraz sa prišla pozrieť,
ako tú prácu urobí elektrina.
00:53
My mother carefully opened the door,
Moja mama opatrne otvorila dvierka
00:57
and she loaded the laundry into the machine,
a vložila bielizeň
dovnútra,
asi takto.
01:02
like this.
01:03
And then, when she closed the door,
A potom, keď zavrela dvierka,
01:05
Grandma said, "No, no, no, no!
stará mama povedala, "Nie, nie, nie, nie.
01:07
Let me! Let me push the button!"
Dovoľte mi, dovoľte mi stlačiť ten gombík."
01:10
(Laughter)
01:11
And Grandma pushed the button,
A stará mama stlačila gombík,
a povedala, "Och, fantastické.
01:14
and she said, "Oh, fantastic!
01:16
I want to see this! Give me a chair! Give me a chair! I want to see it,"
Toto chcem vidieť. Dajte mi stoličku.
Dajte mi stoličku. Chcem sa na to pozerať."
01:20
and she sat down in front of the machine,
Sadla si pred práčku
01:23
and she watched the entire washing program.
a dívala sa na ňu celý čas, kým prala.
01:27
(Laughter)
Bola tým fascinovaná.
01:28
She was mesmerized.
01:29
To my grandmother, the washing machine was a miracle.
Pre moju starú mamu
bola práčka zázrakom.
01:35
Today, in Sweden and other rich countries,
Dnes ľudia vo Švédsku a v ďalších bohatých krajinách
01:38
people are using so many different machines.
používajú
obrovské množstvo prístrojov.
01:42
Look -- the homes are full of machines.
Domy sú plné prístrojov,
01:44
I can't even name them all.
neviem ich všetky ani vymenovať.
01:46
And they also, when they want to travel,
Ak keď chcú cestovať,
použijú lietajúce stroje,
01:50
they use flying machines
01:52
that can take them to remote destinations.
aby ich dopravili do vzdialených miest.
01:54
And yet, in the world,
Ale vo svete je stále veľa ľudí,
01:56
there are so many people who still heat the water on fire,
ktorí zohrievajú vodu na ohni
a ktorí varia na ohni.
02:00
and they cook their food on fire.
02:02
Sometimes they don't even have enough food.
Niekedy dokonca nemajú dosť jedla.
A žijú pod hranicou chudoby.
02:05
And they live below the poverty line.
02:07
There are two billion fellow human beings
Na svete žijú dve miliardy ľudských bytostí
02:10
who live on less than two dollars a day.
z menej ako dvoch dolárov na deň.
A najbohatší ľudia tu --
02:13
And the richest people over there -- there's one billion people,
tu je miliarda ľudí --
02:16
and they live above what I call the "air line" --
tí žijú nad čiarou, ktorú volám línia lietadla,
02:19
(Laughter)
02:20
because they spend more than 80 dollars a day
pretože denne minú viac ako 80 dolárov
na svoju vlastnú spotrebu.
02:24
on their consumption.
Ale to je len jedna, dve, tri miliardy ľudí
02:26
But this is just one, two, three billion people,
02:28
and obviously, there are seven billion people in the world,
a na svete žije sedem miliárd ľudí,
02:31
so there must be one, two, three, four billion people more
takže tu musí byť jedna, dve, tri, štyri miliardy ľudí,
ktorí žijú medzi chudobou a líniou lietadla.
02:35
who live in between the poverty and the air line.
Majú elektrinu,
02:38
They have electricity,
02:40
but the question is: How many have washing machines?
ale otázka je, koľkí majú práčky?
02:43
I've done the scrutiny of market data, and I've found that, indeed,
Podrobne som preskúmal dáta z trhu
a zistil som, že
02:48
the washing machine has penetrated below the air line,
práčka pomaly zostupuje pod lietadlovú líniu
a dnes máme ďalšiu miliardu ľudí,
02:52
and today, there's an additional one billion people out there
ktorí žijú nad líniou práčky.
02:55
who live above the "wash line."
02:57
(Laughter)
(Smiech)
02:59
And they consume for more than 40 dollars per day.
Oni minú vyše 40 dolárov na deň.
03:03
So two billion have access to washing machines.
Takže dve miliardy majú prístup k práčkam.
03:06
And the remaining five billion --
A zvyšných päť miliárd,
ako oni perú?
03:09
how do they wash?
03:10
Or, to be more precise,
Alebo, aby sme boli presnejší,
03:12
how do most of the women in the world wash?
ako perie väčšina žien na svete?
03:15
Because it remains the hard work for women to wash.
Pretože pranie je pre ženy stále ťažká práca.
03:19
They wash like this: by hand.
Perú takto - ručne.
03:22
It's hard, time-consuming labor,
Je to ťažká a časovo náročná práca,
ktorú musia robiť dlhé hodiny každý týždeň.
03:27
which they have to do for hours every week.
A niekedy musia nosiť vodu zďaleka,
03:30
And sometimes they also have to bring water from far away
aby mohli prať doma.
03:33
to do the laundry at home,
03:34
or they have to bring the laundry away to a stream far off.
Alebo musia niesť bielizeň ďaleko k vode.
03:38
And they want the washing machine.
A chcú práčku.
03:41
They don't want to spend such a large part of their life
Nechcú stráviť takú veľkú časť svojho života
03:44
doing this hard work
touto ťažkou prácou
03:46
with so relatively low productivity.
s pomerne nízkou produktivitou.
A nie je tu žiadny rozdiel medzi ich prianím
03:49
And there's nothing different in their wish
a prianím mojej starej mamy.
03:51
than it was for my grandma.
Pozrite sa, pred dvoma generáciami vo Švédsku --
03:53
Look here, two generations ago in Sweden --
03:55
picking water from the stream,
doniesť vodu z potoka,
03:57
heating with firewood and washing like that.
zohriať ju nad ohňom a tak prať.
04:00
They want the washing machine in exactly the same way.
Chcú práčku presne tak isto.
04:03
But when I lecture to environmentally concerned students,
Ale keď prednášam študentom, ktorí sa zaujímajú o životné prostredie,
04:06
they tell me, "No, everybody in the world cannot have cars and washing machines."
hovoria mi, "Nemôže mať každý autá a práčky."
04:11
How can we tell this woman
Ako môžete povedať tejto žene,
04:13
that she isn't going to have a washing machine?
že nemôže mať práčku?
04:15
And then I ask my students -- over the last two years, I've asked --
A potom sa spýtam svojich študentov,
spýtal som sa každého z nich za posledné dva roky,
04:19
"How many of you don't use a car?"
"Koľkí z vás nepoužívajú auto?"
04:21
And some of them proudly raise their hand and say, "I don't use a car."
A niektorí z nich hrdo zdvihli ruku
a povedali, "Ja nepoužívam auto."
04:25
And then I put the really tough question:
A potom som im položil naozaj ťažkú otázku:
04:27
"How many of you hand-wash your jeans and your bedsheets?"
"Koľkí z vás
ručne perú nohavice a posteľnú bielizeň?"
04:31
And no one raised their hand.
A nikto nezdvihol ruku.
Aj tí najzarytejší ochrancovia prírody
04:35
Even the hardcore in the green movement use washing machines.
používajú práčky.
04:39
(Laughter)
(Smiech)
04:43
So how come [this is] something that everyone uses
Ako to, že je to niečo, čo používa každý,
04:45
and they think others will not stop it?
čo je na tom také zvláštne?
04:47
What is special with this?
04:48
I had to do an analysis about the energy use in the world.
Musel som analyzovať, ako sa vo svete používa energia.
04:51
Here we are.
Tu to máme.
04:52
Look here. You see the seven billion people up there?
Pozrite sa, vidíte sedem miliárd ľudí:
04:55
The air people, the wash people,
ľudia s lietadlami, ľudia s práčkami,
04:57
the bulb people and the fire people.
ľudia so žiarovkami a ľudia s ohňom.
05:00
One unit like this
Jedna takáto jednotka
05:02
is an energy unit of fossil fuel -- oil, coal or gas.
je energická jednotka fosílneho paliva --
ropa, uhlie alebo zemný plyn.
05:07
That's what most of the electricity and the energy in the world is.
Odtiaľ pochádza väčšina elektriny a energie sveta.
05:11
And it's 12 units used in the entire world,
Na celom svete sa použije 12 takýchto jednotiek
05:14
and the richest one billion, they use six of them.
a najbohatšia jedna miliarda ich využije šesť.
05:17
Half of the energy is used by one seventh of the world population.
Polovicu energie využije jedna sedmina svetovej populácie.
05:20
And these ones, who have washing machines
A tí, ktorí majú práčky,
ale nemajú dom plný ďalších prístrojov,
05:23
but not a house full of other machines,
využijú dve.
05:25
they use two.
05:26
This group uses three, one each.
Táto skupina použije tri, každá jednu.
Oni majú tiež elektrinu.
05:29
And they also have electricity.
A títo nevyužijú ani tú jednu.
05:31
And over there, they don't even use one each.
05:33
That makes 12 of them.
To dáva dokopy 12.
05:35
But the main concern
Ale hlavnou starosťou
05:37
for the environmentally interested students -- and they are right --
ekologicky zameraných študentov -- a majú pravdu --
05:40
is about the future.
je budúcnosť.
Aké sú trendy? Ak len predĺžime trendy,
05:43
What are the trends?
05:44
If we just prolong the trends, without any real advanced analysis,
bez nejakej hlbšej analýzy, do roku 2050,
05:48
to 2050,
nájdeme dve veci, ktoré môžu zvýšiť spotrebu energie.
05:49
there are two things that can increase the energy use:
Prvou je rast populácie.
05:52
first, population growth; second, economic growth.
Druhou je rast ekonomiky.
05:55
Population growth will mainly occur among the poorest people here,
Populácia bude rásť predovšetkým medzi týmito najchudobnejšími,
pretože oni majú vysokú detskú úmrtnosť
05:59
because they have high child mortality
a ženy majú veľa detí.
06:01
and they have many children per woman.
A s tým pribudnú ďalšie dve,
06:03
And that will get you two extra,
ale to veľmi nezmení spotrebu energiu.
06:05
but that won't change the energy use very much.
Väčší vplyv bude mať rast ekonomiky.
06:07
What will happen is economic growth.
06:09
The best of here in the emerging economies --
Najlepšie z nastupujúcich ekonomík --
volám ich Nový východ --
06:12
I call them "the New East" --
06:13
they will jump the air line.
oni preskočia líniu lietadla.
06:15
"Wopp!" they will say.
"Hop!" a budú tam.
06:17
And they will start to use as much as the Old West are doing already.
A potom začnú používať tak veľa elektriny ako starý západ v súčasnosti.
06:20
(Laughter)
Títo ľudia chcú práčky.
06:21
And these people, they want the washing machine.
Vravel som vám to. Pôjdu tam.
06:24
I told you. They'll go there.
06:25
And they will double their energy use.
A zdvojnásobia svoju spotrebu energie.
06:27
And we hope that the poor people will get into the electric light.
A dúfame, že aj chudobní ľudia sa dostanú k elektrickému svetlu.
06:30
And they'll get a two-child family without a stop in population growth.
A budú mať rodinu s dvoma deťmi bez zastavenia rastu populácie.
Ale celková spotreba energie
06:33
But the total energy consumption will increase to 22 units.
sa zvýši na 22 jednotiek.
A väčšinu z týchto 22 jednotiek
06:37
And these 22 units --
stále využívajú najbohatší.
06:40
still, the richest people use most of them.
Takže čo potrebujeme urobiť?
06:44
So what needs to be done?
06:45
Because the risk,
Pretože riziko,
06:47
the high probability of climate change is real.
vysoká pravdepodobnosť klimatickej zmeny je reálna.
06:50
It's real.
Je to tak.
06:52
Of course, they must be more energy efficient.
Samozrejme, musia energiu využívať efektívne.
06:55
They must change their behavior in some way.
Musia určitým spôsobom zmeniť svoje správanie.
06:57
They must also start to produce green energy,
A tiež musia začať vyrábať zelenú energiu,
oveľa viac zelenej energie.
07:00
much more green energy.
07:01
But until they have the same energy consumption per person,
Ale kým nebudú mať rovnakú spotrebu energie na osobu,
nemali by poučovať ostatných --
07:05
they shouldn't give advice to others --
07:06
what to do and what not to do.
čo robiť, a čo nerobiť.
07:08
(Laughter)
(Potlesk)
07:09
(Applause)
07:10
Here, we can get more green energy all over.
Tu môžeme získať viac zelenej energie.
Dúfame, že sa to stane.
07:15
This is what we hope might happen.
Pre budúcnosť je to veľká výzva.
07:17
It's a real challenge in the future.
07:19
But I can assure you that this woman in the favela in Rio,
Ale môžem vás uistiť, že táto žena na predmestí Ria
chce práčku.
07:23
she wants a washing machine.
Je veľmi šťastná, že jej ministerka pre energetiku
07:25
She's very happy about her minister of energy
07:27
that provided electricity to everyone --
zabezpečila elektrinu pre každého --
07:29
so happy that she even voted for her.
taká šťastná, že za ňu hlasovala.
Dilma Rousseff bola zvolená
07:33
And she became Dilma Rousseff,
07:34
the president-elect of one of the biggest democracies in the world,
za prezidentku
jednej z najväčších demokracií na svete --
z ministerky pre energetiku sa stala prezidentka.
07:39
moving from minister of energy to president.
Ak máte demokraciu,
07:42
If you have democracy, people will vote for washing machines.
ľudia budú hlasovať za práčky.
Milujú ich.
07:46
They love them!
07:47
(Laughter)
07:49
And what's the magic with them?
A aký je ten zázrak?
07:51
My mother explained the magic with this machine
Moja mama mi vysvetlila zázrak práčky
07:54
the very, very first day.
hneď v prvý deň.
Povedala, "Hans,
07:57
She said, "Now, Hans.
zapli sme práčku,
07:59
We have loaded the laundry.
ona za nás operie.
08:01
The machine will make the work.
08:02
And now we can go to the library."
A my môžeme ísť do knižnice."
Pretože toto je zázrak:
08:05
Because this is the magic: you load the laundry,
zapnete práčku,
08:08
and what do you get out of the machine?
a čo z nej dostanete?
08:10
You get books out of the machines,
Dostanete z nej knihy,
detské knihy.
08:14
children's books.
08:15
And mother got time to read for me.
A mama mala čas čítať mi.
08:17
She loved this.
Milovala to. Dostal som "ABC."
08:18
I got the "ABC's" -- this is why I started my career as a professor,
A vtedy začala moja kariéra profesora,
08:22
when my mother had time to read for me.
keď moja mama mala čas čítať mi.
08:24
And she also got books for herself.
A tiež si zaobstarala knihy pre seba.
08:26
She managed to study English and learn that as a foreign language.
Stíhala študovať angličtinu
a naučiť sa ju ako cudzí jazyk.
08:30
And she read so many novels,
A prečítala tak veľa románov,
08:32
so many different novels here.
tak veľa rôznych románov.
08:35
And we really, we really loved this machine.
A naozaj sme ten stroj milovali.
08:38
(Laughter)
08:39
And what we said, my mother and me,
A hovorievali sme, moja mama a ja,
08:42
"Thank you, industrialization.
"Vďaka ti, priemysel.
08:45
Thank you, steel mill.
Vďaka ti, oceliareň.
08:47
Thank you, power station.
Vďaka ti, elektráreň.
08:49
And thank you, chemical processing industry
A vďaka ti chemický priemysel za to,
08:52
that gave us time to read books."
že nám dávaš čas na čítanie kníh."
08:54
Thank you very much.
Ďakujem veľmi pekne.
08:55
(Laughter)
08:56
(Applause)
(Potlesk)
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