The magic washing machine | Hans Rosling

656,567 views ・ 2011-03-21

TED


Palun tehke topeltklõps allpool olevatel ingliskeelsetel subtiitritel, et mängida videot.

Translator: Anna-Liisa Ševeljova Reviewer: Jaan Paaver
00:15
I was only four years old
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Ma olin vaid nelja-aastane,
00:17
when I saw my mother load a washing machine
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kui ma nägin oma ema
00:20
for the very first time in her life.
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esimest korda elus pesumasinat laadimas.
00:23
That was a great day for my mother.
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See oli mu ema jaoks tähtis päev.
00:25
My mother and father had been saving money for years
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Mu ema ja isa olid aastaid raha kogunud,
00:28
to be able to buy that machine,
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et nad saaks endale selle masina osta.
00:30
and the first day it was going to be used,
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Ja esimesel päeval, kui seda kasutati,
00:32
even Grandma was invited to see the machine.
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kutsuti isegi vanaema
uut masinat vaatama.
00:35
(Laughter)
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Ja vanaema oli isegi veel rohkem põnevil.
00:37
And Grandma was even more excited.
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00:39
Throughout her life, she had been heating water with firewood,
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Terve oma elu jooksul
oli ta küttepuudega vett soojendanud
00:43
and she had hand-washed laundry for seven children.
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ja seitsme lapse pesu
käsitsi pesnud.
00:47
And now, she was going to watch electricity do that work.
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Ja nüüd sai ta vaadata,
kuidas elekter selle töö ära teeb.
00:53
My mother carefully opened the door,
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Mu ema avas ettevaatlikult ukse
00:57
and she loaded the laundry into the machine,
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ja pani pesu
pesumasinasse.
Vot niimoodi.
01:02
like this.
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01:03
And then, when she closed the door,
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Ja siis, kui ta ukse sulges,
01:05
Grandma said, "No, no, no, no!
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ütles vanaema: "Ei, ei, ei, ei.
01:07
Let me! Let me push the button!"
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Las mina, las mina vajutan nuppu."
01:10
(Laughter)
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01:11
And Grandma pushed the button,
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Ja vanaema vajutas nuppu
ja ütles: "Oo, imeline.
01:14
and she said, "Oh, fantastic!
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01:16
I want to see this! Give me a chair! Give me a chair! I want to see it,"
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Ma tahan seda näha. Andke mulle tool.
Andke mulle tool, ma tahan seda näha."
01:20
and she sat down in front of the machine,
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Ja ta istus pesumasina ette
01:23
and she watched the entire washing program.
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ja ta vaatas terve pesuprogrammi lõpuni.
01:27
(Laughter)
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Ta oli hüpnotiseeritud.
01:28
She was mesmerized.
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01:29
To my grandmother, the washing machine was a miracle.
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Minu vanaema jaoks
oli pesumasin ime.
01:35
Today, in Sweden and other rich countries,
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Tänapäeval kasutavad inimesed
01:38
people are using so many different machines.
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Rootsis ja teistes rikastes riikides
nii palju erinevaid masinaid.
01:42
Look -- the homes are full of machines.
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Vaadake, kodud on masinad täis,
01:44
I can't even name them all.
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ma ei oska neile kõigile nimegi anda.
01:46
And they also, when they want to travel,
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Ja lisaks, kui nad reisida tahavad,
siis nad kasutavad lendavaid masinaid,
01:50
they use flying machines
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01:52
that can take them to remote destinations.
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mis viivad neid kaugetesse sihtpunktidesse.
01:54
And yet, in the world,
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Ja siiski on maailmas nii palju inimesi,
01:56
there are so many people who still heat the water on fire,
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kes ikka veel soojendavad vett tule abil
ja teevad süüa tulel.
02:00
and they cook their food on fire.
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02:02
Sometimes they don't even have enough food.
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Vahel pole neil isegi piisavalt sööki.
Ja nad elavad allpool vaesuspiiri.
02:05
And they live below the poverty line.
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02:07
There are two billion fellow human beings
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Maailmas on 2 miljardit inimest,
02:10
who live on less than two dollars a day.
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kes elavad vähema kui 2 dollariga päevas.
Ja rikkaimad inimesed sealpool --
02:13
And the richest people over there -- there's one billion people,
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seal on miljard inimest --
02:16
and they live above what I call the "air line" --
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ja nemad elavad ülalpool nii-öelda õhupiiri,
02:19
(Laughter)
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02:20
because they spend more than 80 dollars a day
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sest nad kulutavad
rohkem kui 80 dollarit päevas.
02:24
on their consumption.
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Aga see on kõigest üks, kaks, kolm miljardit inimest,
02:26
But this is just one, two, three billion people,
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02:28
and obviously, there are seven billion people in the world,
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ja teadagi on maailmas seitse miljardit,
02:31
so there must be one, two, three, four billion people more
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seega peab olema veel üks, kaks, kolm, neli miljardit inimest,
kes elavad vaesuspiiri ja õhupiiri vahel.
02:35
who live in between the poverty and the air line.
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Neil on elekter,
02:38
They have electricity,
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02:40
but the question is: How many have washing machines?
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aga küsimus on, kui paljudel neist on pesumasin?
02:43
I've done the scrutiny of market data, and I've found that, indeed,
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Ma olen turuandmeid põhjalikud analüüsinud
ja ma olen avastanud, et tõepoolest,
02:48
the washing machine has penetrated below the air line,
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pesumasin on tunginud ka allapoole õhupiiri
ja tänapäeval on veel täiendavalt miljard inimest,
02:52
and today, there's an additional one billion people out there
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kes elavad ülalpool pesupiiri.
02:55
who live above the "wash line."
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02:57
(Laughter)
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(Naer)
02:59
And they consume for more than 40 dollars per day.
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Ja nad kulutavad rohkem kui 40 dollarit päevas.
03:03
So two billion have access to washing machines.
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Seega kahel miljardil on ligipääs pesumasinale.
03:06
And the remaining five billion --
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Ja ülejäänud 5 miljardit,
kuidas nemad pesu pesevad?
03:09
how do they wash?
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03:10
Or, to be more precise,
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Või, täpsemalt öeldes,
03:12
how do most of the women in the world wash?
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kuidas enamik naisi maailmas pesu peseb?
03:15
Because it remains the hard work for women to wash.
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Sest raske pesupesemine on jätkuvalt naiste töö.
03:19
They wash like this: by hand.
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Nad pesevad niimoodi - käsitsi.
03:22
It's hard, time-consuming labor,
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See on raske, aeganõudev töö,
mida nad peavad tegema tundide viisi iga nädal.
03:27
which they have to do for hours every week.
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Ja mõnikord peavad nad ka kaugelt vett tooma,
03:30
And sometimes they also have to bring water from far away
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et pesu kodus pesta.
03:33
to do the laundry at home,
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03:34
or they have to bring the laundry away to a stream far off.
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Või peavad nad pesu kaugelasuva jõe äärde tassima.
03:38
And they want the washing machine.
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Ja nad tahavad pesumasinat.
03:41
They don't want to spend such a large part of their life
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Nad ei taha veeta nii suurt osa oma elust,
03:44
doing this hard work
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tehes seda rasket tööd,
03:46
with so relatively low productivity.
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millel on nii väike produktiivsus.
Ja nende soov ei ole kuidagi erinev
03:49
And there's nothing different in their wish
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minu vanaema soovist.
03:51
than it was for my grandma.
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Vaadake, kaks põlvkonda tagasi Rootsis --
03:53
Look here, two generations ago in Sweden --
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03:55
picking water from the stream,
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jõest vett ammutades,
03:57
heating with firewood and washing like that.
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tulel vett soojendades ja niimoodi pestes.
04:00
They want the washing machine in exactly the same way.
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Nad tahavad pesumasinat täpselt sama moodi.
04:03
But when I lecture to environmentally concerned students,
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Aga kui ma pean loengut keskkonnateadlikele tudengitele,
04:06
they tell me, "No, everybody in the world cannot have cars and washing machines."
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ütlevad nad mulle: "Ei, kõigil maailmas ei saa olla autosid ja pesumasinaid."
04:11
How can we tell this woman
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Kuidas me saame sellele naisele öelda,
04:13
that she isn't going to have a washing machine?
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et tema ei saa endale kunagi pesumasinat?
04:15
And then I ask my students -- over the last two years, I've asked --
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Ja siis ma küsin oma õpilastelt,
ma olen neilt viimasel kahel aastal küsinud:
04:19
"How many of you don't use a car?"
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"Kui paljud teist ei kasuta autot?"
04:21
And some of them proudly raise their hand and say, "I don't use a car."
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Ja mõni neist tõstab uhkustundega käe
ja ütleb: "Mina ei kasuta autot."
04:25
And then I put the really tough question:
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Ja siis ma esitan neile tõeliselt ebamugava küsimuse:
04:27
"How many of you hand-wash your jeans and your bedsheets?"
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"Kui paljud teist
pesevad käsitsi oma teksasid ja voodipesu?"
04:31
And no one raised their hand.
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Ja mitte keegi ei tõstnud kätt.
Isegi padurohelised
04:35
Even the hardcore in the green movement use washing machines.
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kasutavad pesumasinat.
04:39
(Laughter)
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(Naer)
04:43
So how come [this is] something that everyone uses
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Kuidas on võimalik, et see on midagi, mida kõik kasutavad,
04:45
and they think others will not stop it?
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ja nad arvavad, et teised ei tohiks; mis teeb selle asja eriliseks?
04:47
What is special with this?
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04:48
I had to do an analysis about the energy use in the world.
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Ma tegin analüüsi energiakasutuse kohta maailmas.
04:51
Here we are.
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Siin see on.
04:52
Look here. You see the seven billion people up there?
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Vaadake, te näete seal seitset miljardit inimest:
04:55
The air people, the wash people,
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õhuinimesed, pesuinimesed,
04:57
the bulb people and the fire people.
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elektripirni-inimesed ja tuleinimesed.
05:00
One unit like this
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Üks selline ühik
05:02
is an energy unit of fossil fuel -- oil, coal or gas.
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on fossiilkütuse energiaühik --
õli, süsi või gaas.
05:07
That's what most of the electricity and the energy in the world is.
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Just need annavad suurema osa maailma elektrist ja energiast.
05:11
And it's 12 units used in the entire world,
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Ja terves maailmas kasutatakse 12 sellist ühikut
05:14
and the richest one billion, they use six of them.
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ja rikkaim miljard kasutab nendest kuus.
05:17
Half of the energy is used by one seventh of the world population.
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Üks seitsmendik maailma rahvastikust kasutab poole energiast.
05:20
And these ones, who have washing machines
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Ja need, kellel on küll pesumasin,
aga mitte tervet majatäit teisi masinaid,
05:23
but not a house full of other machines,
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nemad kasutavad kaks.
05:25
they use two.
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05:26
This group uses three, one each.
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See grupp kasutab kolm ühikut, igaüks ühe.
Ja neil on ka elekter.
05:29
And they also have electricity.
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Ja seal ei kasuta nad isegi ühte igaüks.
05:31
And over there, they don't even use one each.
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05:33
That makes 12 of them.
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See teeb kokku 12.
05:35
But the main concern
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Aga keskkonnateadlike tudengite peamine mure,
05:37
for the environmentally interested students -- and they are right --
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ja neil on õigus,
05:40
is about the future.
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puudutab tulevikku.
Millised on praegused trendid? Kui me lihtsalt pikendame neid trende,
05:43
What are the trends?
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05:44
If we just prolong the trends, without any real advanced analysis,
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ilma põhjaliku analüüsita, kuni aastani 2050,
05:48
to 2050,
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siis on kaks asja, mis võivad energiakasutust suurendada.
05:49
there are two things that can increase the energy use:
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Esiteks, rahvastiku kasv.
05:52
first, population growth; second, economic growth.
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Teiseks, majanduskasv.
05:55
Population growth will mainly occur among the poorest people here,
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Rahvastiku kasvu näeme enamasti vaesemate inimeste hulgas,
sest neil on kõrge laste suremus
05:59
because they have high child mortality
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ja neil on palju lapsi naise kohta.
06:01
and they have many children per woman.
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Ja sellega tuleb kaks ühikut lisaks,
06:03
And that will get you two extra,
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aga see ei muuda energiakasutust oluliselt.
06:05
but that won't change the energy use very much.
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Aga siis on veel majanduskasv.
06:07
What will happen is economic growth.
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06:09
The best of here in the emerging economies --
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Kasvavate majanduste edukamad --
ma kutsun neid Uueks Idaks --
06:12
I call them "the New East" --
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06:13
they will jump the air line.
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nemad hüppavad üle õhupiiri.
06:15
"Wopp!" they will say.
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"Hopsti!" ütlevad nad.
06:17
And they will start to use as much as the Old West are doing already.
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Ja nad hakkavad kasutama sama palju kui lääneriigid praegu.
06:20
(Laughter)
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Ja need inimesed, nad tahavad pesumasinat.
06:21
And these people, they want the washing machine.
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Ma ju ütlesin. Nad lähevad sinna.
06:24
I told you. They'll go there.
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06:25
And they will double their energy use.
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Ja nad kahekordistavad oma energiakulu.
06:27
And we hope that the poor people will get into the electric light.
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Ja me loodame, et vaesed inimesed saavad elektrivalguse.
06:30
And they'll get a two-child family without a stop in population growth.
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Ja tulevikus on neil kahe lapsega pered, ilma et rahvastiku kasv peatuks.
Aga kogu energiatarbimine
06:33
But the total energy consumption will increase to 22 units.
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kasvab 22 ühikuni.
Ja nendest 22 ühikust
06:37
And these 22 units --
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kasutavad enamiku jätkuvalt rikkaimad inimesed.
06:40
still, the richest people use most of them.
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Niisiis, mis tuleks ette võtta?
06:44
So what needs to be done?
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06:45
Because the risk,
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Sest kliimamuutuse oht
06:47
the high probability of climate change is real.
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ja suur tõenäosus on reaalne.
06:50
It's real.
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See on tõeline.
06:52
Of course, they must be more energy efficient.
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Muidugi peavad nad olema energiatõhusamad.
06:55
They must change their behavior in some way.
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Nad peavad oma käitumist mingil moel muutma.
06:57
They must also start to produce green energy,
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Nad peavad hakkama tootma ka rohelist energiat,
palju rohkem rohelist energiat.
07:00
much more green energy.
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07:01
But until they have the same energy consumption per person,
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Aga senini, kui neil on sama energiakulu inimese kohta,
ei tohiks nad teistele nõu anda --
07:05
they shouldn't give advice to others --
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07:06
what to do and what not to do.
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mida teha ja mida mitte teha.
07:08
(Laughter)
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(Aplaus)
07:09
(Applause)
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07:10
Here, we can get more green energy all over.
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Siin võib meil olla rohkem rohelist energiat.
Seda me loodame.
07:15
This is what we hope might happen.
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See on tulevikus tõeline väljakutse.
07:17
It's a real challenge in the future.
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07:19
But I can assure you that this woman in the favela in Rio,
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Aga ma võin teile kinnitada, et see naine Rio de Janeiro slummis
tahab pesumasinat.
07:23
she wants a washing machine.
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Ta on väga õnnelik oma energiaministri üle,
07:25
She's very happy about her minister of energy
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07:27
that provided electricity to everyone --
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kes varustas kõik elektriga --
07:29
so happy that she even voted for her.
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nii õnnelik, et ta isegi hääletas tema poolt.
Ja sellest ministrist sai Dilma Rousseff,
07:33
And she became Dilma Rousseff,
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07:34
the president-elect of one of the biggest democracies in the world,
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ühe maailma suurima demokraatia
ametisse valitud president,
tõustes ministriametist presidenditoolile.
07:39
moving from minister of energy to president.
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Kui riigis valitseb demokraatia,
07:42
If you have democracy, people will vote for washing machines.
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siis inimesed hääletavad pesumasinate poolt.
Nad armastavad neid.
07:46
They love them!
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07:47
(Laughter)
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07:49
And what's the magic with them?
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Ja milles seisneb nende maagia?
07:51
My mother explained the magic with this machine
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Mu ema selgitas selle masina võlu
07:54
the very, very first day.
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kohe esimesel päeval.
Ta ütles: "Nüüd, Hans,
07:57
She said, "Now, Hans.
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oleme pesu masinasse pannud,
07:59
We have loaded the laundry.
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masin teeb ülejäänud töö.
08:01
The machine will make the work.
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08:02
And now we can go to the library."
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Ja nüüd me saame raamatukokku minna."
Sest see ongi asja võlu --
08:05
Because this is the magic: you load the laundry,
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sa paned pesu masinasse,
08:08
and what do you get out of the machine?
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ja mida sa masinast saad?
08:10
You get books out of the machines,
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Sa saad masinatest raamatuid,
lasteraamatuid.
08:14
children's books.
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08:15
And mother got time to read for me.
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Ja emal oli nüüd aega mulle lugeda.
08:17
She loved this.
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Ta armastas seda. Siin on aabits.
08:18
I got the "ABC's" -- this is why I started my career as a professor,
182
498749
3787
Just seal alustasin ma oma professorikarjääri,
08:22
when my mother had time to read for me.
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502560
2140
kui mu emal oli aega mulle lugeda.
08:24
And she also got books for herself.
184
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1812
Ja ta laenutas raamatuid ka endale.
08:26
She managed to study English and learn that as a foreign language.
185
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3755
Tal õnnestus võõrkeelena
inglise keelt õppida.
08:30
And she read so many novels,
186
510339
2307
Ja ta luges nii palju romaane,
08:32
so many different novels here.
187
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2440
nii palju erinevaid romaane.
08:35
And we really, we really loved this machine.
188
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3666
Ja me tõepoolest armastasime seda masinat.
08:38
(Laughter)
189
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1138
08:39
And what we said, my mother and me,
190
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2550
Ja mida mu ema ja mina ütlesime:
08:42
"Thank you, industrialization.
191
522560
2472
"Aitäh, industrialiseerimine.
08:45
Thank you, steel mill.
192
525560
1934
Aitäh, terasetehas.
08:47
Thank you, power station.
193
527518
1794
Aitäh, jõujaam.
08:49
And thank you, chemical processing industry
194
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3024
Ja aitäh, keemiatööstus,
08:52
that gave us time to read books."
195
532384
2008
et andsid meile aega raamatuid lugeda."
08:54
Thank you very much.
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1217
Suur aitäh.
08:55
(Laughter)
197
535657
1082
08:56
(Applause)
198
536763
7000
(Aplaus)
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