The magic washing machine | Hans Rosling

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2011-03-21・ 7001    127


http://www.ted.com What was the greatest invention of the industrial revolution? Hans Rosling makes the case for the washing machine. With newly designed graphics from Gapminder, Rosling shows us the magic that pops up when economic growth and electricity turn a boring wash day into an intellectual day of reading. TODAY: From 11:30am-1:30pm EDT, Hans Rosling will be answering questions in TED Conversations. Pop over!

Instruction

Double-click on the English captions to play the video from there.

Translator: Anna-Liisa Ševeljova Reviewer: Jaan Paaver
00:15
I was only four years old
Ma olin vaid nelja-aastane,
00:17
when I saw my mother load a washing machine
kui ma nägin oma ema
00:20
for the very first time in her life.
esimest korda elus pesumasinat laadimas.
00:23
That was a great day for my mother.
See oli mu ema jaoks tähtis päev.
00:25
My mother and father had been saving money for years
Mu ema ja isa olid aastaid raha kogunud,
00:28
to be able to buy that machine,
et nad saaks endale selle masina osta.
00:30
and the first day it was going to be used,
Ja esimesel päeval, kui seda kasutati,
00:32
even Grandma was invited to see the machine.
kutsuti isegi vanaema
uut masinat vaatama.
00:35
(Laughter)
Ja vanaema oli isegi veel rohkem põnevil.
00:37
And Grandma was even more excited.
00:39
Throughout her life, she had been heating water with firewood,
Terve oma elu jooksul
oli ta küttepuudega vett soojendanud
00:43
and she had hand-washed laundry for seven children.
ja seitsme lapse pesu
käsitsi pesnud.
00:47
And now, she was going to watch electricity do that work.
Ja nüüd sai ta vaadata,
kuidas elekter selle töö ära teeb.
00:53
My mother carefully opened the door,
Mu ema avas ettevaatlikult ukse
00:57
and she loaded the laundry into the machine,
ja pani pesu
pesumasinasse.
Vot niimoodi.
01:02
like this.
01:03
And then, when she closed the door,
Ja siis, kui ta ukse sulges,
01:05
Grandma said, "No, no, no, no!
ütles vanaema: "Ei, ei, ei, ei.
01:07
Let me! Let me push the button!"
Las mina, las mina vajutan nuppu."
01:10
(Laughter)
01:11
And Grandma pushed the button,
Ja vanaema vajutas nuppu
ja ütles: "Oo, imeline.
01:14
and she said, "Oh, fantastic!
01:16
I want to see this! Give me a chair! Give me a chair! I want to see it,"
Ma tahan seda näha. Andke mulle tool.
Andke mulle tool, ma tahan seda näha."
01:20
and she sat down in front of the machine,
Ja ta istus pesumasina ette
01:23
and she watched the entire washing program.
ja ta vaatas terve pesuprogrammi lõpuni.
01:27
(Laughter)
Ta oli hüpnotiseeritud.
01:28
She was mesmerized.
01:29
To my grandmother, the washing machine was a miracle.
Minu vanaema jaoks
oli pesumasin ime.
01:35
Today, in Sweden and other rich countries,
Tänapäeval kasutavad inimesed
01:38
people are using so many different machines.
Rootsis ja teistes rikastes riikides
nii palju erinevaid masinaid.
01:42
Look -- the homes are full of machines.
Vaadake, kodud on masinad täis,
01:44
I can't even name them all.
ma ei oska neile kõigile nimegi anda.
01:46
And they also, when they want to travel,
Ja lisaks, kui nad reisida tahavad,
siis nad kasutavad lendavaid masinaid,
01:50
they use flying machines
01:52
that can take them to remote destinations.
mis viivad neid kaugetesse sihtpunktidesse.
01:54
And yet, in the world,
Ja siiski on maailmas nii palju inimesi,
01:56
there are so many people who still heat the water on fire,
kes ikka veel soojendavad vett tule abil
ja teevad süüa tulel.
02:00
and they cook their food on fire.
02:02
Sometimes they don't even have enough food.
Vahel pole neil isegi piisavalt sööki.
Ja nad elavad allpool vaesuspiiri.
02:05
And they live below the poverty line.
02:07
There are two billion fellow human beings
Maailmas on 2 miljardit inimest,
02:10
who live on less than two dollars a day.
kes elavad vähema kui 2 dollariga päevas.
Ja rikkaimad inimesed sealpool --
02:13
And the richest people over there -- there's one billion people,
seal on miljard inimest --
02:16
and they live above what I call the "air line" --
ja nemad elavad ülalpool nii-öelda õhupiiri,
02:19
(Laughter)
02:20
because they spend more than 80 dollars a day
sest nad kulutavad
rohkem kui 80 dollarit päevas.
02:24
on their consumption.
Aga see on kõigest üks, kaks, kolm miljardit inimest,
02:26
But this is just one, two, three billion people,
02:28
and obviously, there are seven billion people in the world,
ja teadagi on maailmas seitse miljardit,
02:31
so there must be one, two, three, four billion people more
seega peab olema veel üks, kaks, kolm, neli miljardit inimest,
kes elavad vaesuspiiri ja õhupiiri vahel.
02:35
who live in between the poverty and the air line.
Neil on elekter,
02:38
They have electricity,
02:40
but the question is: How many have washing machines?
aga küsimus on, kui paljudel neist on pesumasin?
02:43
I've done the scrutiny of market data, and I've found that, indeed,
Ma olen turuandmeid põhjalikud analüüsinud
ja ma olen avastanud, et tõepoolest,
02:48
the washing machine has penetrated below the air line,
pesumasin on tunginud ka allapoole õhupiiri
ja tänapäeval on veel täiendavalt miljard inimest,
02:52
and today, there's an additional one billion people out there
kes elavad ülalpool pesupiiri.
02:55
who live above the "wash line."
02:57
(Laughter)
(Naer)
02:59
And they consume for more than 40 dollars per day.
Ja nad kulutavad rohkem kui 40 dollarit päevas.
03:03
So two billion have access to washing machines.
Seega kahel miljardil on ligipääs pesumasinale.
03:06
And the remaining five billion --
Ja ülejäänud 5 miljardit,
kuidas nemad pesu pesevad?
03:09
how do they wash?
03:10
Or, to be more precise,
Või, täpsemalt öeldes,
03:12
how do most of the women in the world wash?
kuidas enamik naisi maailmas pesu peseb?
03:15
Because it remains the hard work for women to wash.
Sest raske pesupesemine on jätkuvalt naiste töö.
03:19
They wash like this: by hand.
Nad pesevad niimoodi - käsitsi.
03:22
It's hard, time-consuming labor,
See on raske, aeganõudev töö,
mida nad peavad tegema tundide viisi iga nädal.
03:27
which they have to do for hours every week.
Ja mõnikord peavad nad ka kaugelt vett tooma,
03:30
And sometimes they also have to bring water from far away
et pesu kodus pesta.
03:33
to do the laundry at home,
03:34
or they have to bring the laundry away to a stream far off.
Või peavad nad pesu kaugelasuva jõe äärde tassima.
03:38
And they want the washing machine.
Ja nad tahavad pesumasinat.
03:41
They don't want to spend such a large part of their life
Nad ei taha veeta nii suurt osa oma elust,
03:44
doing this hard work
tehes seda rasket tööd,
03:46
with so relatively low productivity.
millel on nii väike produktiivsus.
Ja nende soov ei ole kuidagi erinev
03:49
And there's nothing different in their wish
minu vanaema soovist.
03:51
than it was for my grandma.
Vaadake, kaks põlvkonda tagasi Rootsis --
03:53
Look here, two generations ago in Sweden --
03:55
picking water from the stream,
jõest vett ammutades,
03:57
heating with firewood and washing like that.
tulel vett soojendades ja niimoodi pestes.
04:00
They want the washing machine in exactly the same way.
Nad tahavad pesumasinat täpselt sama moodi.
04:03
But when I lecture to environmentally concerned students,
Aga kui ma pean loengut keskkonnateadlikele tudengitele,
04:06
they tell me, "No, everybody in the world cannot have cars and washing machines."
ütlevad nad mulle: "Ei, kõigil maailmas ei saa olla autosid ja pesumasinaid."
04:11
How can we tell this woman
Kuidas me saame sellele naisele öelda,
04:13
that she isn't going to have a washing machine?
et tema ei saa endale kunagi pesumasinat?
04:15
And then I ask my students -- over the last two years, I've asked --
Ja siis ma küsin oma õpilastelt,
ma olen neilt viimasel kahel aastal küsinud:
04:19
"How many of you don't use a car?"
"Kui paljud teist ei kasuta autot?"
04:21
And some of them proudly raise their hand and say, "I don't use a car."
Ja mõni neist tõstab uhkustundega käe
ja ütleb: "Mina ei kasuta autot."
04:25
And then I put the really tough question:
Ja siis ma esitan neile tõeliselt ebamugava küsimuse:
04:27
"How many of you hand-wash your jeans and your bedsheets?"
"Kui paljud teist
pesevad käsitsi oma teksasid ja voodipesu?"
04:31
And no one raised their hand.
Ja mitte keegi ei tõstnud kätt.
Isegi padurohelised
04:35
Even the hardcore in the green movement use washing machines.
kasutavad pesumasinat.
04:39
(Laughter)
(Naer)
04:43
So how come [this is] something that everyone uses
Kuidas on võimalik, et see on midagi, mida kõik kasutavad,
04:45
and they think others will not stop it?
ja nad arvavad, et teised ei tohiks; mis teeb selle asja eriliseks?
04:47
What is special with this?
04:48
I had to do an analysis about the energy use in the world.
Ma tegin analüüsi energiakasutuse kohta maailmas.
04:51
Here we are.
Siin see on.
04:52
Look here. You see the seven billion people up there?
Vaadake, te näete seal seitset miljardit inimest:
04:55
The air people, the wash people,
õhuinimesed, pesuinimesed,
04:57
the bulb people and the fire people.
elektripirni-inimesed ja tuleinimesed.
05:00
One unit like this
Üks selline ühik
05:02
is an energy unit of fossil fuel -- oil, coal or gas.
on fossiilkütuse energiaühik --
õli, süsi või gaas.
05:07
That's what most of the electricity and the energy in the world is.
Just need annavad suurema osa maailma elektrist ja energiast.
05:11
And it's 12 units used in the entire world,
Ja terves maailmas kasutatakse 12 sellist ühikut
05:14
and the richest one billion, they use six of them.
ja rikkaim miljard kasutab nendest kuus.
05:17
Half of the energy is used by one seventh of the world population.
Üks seitsmendik maailma rahvastikust kasutab poole energiast.
05:20
And these ones, who have washing machines
Ja need, kellel on küll pesumasin,
aga mitte tervet majatäit teisi masinaid,
05:23
but not a house full of other machines,
nemad kasutavad kaks.
05:25
they use two.
05:26
This group uses three, one each.
See grupp kasutab kolm ühikut, igaüks ühe.
Ja neil on ka elekter.
05:29
And they also have electricity.
Ja seal ei kasuta nad isegi ühte igaüks.
05:31
And over there, they don't even use one each.
05:33
That makes 12 of them.
See teeb kokku 12.
05:35
But the main concern
Aga keskkonnateadlike tudengite peamine mure,
05:37
for the environmentally interested students -- and they are right --
ja neil on õigus,
05:40
is about the future.
puudutab tulevikku.
Millised on praegused trendid? Kui me lihtsalt pikendame neid trende,
05:43
What are the trends?
05:44
If we just prolong the trends, without any real advanced analysis,
ilma põhjaliku analüüsita, kuni aastani 2050,
05:48
to 2050,
siis on kaks asja, mis võivad energiakasutust suurendada.
05:49
there are two things that can increase the energy use:
Esiteks, rahvastiku kasv.
05:52
first, population growth; second, economic growth.
Teiseks, majanduskasv.
05:55
Population growth will mainly occur among the poorest people here,
Rahvastiku kasvu näeme enamasti vaesemate inimeste hulgas,
sest neil on kõrge laste suremus
05:59
because they have high child mortality
ja neil on palju lapsi naise kohta.
06:01
and they have many children per woman.
Ja sellega tuleb kaks ühikut lisaks,
06:03
And that will get you two extra,
aga see ei muuda energiakasutust oluliselt.
06:05
but that won't change the energy use very much.
Aga siis on veel majanduskasv.
06:07
What will happen is economic growth.
06:09
The best of here in the emerging economies --
Kasvavate majanduste edukamad --
ma kutsun neid Uueks Idaks --
06:12
I call them "the New East" --
06:13
they will jump the air line.
nemad hüppavad üle õhupiiri.
06:15
"Wopp!" they will say.
"Hopsti!" ütlevad nad.
06:17
And they will start to use as much as the Old West are doing already.
Ja nad hakkavad kasutama sama palju kui lääneriigid praegu.
06:20
(Laughter)
Ja need inimesed, nad tahavad pesumasinat.
06:21
And these people, they want the washing machine.
Ma ju ütlesin. Nad lähevad sinna.
06:24
I told you. They'll go there.
06:25
And they will double their energy use.
Ja nad kahekordistavad oma energiakulu.
06:27
And we hope that the poor people will get into the electric light.
Ja me loodame, et vaesed inimesed saavad elektrivalguse.
06:30
And they'll get a two-child family without a stop in population growth.
Ja tulevikus on neil kahe lapsega pered, ilma et rahvastiku kasv peatuks.
Aga kogu energiatarbimine
06:33
But the total energy consumption will increase to 22 units.
kasvab 22 ühikuni.
Ja nendest 22 ühikust
06:37
And these 22 units --
kasutavad enamiku jätkuvalt rikkaimad inimesed.
06:40
still, the richest people use most of them.
Niisiis, mis tuleks ette võtta?
06:44
So what needs to be done?
06:45
Because the risk,
Sest kliimamuutuse oht
06:47
the high probability of climate change is real.
ja suur tõenäosus on reaalne.
06:50
It's real.
See on tõeline.
06:52
Of course, they must be more energy efficient.
Muidugi peavad nad olema energiatõhusamad.
06:55
They must change their behavior in some way.
Nad peavad oma käitumist mingil moel muutma.
06:57
They must also start to produce green energy,
Nad peavad hakkama tootma ka rohelist energiat,
palju rohkem rohelist energiat.
07:00
much more green energy.
07:01
But until they have the same energy consumption per person,
Aga senini, kui neil on sama energiakulu inimese kohta,
ei tohiks nad teistele nõu anda --
07:05
they shouldn't give advice to others --
07:06
what to do and what not to do.
mida teha ja mida mitte teha.
07:08
(Laughter)
(Aplaus)
07:09
(Applause)
07:10
Here, we can get more green energy all over.
Siin võib meil olla rohkem rohelist energiat.
Seda me loodame.
07:15
This is what we hope might happen.
See on tulevikus tõeline väljakutse.
07:17
It's a real challenge in the future.
07:19
But I can assure you that this woman in the favela in Rio,
Aga ma võin teile kinnitada, et see naine Rio de Janeiro slummis
tahab pesumasinat.
07:23
she wants a washing machine.
Ta on väga õnnelik oma energiaministri üle,
07:25
She's very happy about her minister of energy
07:27
that provided electricity to everyone --
kes varustas kõik elektriga --
07:29
so happy that she even voted for her.
nii õnnelik, et ta isegi hääletas tema poolt.
Ja sellest ministrist sai Dilma Rousseff,
07:33
And she became Dilma Rousseff,
07:34
the president-elect of one of the biggest democracies in the world,
ühe maailma suurima demokraatia
ametisse valitud president,
tõustes ministriametist presidenditoolile.
07:39
moving from minister of energy to president.
Kui riigis valitseb demokraatia,
07:42
If you have democracy, people will vote for washing machines.
siis inimesed hääletavad pesumasinate poolt.
Nad armastavad neid.
07:46
They love them!
07:47
(Laughter)
07:49
And what's the magic with them?
Ja milles seisneb nende maagia?
07:51
My mother explained the magic with this machine
Mu ema selgitas selle masina võlu
07:54
the very, very first day.
kohe esimesel päeval.
Ta ütles: "Nüüd, Hans,
07:57
She said, "Now, Hans.
oleme pesu masinasse pannud,
07:59
We have loaded the laundry.
masin teeb ülejäänud töö.
08:01
The machine will make the work.
08:02
And now we can go to the library."
Ja nüüd me saame raamatukokku minna."
Sest see ongi asja võlu --
08:05
Because this is the magic: you load the laundry,
sa paned pesu masinasse,
08:08
and what do you get out of the machine?
ja mida sa masinast saad?
08:10
You get books out of the machines,
Sa saad masinatest raamatuid,
lasteraamatuid.
08:14
children's books.
08:15
And mother got time to read for me.
Ja emal oli nüüd aega mulle lugeda.
08:17
She loved this.
Ta armastas seda. Siin on aabits.
08:18
I got the "ABC's" -- this is why I started my career as a professor,
Just seal alustasin ma oma professorikarjääri,
08:22
when my mother had time to read for me.
kui mu emal oli aega mulle lugeda.
08:24
And she also got books for herself.
Ja ta laenutas raamatuid ka endale.
08:26
She managed to study English and learn that as a foreign language.
Tal õnnestus võõrkeelena
inglise keelt õppida.
08:30
And she read so many novels,
Ja ta luges nii palju romaane,
08:32
so many different novels here.
nii palju erinevaid romaane.
08:35
And we really, we really loved this machine.
Ja me tõepoolest armastasime seda masinat.
08:38
(Laughter)
08:39
And what we said, my mother and me,
Ja mida mu ema ja mina ütlesime:
08:42
"Thank you, industrialization.
"Aitäh, industrialiseerimine.
08:45
Thank you, steel mill.
Aitäh, terasetehas.
08:47
Thank you, power station.
Aitäh, jõujaam.
08:49
And thank you, chemical processing industry
Ja aitäh, keemiatööstus,
08:52
that gave us time to read books."
et andsid meile aega raamatuid lugeda."
08:54
Thank you very much.
Suur aitäh.
08:55
(Laughter)
08:56
(Applause)
(Aplaus)
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