The magic washing machine | Hans Rosling

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2011-03-21・ 7001    127


http://www.ted.com What was the greatest invention of the industrial revolution? Hans Rosling makes the case for the washing machine. With newly designed graphics from Gapminder, Rosling shows us the magic that pops up when economic growth and electricity turn a boring wash day into an intellectual day of reading. TODAY: From 11:30am-1:30pm EDT, Hans Rosling will be answering questions in TED Conversations. Pop over!

Instruction

Double-click on the English captions to play the video from there.

Prevoditelj: Tilen Pigac - EFZG Recezent: Mislav Ante Omazić - EFZG
00:15
I was only four years old
Bilo mi je samo četiri godine
00:17
when I saw my mother load a washing machine
kada sam vidio kako moja mama puni perilicu rublja
00:20
for the very first time in her life.
po prvi put u svom životu.
00:23
That was a great day for my mother.
To je bio veliki dan za moju majku.
00:25
My mother and father had been saving money for years
Moja majka i otac su štedjeli novac godinama
00:28
to be able to buy that machine,
kako bi mogli kupiti tu perilicu.
00:30
and the first day it was going to be used,
I prvi dan kada se trebala početi koristiti,
00:32
even Grandma was invited to see the machine.
čak je i baka bila pozvana
da vidi perilicu.
00:35
(Laughter)
A baka je bila još uzbuđenija.
00:37
And Grandma was even more excited.
00:39
Throughout her life, she had been heating water with firewood,
Kroz cijeli svoj život
grijala je vodu pomoću drva i vatre,
00:43
and she had hand-washed laundry for seven children.
i ručno je prala odjeću
za sedmero djece.
00:47
And now, she was going to watch electricity do that work.
A sada će gledati
kako struja radi taj posao.
00:53
My mother carefully opened the door,
Moja majka je pažljivo otvorila vrata,
00:57
and she loaded the laundry into the machine,
i stavila je odjeću
u perilicu,
ovako.
01:02
like this.
01:03
And then, when she closed the door,
A zatim, kada je zatvorila vrata,
01:05
Grandma said, "No, no, no, no!
baka je rekla, "Ne, ne, ne, ne.
01:07
Let me! Let me push the button!"
Daj meni, daj meni da pritisnem gumb."
01:10
(Laughter)
01:11
And Grandma pushed the button,
I baka je pritisnula gumb,
i rekla je, "O, fantastično.
01:14
and she said, "Oh, fantastic!
01:16
I want to see this! Give me a chair! Give me a chair! I want to see it,"
Želim vidjeti to. Dajte mi stolicu.
Dajte mi stolicu. Želim vidjeti to."
01:20
and she sat down in front of the machine,
I sjela je ispred perilice,
01:23
and she watched the entire washing program.
i promatrala je cijeli program pranja.
01:27
(Laughter)
Bila je zadivljena.
01:28
She was mesmerized.
01:29
To my grandmother, the washing machine was a miracle.
Mojoj baki,
perilica rublja je bila čudo.
01:35
Today, in Sweden and other rich countries,
Danas, u Švedskoj i drugim bogatim zemljama,
01:38
people are using so many different machines.
ljudi koriste
toliko mnogo uređaja.
01:42
Look -- the homes are full of machines.
Gledajte, domovi su puni uređaja;
01:44
I can't even name them all.
čak ih ne mogu ni sve nabrojati.
01:46
And they also, when they want to travel,
I isto tako, kada žele putovati,
oni koriste leteće strojeve
01:50
they use flying machines
01:52
that can take them to remote destinations.
koji ih mogu odvesti na udaljene destinacije.
01:54
And yet, in the world,
A ipak, u svijetu, ima toliko mnogo ljudi
01:56
there are so many people who still heat the water on fire,
koji još uvijek griju vodu na vatri,
i kuhaju svoju hranu na vatri.
02:00
and they cook their food on fire.
02:02
Sometimes they don't even have enough food.
Ponekad nemaju čak ni dovoljno hrane.
I oni žive ispod granice siromaštva.
02:05
And they live below the poverty line.
02:07
There are two billion fellow human beings
Ima dvije milijarde ljudskih bića
02:10
who live on less than two dollars a day.
koja žive s manje od dva dolara dnevno.
A najbogatiji ljudi ovdje --
02:13
And the richest people over there -- there's one billion people,
to je jedna milijarda ljudi --
02:16
and they live above what I call the "air line" --
a oni žive iznad onoga što ja nazivam zračna granica,
02:19
(Laughter)
02:20
because they spend more than 80 dollars a day
jer troše više od 80$ dnevno
na njihovu potrošnju.
02:24
on their consumption.
Ali to je samo jedna, dvije, tri milijarde ljudi,
02:26
But this is just one, two, three billion people,
02:28
and obviously, there are seven billion people in the world,
a očito na svijetu ima sedam milijardi ljudi,
02:31
so there must be one, two, three, four billion people more
stoga mora biti jedna, dvije, tri, četiri milijarde ljudi više,
koji žive između granice siromaštva i zračne granice.
02:35
who live in between the poverty and the air line.
Oni imaju struju,
02:38
They have electricity,
02:40
but the question is: How many have washing machines?
ali pitanje je, koliko njih ima perilice rublja?
02:43
I've done the scrutiny of market data, and I've found that, indeed,
Napravio sam pregled tržišnih podataka,
i otkrio sam, doista,
02:48
the washing machine has penetrated below the air line,
da je perilica rublja penetrirala ispod zračne linije,
i danas postoji dodatna milijarda ljudi tamo
02:52
and today, there's an additional one billion people out there
koji žive iznad granice pranja.
02:55
who live above the "wash line."
02:57
(Laughter)
(Smijeh)
02:59
And they consume for more than 40 dollars per day.
I oni troše više od 40$ dnevno.
03:03
So two billion have access to washing machines.
Dakle, dvije milijarde ljudi ima pristup perilicama rublja.
03:06
And the remaining five billion --
A ostalih pet milijardi,
kako oni peru?
03:09
how do they wash?
03:10
Or, to be more precise,
Ili, da budemo precizni,
03:12
how do most of the women in the world wash?
kako većina žene na svijetu pere?
03:15
Because it remains the hard work for women to wash.
Jer ostaje težak posao na ženama da peru.
03:19
They wash like this: by hand.
One peru ovako: ručno.
03:22
It's hard, time-consuming labor,
To je težak rad koji uzima mnogo vremena,
a koji moraju raditi satima svaki tjedan.
03:27
which they have to do for hours every week.
I ponekad moraju isto tako donijeti vodu izdaleka
03:30
And sometimes they also have to bring water from far away
kako bi oprali rublje kod kuće.
03:33
to do the laundry at home,
03:34
or they have to bring the laundry away to a stream far off.
Ili moraju odnijeti rublje na izvor koji je veoma udaljen.
03:38
And they want the washing machine.
A one žele perilicu rublja.
03:41
They don't want to spend such a large part of their life
One ne žele provesti toliko velik dio svojih života
03:44
doing this hard work
radeći taj težak posao
03:46
with so relatively low productivity.
s relativnom malom produktivnošću.
I ne razlikuju se u svojim željama
03:49
And there's nothing different in their wish
od moje bake.
03:51
than it was for my grandma.
Pogledajte ovdje, prije dvije generacije u Švedskoj --
03:53
Look here, two generations ago in Sweden --
03:55
picking water from the stream,
uzimajući vodu iz potoka,
03:57
heating with firewood and washing like that.
zagrijavajući je pomoću vatre i prati ovako.
04:00
They want the washing machine in exactly the same way.
One žele perilicu rublja na točno isti način.
04:03
But when I lecture to environmentally concerned students,
Ali kada predajem studentima zabrinutim za okoliš,
04:06
they tell me, "No, everybody in the world cannot have cars and washing machines."
oni mi kažu, "Ne, ne mogu svi na svijetu imati automobile i perilice rublja."
04:11
How can we tell this woman
Kako možemo reći ovoj ženi
04:13
that she isn't going to have a washing machine?
da ona neće imati perilicu rublja?
04:15
And then I ask my students -- over the last two years, I've asked --
A zatim pitam svoje studente,
pitao sam ih -- tijekom protekle dvije godine sam ih pitao,
04:19
"How many of you don't use a car?"
"Koliko od vas ne koristi automobil?"
04:21
And some of them proudly raise their hand and say, "I don't use a car."
I nekoliko njih ponosno digne ruke
i kaže, "Ja ne koristim automobil."
04:25
And then I put the really tough question:
A zatim postavim doista teško pitanje:
04:27
"How many of you hand-wash your jeans and your bedsheets?"
"Koliko od vas
pere ručno svoje hlače i plahte?"
04:31
And no one raised their hand.
I nitko ne digne ruku.
Čak i oni najpredaniji zelenom pokretu
04:35
Even the hardcore in the green movement use washing machines.
koriste perilice rublja.
04:39
(Laughter)
(Smijeh)
04:43
So how come [this is] something that everyone uses
Dakle, kako to da nešto što svatko koristi
04:45
and they think others will not stop it?
i misle kako drugi neće prestati to koristiti; što je posebno kod toga?
04:47
What is special with this?
04:48
I had to do an analysis about the energy use in the world.
Morao sam napraviti analizu o potrošnji energije u svijetu.
04:51
Here we are.
Evo nas.
04:52
Look here. You see the seven billion people up there?
Gledajte ovdje, vidite sedam milijardi ljudi ovdje gore:
04:55
The air people, the wash people,
zračni ljudi, ljudi pranja,
04:57
the bulb people and the fire people.
ljudi žarulje i ljudi vatre.
05:00
One unit like this
Jedna jedinica poput ove
05:02
is an energy unit of fossil fuel -- oil, coal or gas.
je jedinica energije fosilnog goriva --
nafta, ugljen ili plin.
05:07
That's what most of the electricity and the energy in the world is.
To je ono od čega se većina svjetske energije sastoji.
05:11
And it's 12 units used in the entire world,
I troši se 12 jedinica u cijelom svijetu,
05:14
and the richest one billion, they use six of them.
i milijardu najbogatijih, oni koriste šest jedinica.
05:17
Half of the energy is used by one seventh of the world population.
Polovicu energije koristi jedna sedmina svjetskog stanovništva.
05:20
And these ones, who have washing machines
A ovi koji imaju perilice rublja,
ali ne i kuću punu drugih uređaja,
05:23
but not a house full of other machines,
oni koriste dvije jedinice.
05:25
they use two.
05:26
This group uses three, one each.
Ova grupa koristi tri, svaka po jednu.
A oni ujedno imaju i struju.
05:29
And they also have electricity.
A ovi ovdje ne koriste niti jednu.
05:31
And over there, they don't even use one each.
05:33
That makes 12 of them.
To čini 12 jedinica.
05:35
But the main concern
Ali glavna briga
05:37
for the environmentally interested students -- and they are right --
za studente zainteresirane za okoliš -- i oni su u pravu --
05:40
is about the future.
je za budućnost.
Koji su trendovi? Ako samo produžimo trendove,
05:43
What are the trends?
05:44
If we just prolong the trends, without any real advanced analysis,
bez ikakve stvarne napredne analize, do 2050. godine,
05:48
to 2050,
postoje dvije stvari koje mogu povećati potrošnju energije.
05:49
there are two things that can increase the energy use:
Prvo, rast stanovništva.
05:52
first, population growth; second, economic growth.
Drugo, gospodarski rast.
05:55
Population growth will mainly occur among the poorest people here,
Rast stanovništva će se uglavnom odvijati ovdje među najsiromašnijim ljudima,
jer oni imaju visoku stopu smrtnosti djece
05:59
because they have high child mortality
i oni imaju mnogo djece po ženi.
06:01
and they have many children per woman.
A s time ćete dobiti dodatna dva,
06:03
And that will get you two extra,
ali to neće previše promijeniti potrošnju energije.
06:05
but that won't change the energy use very much.
Ono što će se dogoditi je gospodarski rast.
06:07
What will happen is economic growth.
06:09
The best of here in the emerging economies --
Najbolji ovdje u ekonomijama u usponu --
ja ih nazivam "Novi istok" --
06:12
I call them "the New East" --
06:13
they will jump the air line.
oni će preskočiti zračnu granicu.
06:15
"Wopp!" they will say.
"Wopp!" će reći.
06:17
And they will start to use as much as the Old West are doing already.
I počet će koristiti toliko koliko sada koristi "Stari zapad".
06:20
(Laughter)
A ovi ljudi, oni žele perilice rublja.
06:21
And these people, they want the washing machine.
Rekao sam vam. Oni će ići ovdje.
06:24
I told you. They'll go there.
06:25
And they will double their energy use.
I oni će udvostručiti svoju potrošnju energije.
06:27
And we hope that the poor people will get into the electric light.
I nadamo se kako će siromašni ljudi doći pod električnu žarulju.
06:30
And they'll get a two-child family without a stop in population growth.
I dobit će obitelj s dvoje djece bez prestanka rasta stanovništva.
Ali ukupna potrošnja energije
06:33
But the total energy consumption will increase to 22 units.
će narasti na 22 jedinice.
A od te 22 jedinice,
06:37
And these 22 units --
još uvijek najbogatiji ljudi koriste najviše njih.
06:40
still, the richest people use most of them.
Dakle, što treba učiniti?
06:44
So what needs to be done?
06:45
Because the risk,
Zbog rizika,
06:47
the high probability of climate change is real.
visoka vjerojatnost klimatskih promjena je stvarna.
06:50
It's real.
Stvarna je.
06:52
Of course, they must be more energy efficient.
Naravno da trebaju biti energetski učinkovitiji.
06:55
They must change their behavior in some way.
Moraju promijeniti ponašanje na neki način.
06:57
They must also start to produce green energy,
Moraju ujedno početi proizvoditi zelenu energiju,
mnogo više zelene energije.
07:00
much more green energy.
07:01
But until they have the same energy consumption per person,
Ali sve dok imaju istu potrošnju energije po osobi,
ne bi trebali davati savjete drugima --
07:05
they shouldn't give advice to others --
07:06
what to do and what not to do.
što učiniti i što ne učiniti.
07:08
(Laughter)
(Pljesak)
07:09
(Applause)
07:10
Here, we can get more green energy all over.
Ovdje posvuda možemo dobiti više zelene energije.
To je ono čemu se nadamo da će se dogoditi.
07:15
This is what we hope might happen.
To je pravi izazov u budućnosti.
07:17
It's a real challenge in the future.
07:19
But I can assure you that this woman in the favela in Rio,
Ali mogu vam jamčiti da ova žena u siromašnoj četvrti u Riu,
želi perilicu rublja.
07:23
she wants a washing machine.
Ona je vrlo sretna sa svojom ministricom energije
07:25
She's very happy about her minister of energy
07:27
that provided electricity to everyone --
koja je dala struju svima --
07:29
so happy that she even voted for her.
toliko sretna da je čak i glasala za nju.
I ona je postala Dilma Rousseff,
07:33
And she became Dilma Rousseff,
07:34
the president-elect of one of the biggest democracies in the world,
izabrana predsjednica
jedne od najvećih demokracija na svijetu --
prelazeći od ministrice energije do predsjednice.
07:39
moving from minister of energy to president.
Ako imate demokraciju,
07:42
If you have democracy, people will vote for washing machines.
ljudi će glasati za perilice rublja.
Oni ih vole.
07:46
They love them!
07:47
(Laughter)
07:49
And what's the magic with them?
A što je čarobno kod njih?
07:51
My mother explained the magic with this machine
Moja majka mi je objasnila čaroliju tog stroja
07:54
the very, very first day.
prvi dan.
Rekla je, "Sada, Hans,
07:57
She said, "Now, Hans.
napunili smo je rubljem;
07:59
We have loaded the laundry.
perilica će napraviti posao.
08:01
The machine will make the work.
08:02
And now we can go to the library."
I sada možemo ići u knjižnicu."
Jer to je čarolija:
08:05
Because this is the magic: you load the laundry,
napunite je rubljem,
08:08
and what do you get out of the machine?
a što izlazi van iz perilice?
08:10
You get books out of the machines,
Iz nje izlaze knjige,
dječje knjige.
08:14
children's books.
08:15
And mother got time to read for me.
I majka je imala vremena da mi ih čita.
08:17
She loved this.
Ona je voljela to. Dobio sam "ABC."
08:18
I got the "ABC's" -- this is why I started my career as a professor,
Tu sam započeo svoju karijeru kao profesor,
08:22
when my mother had time to read for me.
kada je moja majka imala vremena da mi čita.
08:24
And she also got books for herself.
I isto tako je uzimala knjige za sebe.
08:26
She managed to study English and learn that as a foreign language.
Uspjela je učiti engleski
i naučiti to kao strani jezik.
08:30
And she read so many novels,
I ovdje je čitala toliko mnogo romana,
08:32
so many different novels here.
toliko mnogo različitih romana.
08:35
And we really, we really loved this machine.
I mi smo doista, doista voljeli taj stroj.
08:38
(Laughter)
08:39
And what we said, my mother and me,
I što smo rekli, moja majka i ja,
08:42
"Thank you, industrialization.
"Hvala industrijalizaciji.
08:45
Thank you, steel mill.
Hvala željezari.
08:47
Thank you, power station.
Hvala električnoj centrali.
08:49
And thank you, chemical processing industry
I hvala kemijskoj prerađivačkoj industriji
08:52
that gave us time to read books."
koja nam je dala vremena da čitamo knjige."
08:54
Thank you very much.
Puno vam hvala.
08:55
(Laughter)
08:56
(Applause)
(Pljesak)
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