The magic washing machine | Hans Rosling

656,567 views ・ 2011-03-21

TED


Dubbelklik asseblief op die Engelse onderskrifte hieronder om die video te speel.

Translator: Caren Smit Reviewer: Christo Crafford
00:15
I was only four years old
0
15560
2041
Ek was net 4 jaar oud
00:17
when I saw my mother load a washing machine
1
17625
2911
toe ek my ma ’n wasmasjien sien laai
00:20
for the very first time in her life.
2
20560
2182
vir die eerste keer in haar lewe.
00:23
That was a great day for my mother.
3
23203
1976
Dit was ’n wonderlike dag vir haar.
00:25
My mother and father had been saving money for years
4
25691
2845
My ouers het jare lank gespaar
00:28
to be able to buy that machine,
5
28560
2040
om die masjien te kon koop.
00:30
and the first day it was going to be used,
6
30624
2046
Op die eerste dag wat ons dit sou gebruik,
00:32
even Grandma was invited to see the machine.
7
32694
3139
is selfs Ouma genooi
om die masjien te sien.
00:35
(Laughter)
8
35857
1136
00:37
And Grandma was even more excited.
9
37017
2519
En Ouma was nog meer opgewonde.
00:39
Throughout her life, she had been heating water with firewood,
10
39560
4300
Regdeur haar lewe
het sy water oor die vuur warm gemaak
00:43
and she had hand-washed laundry for seven children.
11
43884
4010
en wasgoed met die hand gewas
vir sewe kinders.
00:47
And now, she was going to watch electricity do that work.
12
47918
5028
En nou gaan sy sien hoe
elektrisiteit die werk doen.
00:53
My mother carefully opened the door,
13
53560
4251
My ma maak die deur versigtig oop
00:57
and she loaded the laundry into the machine,
14
57835
3429
en sy laai die wasgoed
in die masjien,
01:02
like this.
15
62295
1192
só...
01:03
And then, when she closed the door,
16
63511
2201
En toe sy die deur toemaak,
01:05
Grandma said, "No, no, no, no!
17
65736
1800
sê Ouma, "Nee, nee, nee.
01:07
Let me! Let me push the button!"
18
67560
3000
Laat ek die knoppie druk."
01:10
(Laughter)
19
70584
1012
01:11
And Grandma pushed the button,
20
71620
2622
En Ouma druk die knoppie
01:14
and she said, "Oh, fantastic!
21
74266
2555
en sy sê, "O, fantasties!
01:16
I want to see this! Give me a chair! Give me a chair! I want to see it,"
22
76845
3762
Ek wil sien! Gee vir my ’n stoel!
Ek wil sien!"
01:20
and she sat down in front of the machine,
23
80631
2731
En sy sit voor die masjien,
01:23
and she watched the entire washing program.
24
83386
3591
en sy kyk die hele wasprogram.
01:27
(Laughter)
25
87001
1002
Sy was betower.
01:28
She was mesmerized.
26
88027
1425
01:29
To my grandmother, the washing machine was a miracle.
27
89878
4428
Vir my ouma,
was die wasmasjien ’n wonderwerk.
01:35
Today, in Sweden and other rich countries,
28
95226
3432
Vandag, in Swede en ander welaf lande,
01:38
people are using so many different machines.
29
98682
3736
gebruik mense
baie verskillende masjiene.
01:42
Look -- the homes are full of machines.
30
102442
1985
Kyk, die huise is vol masjiene.
01:44
I can't even name them all.
31
104451
2085
Ek kan nie eens almal opnoem nie.
01:46
And they also, when they want to travel,
32
106560
3483
En ook, wanneer hulle wil reis,
01:50
they use flying machines
33
110067
2164
gebruik hulle vlieënde masjiene
01:52
that can take them to remote destinations.
34
112255
2668
wat hulle na afgeleë bestemmings neem.
01:54
And yet, in the world,
35
114947
1225
En tog is daar so baie mense
01:56
there are so many people who still heat the water on fire,
36
116196
3784
wat steeds hulle water op ’n vuur verhit,
02:00
and they cook their food on fire.
37
120004
2491
en hul kos oor vuur kook.
02:02
Sometimes they don't even have enough food.
38
122519
2062
Soms het hulle nie eens genoeg kos nie.
02:05
And they live below the poverty line.
39
125231
2305
En hulle lewe onder die broodlyn.
02:07
There are two billion fellow human beings
40
127560
2861
Daar is twee miljard medemense
02:10
who live on less than two dollars a day.
41
130445
2707
wat op minder as $2 ’n dag leef.
02:13
And the richest people over there -- there's one billion people,
42
133176
3135
En die rykste mense daar --
daar's een miljard mense --
02:16
and they live above what I call the "air line" --
43
136335
3338
hulle leef bo, wat ek die "luglyn" noem,
02:19
(Laughter)
44
139697
1017
02:20
because they spend more than 80 dollars a day
45
140738
3445
omdat hulle meer as $80 ’n dag spandeer
02:24
on their consumption.
46
144207
1893
op hulle verbruik.
02:26
But this is just one, two, three billion people,
47
146124
2649
Maar dis slegs drie miljard mense,
02:28
and obviously, there are seven billion people in the world,
48
148797
2791
terwyl daar sewe miljard mense in die wêreld is,
02:31
so there must be one, two, three, four billion people more
49
151612
3473
so daar moet vier miljard mense wees,
02:35
who live in between the poverty and the air line.
50
155109
3178
wat tussen armoede en die luglyn leef.
02:38
They have electricity,
51
158311
1745
Hulle het elektrisiteit, maar die vraag is:
02:40
but the question is: How many have washing machines?
52
160080
2750
Hoeveel het wasmasjiene?
02:43
I've done the scrutiny of market data, and I've found that, indeed,
53
163870
4511
Ek't die data ondersoek,
en gevind, inderdaad,
02:48
the washing machine has penetrated below the air line,
54
168405
3572
dat die wasmasjien tot onder die luglyn deurgedring het,
02:52
and today, there's an additional one billion people out there
55
172001
3253
en vandag is daar ’n addisionele een miljard mense
wat bo die "wasgoedlyn" leef.
02:55
who live above the "wash line."
56
175278
2258
02:57
(Laughter)
57
177560
1976
(Gelag)
02:59
And they consume for more than 40 dollars per day.
58
179969
3636
Hulle verbruik meer as $40 per dag.
03:03
So two billion have access to washing machines.
59
183629
2738
So twee miljard het toegang tot wasmasjiene.
03:06
And the remaining five billion --
60
186391
2927
En die oorblywende vyf miljard,
03:09
how do they wash?
61
189342
1266
hoe was hulle?
03:10
Or, to be more precise,
62
190632
1606
Of, meer presies,
03:12
how do most of the women in the world wash?
63
192262
3347
hoe was die meeste vroue in die wêreld?
03:15
Because it remains the hard work for women to wash.
64
195633
3211
Want dit bly harde werk vir vroue om te was.
03:19
They wash like this: by hand.
65
199589
2061
Hulle was só: met die hand.
03:22
It's hard, time-consuming labor,
66
202698
4297
Dis ’n harde, tydrowende arbeid,
03:27
which they have to do for hours every week.
67
207019
3177
wat hulle vir ure elke week moet doen.
03:30
And sometimes they also have to bring water from far away
68
210220
3149
En soms moet hulle ook water van vêr af bring
03:33
to do the laundry at home,
69
213393
1429
om tuis te was,
03:34
or they have to bring the laundry away to a stream far off.
70
214846
3562
of hulle moet die wasgoed na ’n stroompie vêr weg vat.
03:38
And they want the washing machine.
71
218432
2176
En hulle wil ’n wasmasjien hê.
03:41
They don't want to spend such a large part of their life
72
221187
3653
Hulle wil nie so baie van hulle lewe spandeer
03:44
doing this hard work
73
224864
1363
om harde werk te doen
03:46
with so relatively low productivity.
74
226251
2458
wat relatiewe lae produktiwiteit het nie.
03:49
And there's nothing different in their wish
75
229352
2212
En daar's niks anders aan hulle wens
03:51
than it was for my grandma.
76
231588
1691
as die van my ouma nie.
03:53
Look here, two generations ago in Sweden --
77
233303
2345
Kyk, twee generasies terug in Swede --
03:55
picking water from the stream,
78
235672
1864
skep water by die stroom,
03:57
heating with firewood and washing like that.
79
237560
2845
op die vuur verhit en was soos dit.
04:00
They want the washing machine in exactly the same way.
80
240429
2982
Hulle wil die wasmasjien hê op presies dieselfde manier.
04:03
But when I lecture to environmentally concerned students,
81
243435
3320
Maar wanneer ek ’n lesing aanbied vir omgewingbewuste studente
04:06
they tell me, "No, everybody in the world cannot have cars and washing machines."
82
246779
4103
sê hulle: "Nie almal in die wêreld kan karre en wasmasjiene hê nie."
04:11
How can we tell this woman
83
251830
1329
Hoe kan ons dié vrou vertel
04:13
that she isn't going to have a washing machine?
84
253183
2566
dat sy nie ’n wasmasjien gaan hê nie?
04:15
And then I ask my students -- over the last two years, I've asked --
85
255773
3412
En dan vra ek my studente,
oor die laaste twee jaar:
04:19
"How many of you don't use a car?"
86
259209
2024
"Hoeveel van julle gebruik nie ’n kar nie?"
04:21
And some of them proudly raise their hand and say, "I don't use a car."
87
261257
3841
En somige steek hulle hande trots op
en sê, "Ek gebruik nie ’n kar nie."
04:25
And then I put the really tough question:
88
265560
2331
En dan vra ek die regtig moeilike vraag:
04:27
"How many of you hand-wash your jeans and your bedsheets?"
89
267915
3913
"Hoeveel van julle
was julle jeans en beddegoed per hand?"
04:31
And no one raised their hand.
90
271852
2684
En niemand steek hulle hand op nie.
04:35
Even the hardcore in the green movement use washing machines.
91
275198
4338
Selfs die gehardes in die groenbeweging
gebruik wasmasjiene.
04:39
(Laughter)
92
279560
2141
(Gelag)
04:43
So how come [this is] something that everyone uses
93
283250
2457
So hoekom gebruik almal dit en hulle dink ander sal dit nie stop nie?
04:45
and they think others will not stop it?
94
285731
1887
04:47
What is special with this?
95
287642
1249
Wat is so spesiaal?
04:48
I had to do an analysis about the energy use in the world.
96
288915
2864
Ek moes ’n analise doen oor energieverbruik in die wêreld.
04:51
Here we are.
97
291803
1166
04:52
Look here. You see the seven billion people up there?
98
292993
2516
Hier.
Julle sien die sewe miljard mense bo:
04:55
The air people, the wash people,
99
295533
2003
die lugmense, die wasmense,
04:57
the bulb people and the fire people.
100
297560
2788
die gloeilampmense en die vuurmense.
05:00
One unit like this
101
300372
2017
Een eenheid soos dié
05:02
is an energy unit of fossil fuel -- oil, coal or gas.
102
302413
5123
is ’n fossielbrandstof-eenheid:
olie, steenkool of gas.
05:07
That's what most of the electricity and the energy in the world is.
103
307560
3587
Dis meeste van die elektrisiteit en energie in die wêreld.
05:11
And it's 12 units used in the entire world,
104
311171
3119
Dis 12 eenhede verbruik in die hele wêreld,
05:14
and the richest one billion, they use six of them.
105
314314
2807
en die rykste een miljard gebruik ses daarvan.
05:17
Half of the energy is used by one seventh of the world population.
106
317560
3353
Helfte van die energie word verbruik deur ’n sewende van die bevolking.
05:20
And these ones, who have washing machines
107
320937
2139
En dié wat wasmasjiene het,
05:23
but not a house full of other machines,
108
323100
1967
maar nie ’n huis vol ander masjiene nie,
05:25
they use two.
109
325091
1190
hulle gebruik twee.
05:26
This group uses three, one each.
110
326907
2256
Hierdie groep gebruik drie, een elk.
05:29
And they also have electricity.
111
329789
1572
Hulle't ook elektrisiteit.
05:31
And over there, they don't even use one each.
112
331385
2151
Daar gebruik hulle nie eens een elk nie.
05:33
That makes 12 of them.
113
333560
1321
Dit maak 12 van hulle.
05:35
But the main concern
114
335329
1671
Maar die hoof bekommernis
05:37
for the environmentally interested students -- and they are right --
115
337024
3671
vir die omgewing-belangstellende studente -- en hulle is reg --
05:40
is about the future.
116
340719
1450
is oor die toekoms.
05:43
What are the trends?
117
343154
1166
Wat is die tendense? As hulle net verleng,
05:44
If we just prolong the trends, without any real advanced analysis,
118
344344
3659
sonder enige gevorderde analise, tot 2050,
05:48
to 2050,
119
348027
1167
05:49
there are two things that can increase the energy use:
120
349218
3128
is daar twee dinge wat energieverbruik kan verhoog.
05:52
first, population growth; second, economic growth.
121
352370
2985
Eerste, bevolkingsgroei.
Tweede, ekonomiese groei.
05:55
Population growth will mainly occur among the poorest people here,
122
355957
3466
Bevolkingsgroei sal hoofsaaklik onder die armste mense plaasvind,
05:59
because they have high child mortality
123
359447
1838
want hulle ervaar hoë kindersterftes
06:01
and they have many children per woman.
124
361309
1827
en hulle het baie kinders per vrou.
06:03
And that will get you two extra,
125
363160
1883
Met dit kom twee ekstra,
maar energieverbruik sal nie baie verander nie.
06:05
but that won't change the energy use very much.
126
365067
2232
Wat sal gebeur is ekonomiese groei.
06:07
What will happen is economic growth.
127
367323
2000
06:09
The best of here in the emerging economies --
128
369347
2756
Die mees welaf hier in die opkomende ekonomieë --
06:12
I call them "the New East" --
129
372127
1699
ek noem hulle die Nuwe Ooste --
06:13
they will jump the air line.
130
373850
1686
hulle sal oor die luglyn spring.
06:15
"Wopp!" they will say.
131
375560
1639
"Whap!" sê hulle.
En hulle sal begin om so baie te gebruik soos die Ou Weste reeds gebruik.
06:17
And they will start to use as much as the Old West are doing already.
132
377223
3435
06:20
(Laughter)
133
380682
1076
06:21
And these people, they want the washing machine.
134
381782
2281
En dié mense, hulle wil ’n wasmasjien hê.
Soos ek gesê het: daar gaan hulle.
06:24
I told you. They'll go there.
135
384087
1449
06:25
And they will double their energy use.
136
385560
1830
Hulle energieverbruik sal verdubbel.
06:27
And we hope that the poor people will get into the electric light.
137
387414
3124
En ons hoop dat die arm mense elektriese lig sal kry.
06:30
And they'll get a two-child family without a stop in population growth.
138
390562
3412
Hulle kry twee-kind-families sonder ’n stop in bevolkingsgroei.
06:33
But the total energy consumption will increase to 22 units.
139
393998
3219
Maar die totale energieverbruik
sal verhoog tot 22 eenhede.
06:37
And these 22 units --
140
397241
2802
En dié 22 eenhede --
06:40
still, the richest people use most of them.
141
400067
2585
steeds gebruik die rykstes die meeste.
06:44
So what needs to be done?
142
404122
1375
So wat moet gedoen word?
06:45
Because the risk,
143
405521
1977
Omdat die risiko,
06:47
the high probability of climate change is real.
144
407522
2743
die hoë waarskynlikheid van klimaatsverandering,
06:50
It's real.
145
410677
1404
’n werklikheid is.
06:52
Of course, they must be more energy efficient.
146
412105
2767
Natuurlik moet hulle meer energiedoeltreffend wees.
06:55
They must change their behavior in some way.
147
415776
2114
Hulle moet gedrag verander op ’n manier.
06:57
They must also start to produce green energy,
148
417914
2436
Hulle moet ook begin groen energie produseer,
07:00
much more green energy.
149
420374
1225
baie meer groen energie.
07:01
But until they have the same energy consumption per person,
150
421623
3372
Maar tot hulle dieselfde energieverbruik per persoon het,
07:05
they shouldn't give advice to others --
151
425019
1911
moet hulle nie raad gee aan ander --
07:06
what to do and what not to do.
152
426954
1496
wat om te doen of nie te doen nie.
07:08
(Laughter)
153
428474
1124
07:09
(Applause)
154
429622
1178
(Applous)
07:10
Here, we can get more green energy all over.
155
430824
4745
Hier kan ons meer groen energie kry van orals.
07:15
This is what we hope might happen.
156
435593
1648
Dis wat ons hoop mag gebeur.
07:17
It's a real challenge in the future.
157
437265
1983
Dis ’n werklike toekomsuitdaging.
07:19
But I can assure you that this woman in the favela in Rio,
158
439639
3656
Maar ek verseker julle dat hierdie vrou in die favela in Rio:
07:23
she wants a washing machine.
159
443319
1769
sy wil ’n wasmasjien hê.
07:25
She's very happy about her minister of energy
160
445112
2362
Sy's baie gelukkig met haar minister van energie
07:27
that provided electricity to everyone --
161
447498
1976
wat elektrisiteit vir almal verskaf het --
07:29
so happy that she even voted for her.
162
449498
3577
so gelukkig dat sy vir haar gestem het.
07:33
And she became Dilma Rousseff,
163
453099
1746
En sy word Dilma Rousseff,
07:34
the president-elect of one of the biggest democracies in the world,
164
454869
4180
die pas gekose president
van een van die grootste demokrasieë in die wêreld --
07:39
moving from minister of energy to president.
165
459073
3208
van minister van energie tot president.
07:42
If you have democracy, people will vote for washing machines.
166
462305
3881
As jy ’n demokrasie het,
sal mense stem vir wasmasjiene.
07:46
They love them!
167
466210
1485
Hulle's mal oor hulle.
07:47
(Laughter)
168
467719
1266
07:49
And what's the magic with them?
169
469496
1784
En wat is die wonder hiervan?
07:51
My mother explained the magic with this machine
170
471304
3232
My ma't die wonder van die masjien verduidelik
07:54
the very, very first day.
171
474560
2477
die heel, heel eerste dag.
07:57
She said, "Now, Hans.
172
477061
1510
Sy't gesê, "Nou Hans,
07:59
We have loaded the laundry.
173
479535
1485
ons het die wasgoed gelaai.
08:01
The machine will make the work.
174
481044
1717
Die masjien sal die werk doen.
08:02
And now we can go to the library."
175
482785
2141
En nou kan ons biblioteek toe gaan."
08:05
Because this is the magic: you load the laundry,
176
485419
2941
Want dis die wonder:
jy doen die wasgoed,
08:08
and what do you get out of the machine?
177
488384
2282
en wat kry jy uit die masjien?
08:10
You get books out of the machines,
178
490690
3301
Jy kry boeke uit die masjien,
08:14
children's books.
179
494015
1152
kinderboeke.
08:15
And mother got time to read for me.
180
495191
2345
My ma't tyd gehad om vir my te lees.
08:17
She loved this.
181
497560
1165
Sy was mal daaroor. Ek kry die "ABC's."
08:18
I got the "ABC's" -- this is why I started my career as a professor,
182
498749
3787
Dis waar my beroep as professor begin het,
08:22
when my mother had time to read for me.
183
502560
2140
toe my ma tyd gehad het om vir my te lees.
08:24
And she also got books for herself.
184
504724
1812
Sy't ook boeke vir haarself gekry.
08:26
She managed to study English and learn that as a foreign language.
185
506560
3755
Sy't dit reggekry om Engels te studeer
en dit te leer as ’n vreemde taal.
08:30
And she read so many novels,
186
510339
2307
En sy lees soveel romans,
08:32
so many different novels here.
187
512670
2440
so baie verskillendes.
08:35
And we really, we really loved this machine.
188
515134
3666
En ons hou baie, baie van die masjien.
08:38
(Laughter)
189
518824
1138
08:39
And what we said, my mother and me,
190
519986
2550
En wat my ma en ek gesê het, is:
08:42
"Thank you, industrialization.
191
522560
2472
"Dankie, industrialisasie.
08:45
Thank you, steel mill.
192
525560
1934
Dankie, staalplettery.
08:47
Thank you, power station.
193
527518
1794
Dankie, kragstasie.
08:49
And thank you, chemical processing industry
194
529336
3024
En dankie, chemiese industrie
08:52
that gave us time to read books."
195
532384
2008
wat ons tyd gegee het om boeke te lees."
08:54
Thank you very much.
196
534416
1217
Baie dankie.
08:55
(Laughter)
197
535657
1082
08:56
(Applause)
198
536763
7000
(Applous)
About this site

Hierdie webwerf sal jou bekendstel aan YouTube-video's wat nuttig is om Engels te leer. Jy sal Engelse lesse sien wat deur vooraanstaande onderwysers van regoor die wêreld aangebied word. Dubbelklik op die Engelse onderskrifte wat op elke videobladsy vertoon word om die video van daar af te speel. Die onderskrifte rol in sinchronisasie met die video-afspeel. As jy enige kommentaar of versoeke het, kontak ons asseblief deur hierdie kontakvorm te gebruik.

https://forms.gle/WvT1wiN1qDtmnspy7