Alisa Miller: The news about the news

132,081 views ・ 2008-05-21

TED


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譯者: Stephanie Shi-Huei Weng 審譯者: Feiman Luk
00:18
How does the news shape the way we see the world?
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新聞如何影響我們眼中的世界?
00:22
Here's the world based on the way it looks -- based on landmass.
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這世界地圖是根據大陸的分佈而編成的。
00:28
And here's how news shapes what Americans see.
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而這是美國人在新聞報導的影響下所看到的世界。
00:35
This map -- (Applause) -- this map shows the number of seconds
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這張地圖--(掌聲)--在這張地圖上所顯示的秒數
00:49
that American network and cable news organizations dedicated to news stories,
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代表在2007年二月—— 剛好是一年前,
00:54
by country, in February of 2007 -- just one year ago.
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美國新聞網和有線新聞依國家來計算所報導的新聞秒數。
00:59
Now, this was a month when North Korea agreed to dismantle its nuclear facilities.
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同月,北韓同意要拆除核武設施。
01:05
There was massive flooding in Indonesia.
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同時,印尼在經歷洪災。
01:09
And in Paris, the IPCC released its study confirming man's impact on global warming.
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而在巴黎,IPCC(跨政府氣候變化委員會)証實了人類活動對於全球暖化的影響。
01:17
The U.S. accounted for 79 percent of total news coverage.
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美國的新聞報導佔了全球的百分之七十九。
01:22
And when we take out the U.S. and look at the remaining 21 percent,
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撇除美國的新聞報導, 我們在餘下的百分之二十一可看到
01:27
we see a lot of Iraq -- that's that big green thing there -- and little else.
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很大部份——就是這綠色的一大塊和其它綠色小塊, 都是伊拉克的新聞報導。
01:34
The combined coverage of Russia, China and India, for example, reached just one percent.
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而這是俄國,中國和印度的綜合新聞報導,加起來只佔了百分之一。
01:42
When we analyzed all the news stories and removed just one story,
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除了一則新聞以外,如果我們分析所有新聞,
01:48
here's how the world looked.
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世界看起來就是這樣的。
01:50
What was that story? The death of Anna Nicole Smith.
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而那一則新聞是什麼呢? 是女星安娜‧妮可‧史密斯(Anna Nicole Smith)的死亡
01:57
This story eclipsed every country except Iraq,
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這則新聞使得除了伊拉克以外的所有國家相形失色。
02:00
and received 10 times the coverage of the IPCC report.
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而有關她的新聞報導比IPCC的報導多上十倍。
02:06
And the cycle continues;
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這樣的情形不只一例;
02:08
as we all know, Britney has loomed pretty large lately.
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大家都會知道,小甜甜布蘭妮最近成了大紅人。
02:11
So, why don't we hear more about the world?
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那為什麼我們所得知的全球新聞如此有限呢?
02:14
One reason is that news networks have reduced the number of their foreign bureaus by half.
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其中一個原因是新聞網已把他們駐外辦公室的人力減半
02:20
Aside from one-person ABC mini-bureaus in Nairobi, New Delhi and Mumbai,
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ABC新聞網在奈洛比,新德里和孟買只由一個一人辦公室負責。
02:29
there are no network news bureaus in all of Africa, India or South America
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在非洲,印度和南美洲則連一個辦公室都沒有。
02:37
-- places that are home to more than two billion people.
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這些地方的人口加起來超過二十億。
02:43
The reality is that covering Britney is cheaper.
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事實上,這也是因為報導布蘭妮的花費較低。
02:48
And this lack of global coverage is all the more disturbing
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當你發現人們以什麼途徑
02:51
when we see where people go for news.
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來取得這些不足的全球性新聞,情況會變得更加惱人。
02:54
Local TV news looms large,
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本地電視台的新聞報導都佔大部分,
02:58
and unfortunately only dedicates 12 percent of its coverage to international news.
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不幸的是,在它們的新聞報導當中,只有百分之十二是國際新聞。
03:03
And what about the web?
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那在網路上又怎樣呢?
03:05
The most popular news sites don't do much better.
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就連最熱門的新聞網站也好不到哪裡去。
03:09
Last year, Pew and the Colombia J-School analyzed the 14,000 stories
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去年,皮尤中心以及哥倫比亞新聞學院分析了一萬四千則新聞
03:14
that appeared on Google News' front page.
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這些新聞都曾經出現在GOOGLE新聞首頁。
03:17
And they, in fact, covered the same 24 news events.
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事實上,這些報導來來去去都只是圍繞著24個新聞項目。
03:21
Similarly, a study in e-content showed that much of global news from U.S. news creators
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而一個有關網路新聞的研究指出,大部分美國媒體報導的國際新聞
03:26
is recycled stories from the AP wire services and Reuters,
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都在重覆美聯社和路透社的報導,
03:30
and don't put things into a context that people can understand their connection to it.
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但他們所用的手法令人察覺不到。
03:34
So, if you put it all together, this could help explain why today's college graduates,
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若你聯繫這幾點, 就可以解釋為何這一代的大學畢業生
03:39
as well as less educated Americans,
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和教育程度較低的美國人
03:41
know less about the world than their counterparts did 20 years ago.
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對國際事務的了解,比二十年前的人們還要少。
03:44
And if you think it's simply because we are not interested,
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如果你認為,這純粹是因為他們不熱衷國際事務,
03:50
you would be wrong.
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你就錯了。
03:52
In recent years, Americans who say they closely follow global news most of the time
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近幾年,聲稱自己時常留意國際新聞的美國人
03:59
grew to over 50 percent.
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增加了超過百分之五十。
04:01
The real question: is this distorted worldview what we want for Americans
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我們面對的真正問題是:在這漸趨緊密的地球村裡,
04:09
in our increasingly interconnected world?
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我們會希望美國人眼中都是這種被扭曲了的世界觀嗎?
04:12
I know we can do better.
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我知道我們可以做得更好,謝謝。
04:15
And can we afford not to? Thank you.
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我知道我們可以做得更好,謝謝。
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