Memory Banda: A Warrior’s Cry Against Child Marriage | TED

138,983 views ・ 2015-07-07

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Translator: Iria Martínez Teijeiro Reviewer: Xosé María Moreno
00:13
I'll begin today
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Gustaríame comezar
00:14
by sharing a poem
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cun poema
00:16
written by my friend from Malawi,
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escrito por unha amiga de Malawi
00:20
Eileen Piri.
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que se chama Eileen Piri.
00:22
Eileen is only 13 years old,
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Eileen só ten 13 anos
00:25
but when we were going through the collection of poetry that we wrote,
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pero, mentres revisabamos a colección de poesía que escribimos,
00:31
I found her poem so interesting,
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o seu poema pareceume moi interesante,
00:34
so motivating.
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verdadeiramente inspirador.
00:36
So I'll read it to you.
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Así que vóullelo ler.
00:38
She entitled her poem "I'll Marry When I Want."
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Titúlase "Penso casar cando queira".
00:42
(Laughter)
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(Risos)
00:45
"I'll marry when I want.
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"Penso casar cando queira.
00:47
My mother can't force me to marry.
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Miña nai non pode casarme á forza.
00:52
My father cannot force me to marry.
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Meu pai non pode casarme á forza.
00:57
My uncle, my aunt,
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Nin meu tío, nin miña tía,
01:00
my brother or sister,
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nin meu irmán, nin miña irmá,
01:02
cannot force me to marry.
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poden casarme á forza.
01:05
No one in the world
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Ninguén no mundo
01:08
can force me to marry.
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me pode casar á forza.
01:11
I'll marry when I want.
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Casarei cando eu queira.
01:14
Even if you beat me,
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Aínda que batas en min,
01:17
even if you chase me away,
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mesmo se corres tras min,
01:19
even if you do anything bad to me,
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fágasme o que me fagas,
01:22
I'll marry when I want.
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penso casar cando queira.
01:26
I'll marry when I want,
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Casarei cando eu queira,
01:29
but not before I am well educated,
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pero non antes de obter unha boa educación
01:33
and not before I am all grown up.
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ou de rematar de medrar de todo.
01:37
I'll marry when I want."
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Penso casar cando queira."
01:40
This poem might seem odd,
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Este poema pode resultar algo raro
01:43
written by a 13-year-old girl,
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vindo dunha rapaciña de 13 anos,
01:47
but where I and Eileen come from,
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pero de aló de onde nós vimos
01:52
this poem, which I have just read to you,
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o poema que lles acabo de ler
01:55
is a warrior's cry.
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é todo un grito de guerra.
01:59
I am from Malawi.
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Son de Malawi,
02:03
Malawi is one of the poorest countries,
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un dos países máis pobres do mundo,
02:07
very poor,
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realmente pobre,
02:09
where gender equality is questionable.
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onde a igualdade de xénero é cuestionable.
02:14
Growing up in that country,
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Ó criarme nese país.
02:16
I couldn't make my own choices in life.
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non puiden decidir sobre a miña vida.
02:20
I couldn't even explore
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Non se me permitía nin sequera considerar
02:22
personal opportunities in life.
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as oportunidades que se me presentaban.
02:25
I will tell you a story
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Voulles contar a historia
02:27
of two different girls,
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de dúas rapazas moi diferentes,
02:30
two beautiful girls.
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dúas nenas fermosas,
02:34
These girls grew up
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que medraron
02:36
under the same roof.
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baixo o mesmo teito.
02:38
They were eating the same food.
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Comían os mesmos pratos.
02:41
Sometimes, they would share clothes,
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Ás veces, compartían roupa
02:44
and even shoes.
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e ata calzado.
02:46
But their lives ended up differently,
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Mais as súas vidas remataron seguindo
02:51
in two different paths.
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dous camiños ben distintos.
02:55
The other girl is my little sister.
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A outra rapaza é miña irmá pequena.
02:58
My little sister was only 11 years old
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Só tiña 11 anos
03:03
when she got pregnant.
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cando quedou embarazada.
03:08
It's a hurtful thing.
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Que cousa tan dolorosa!
03:13
Not only did it hurt her, even me.
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Non só lle doeu a ela: tamén a min.
03:16
I was going through a hard time as well.
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Eu tampouco o estaba a ter fácil.
03:20
As it is in my culture,
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Como é tradición na miña cultura,
03:23
once you reach puberty stage,
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ó acadar a puberdade
03:26
you are supposed to go to initiation camps.
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unha debe marchar a un campamento de iniciación.
03:30
In these initiation camps,
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Nestes campamentos
03:33
you are taught how to sexually please a man.
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apréndenche a satisfacer sexualmente os homes.
03:36
There is this special day,
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Hai un día especial,
03:38
which they call "Very Special Day"
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chámanlle o "Día moi especial",
03:41
where a man who is hired by the community
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no que un home contratado pola comunidade
03:44
comes to the camp
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vén ó campamento
03:47
and sleeps with the little girls.
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e se deita coas meniñas.
03:51
Imagine the trauma that these young girls
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Imaxinen o trauma co que estas rapazas
03:53
go through every day.
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teñen que lidar cada día.
03:58
Most girls end up pregnant.
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A maior parte delas quedan embarazadas.
04:01
They even contract HIV and AIDS
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Tamén contraen o VIH e a SIDA,
04:04
and other sexually transmitted diseases.
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e outras enfermidades de transmisión sexual.
04:07
For my little sister, she ended up being pregnant.
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A miña irmá tocoulle embarazo.
04:12
Today, she's only 16 years old
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Hoxe ten 16 anos
04:16
and she has three children.
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e xa leva 3 bebés.
04:19
Her first marriage did not survive,
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O seu primeiro matrimonio non durou,
04:23
nor did her second marriage.
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tampouco o segundo.
04:26
On the other side, there is this girl.
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E logo está estoutra rapaza,
04:31
She's amazing.
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que é incrible.
04:33
(Laughter)
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(Risos)
04:35
(Applause)
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(Aplausos)
04:39
I call her amazing because she is.
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E digo que é incrible porque o é.
04:42
She's very fabulous.
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É unha rapaza marabillosa.
04:45
That girl is me. (Laughter)
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Esa rapaza son eu.
(Risos)
04:48
When I was 13 years old,
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Cando tiña 13 anos
04:51
I was told, you are grown up,
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dixéronme que xa era grande,
04:55
you have now reached of age,
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que xa tiña idade
04:58
you're supposed to go to the initiation camp.
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de ir ó campamento de iniciación e que debía ir.
05:01
I was like, "What?
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Eu dixen: "Que?
05:04
I'm not going to go to the initiation camps."
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Non penso ir ós campamentos de iniciación".
05:10
You know what the women said to me?
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Saben que me dixo aquela muller?
05:13
"You are a stupid girl. Stubborn.
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"Que rapaza tan parva e teimuda!
05:16
You do not respect the traditions of our society, of our community."
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Non respectas as tradicións da nosa sociedade, da nosa comunidade."
05:24
I said no because I knew where I was going.
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Eu díxenlle que non porque sabía o que me agardaba.
05:27
I knew what I wanted in life.
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Sabía o que quería na vida.
05:31
I had a lot of dreams as a young girl.
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Xa de nova tiña soños.
05:36
I wanted to get well educated,
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Quería acadar unha boa formación
05:39
to find a decent job in the future.
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para máis adiante atopar un traballo decente.
05:42
I was imagining myself as a lawyer,
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Imaxinábame de avogada,
05:44
seated on that big chair.
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sentada nunha cadeira de oficina desas.
05:46
Those were the imaginations that
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Iso era ó que aspiraba,
05:49
were going through my mind every day.
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o que me pasaba pola cabeza tódolos días.
05:52
And I knew that one day,
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Sabía que algún día
05:54
I would contribute something, a little something to my community.
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tería algo que achegar, por pouco que fora, á miña comunidade.
05:58
But every day after refusing,
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Pero, dende que rexeitara o campamento,
06:01
women would tell me,
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as mulleres non paraban de dicirme
06:03
"Look at you, you're all grown up. Your little sister has a baby.
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"Mira para aí, túa irmá pequena xa ten un bebé.
06:06
What about you?"
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E ti, que xa es adulta, que?"
06:08
That was the music that I was hearing every day,
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Esa era a cantarela que tiña que aturar día tras día
06:13
and that is the music that girls hear every day
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e a cantarela que as rapazas aturan tódolos días
06:16
when they don't do something that the community needs them to do.
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cando deciden non facer algo que a comunidade precisa que fagan.
06:23
When I compared the two stories between me and my sister,
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Cando comparei as dúas historias, a de miña irmá e a miña,
06:27
I said, "Why can't I do something?
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pregunteime: "Por que non podo facer nada?
06:32
Why can't I change something that has happened for a long time
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Por que non podo mudar algo que leva pasando tanto tempo
06:37
in our community?"
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na nosa comunidade?"
06:39
That was when I called other girls
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Aí foi cando decidín chamar outras rapazas
06:42
just like my sister, who have children,
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coma miña irmá, rapazas con fillos
06:44
who have been in class but they have forgotten how to read and write.
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que foran á escola pero que xa non lembraban como se lía e escribía.
06:48
I said, "Come on, we can remind each other
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Díxenlles: "Veña, podemos lembrar mutuamente
06:50
how to read and write again,
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como se le e escribe outra vez,
06:52
how to hold the pen, how to read, to hold the book."
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como se agarra o bolígrafo, como se le, como se suxeita o libro".
06:56
It was a great time I had with them.
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Foi unha época estupenda.
06:59
Nor did I just learn a little about them,
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Non só aprendín un pouquiño sobre elas,
07:04
but they were able to tell me their personal stories,
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senón que me chegaron a contar as súas historias persoais,
07:07
what they were facing every day
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polo que estaban pasando
07:09
as young mothers.
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como nais adolescentes.
07:12
That was when I was like,
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Entón pensei:
07:14
'Why can't we take all these things that are happening to us
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"Por que non collemos todo isto que nos está a pasar
07:17
and present them and tell our mothers, our traditional leaders,
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e presentámolo, e dicímoslles ás nosas nais e ós líderes relixiosos
07:21
that these are the wrong things?"
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que estas cousas están mal?"
07:23
It was a scary thing to do,
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Tiñamos medo de facelo
07:25
because these traditional leaders,
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porque os líderes da nosa comunidade
07:27
they are already accustomed to the things
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xa están afeitos ás cousas
07:30
that have been there for ages.
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que levan séculos pasando.
07:32
A hard thing to change,
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Non sería doado cambialas
07:34
but a good thing to try.
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pero pagaba a pena intentalo.
07:37
So we tried.
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E así o fixemos.
07:39
It was very hard, but we pushed.
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Foi moi difícil, pero insistimos.
07:42
And I'm here to say that in my community,
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E hoxe estou aquí para contar que a miña
07:45
it was the first community after girls
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foi a primeira comunidade na que as rapazas
07:47
pushed so hard to our traditional leader,
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presionaron tanto o noso líder relixioso
07:51
and our leader stood up for us and said no girl has to be married
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que este rematou por apoiarnos e declarar que ningunha rapaza tiña que casar
07:55
before the age of 18.
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ata acadar os 18 anos de idade.
07:57
(Applause)
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(Aplauso)
08:05
In my community,
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A miña comunidade
08:07
that was the first time a community,
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foi a primeira
08:09
they had to call the bylaws,
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en cambiar o regulamento,
08:12
the first bylaw that protected girls
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en crear unha lei que protexe as rapazas
08:15
in our community.
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da comunidade.
08:18
We did not stop there.
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Mais non paramos aí.
08:19
We forged ahead.
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Seguimos adiante.
08:22
We were determined to fight for girls not just in my community,
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Estabamos decididas a loitar polas mozas doutras comunidades,
08:26
but even in other communities.
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non só da nosa.
08:29
When the child marriage bill was being presented in February,
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En febreiro, cando se presentou o proxecto de lei sobre o matrimonio infantil,
08:33
we were there at the Parliament house.
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nós estabamos no parlamento.
08:37
Every day, when the members of Parliament were entering,
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Tódolos días, mentres entraban os membros do parlamento,
08:41
we were telling them, "Would you please support the bill?"
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nós iámoslles dicindo: "Por favor, apoie o proxecto de lei!"
08:44
And we don't have much technology like here,
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Non contamos con tanta tecnoloxía coma aquí,
08:49
but we have our small phones.
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pero tiñamos os nosos teléfonos móbiles,
08:51
So we said, "Why can't we get their numbers and text them?"
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así que pensamos: "Por que non conseguimos os seus números e lles escribimos?"
08:56
So we did that. It was a good thing.
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E fixémolo. Saiu ben.
08:59
(Applause)
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(Aplauso)
09:01
So when the bill passed, we texted them back,
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Así que, cando se aprobou o proxecto, volvémoslles escribir:
09:04
"Thank you for supporting the bill."
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"Grazas por apoiaren o proxecto de lei".
09:06
(Laughter)
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(Risos)
09:07
And when the bill was signed by the president,
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E, cando o presidente firmou o proxecto
09:11
making it into law, it was a plus.
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e promulgou a lei, obtivemos outro éxito.
09:14
Now, in Malawi, 18 is the legal marriage age, from 15 to 18.
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Agora a idade legal para casar en Malawi é 18. Pasamos dos 15 ós 18 anos.
09:20
(Applause)
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(Aplauso)
09:26
It's a good thing to know that the bill passed,
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Alégrame que se aprobase a lei,
09:30
but let me tell you this:
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pero eu pregúntolles unha cousa:
09:33
There are countries where 18 is the legal marriage age,
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hai países onde a idade legal para casar son os 18 anos,
09:37
but don't we hear cries of women and girls every day?
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e aínda así, non ouvimos choros de mulleres e nenas a diario?
09:41
Every day, girls' lives are being wasted away.
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Tódolos días se botan a perder vidas de rapazas.
09:47
This is high time for leaders to honor their commitment.
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Vai sendo hora de que os líderes cumpran a súa palabra.
09:53
In honoring this commitment,
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Cumprir a súa palabra
09:56
it means keeping girls' issues at heart every time.
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significa pensar nos problemas das rapazas todo o tempo.
10:01
We don't have to be subjected as second,
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Non temos que ser cidadás de segunda.
10:05
but they have to know that women, as we are in this room,
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Teñen que saber que as mulleres como as que estamos nesta sala
10:09
we are not just women, we are not just girls,
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non somos simples mulleres, non somos simples rapazas:
10:13
we are extraordinary.
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somos extraordinarias.
10:14
We can do more.
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Podemos facer máis.
10:16
And another thing for Malawi,
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Outro asunto preocupante en Malawi,
10:19
and not just Malawi but other countries:
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e non só en Malawi, senón noutros países,
10:22
The laws which are there,
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é que as leis,
10:26
you know how a law is not a law until it is enforced?
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ben se sabe que unha lei non é lei ata que non se fai cumprir, non si?
10:32
The law which has just recently passed
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Esta lei que se acaba de aprobar
10:35
and the laws that in other countries have been there,
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e as deste tipo noutros países
10:38
they need to be publicized at the local level,
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precisan ser divulgadas a nivel local,
10:42
at the community level,
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ó nivel das comunidades,
10:44
where girls' issues are very striking.
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onde as rapazas sofren estes problemas.
10:49
Girls face issues, difficult issues, at the community level every day.
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As mozas teñen que enfrontarse diariamente a estas dificultades nas súas comunidades.
10:55
So if these young girls know that there are laws that protect them,
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Pero, se saben que hai leis que as protexen,
11:00
they will be able to stand up and defend themselves
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poderán dicir que non e defenderse soas,
11:03
because they will know that there is a law that protects them.
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sabendo que hai unha lei que as apoia.
11:09
And another thing I would say is that
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Outra cousa que quería dicir é que
11:13
girls' voices and women's voices
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a voz das mozas e das mulleres
11:17
are beautiful, they are there,
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é fermosa e está aí,
11:20
but we cannot do this alone.
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pero non podemos facer isto soas.
11:23
Male advocates, they have to jump in,
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Precisamos homes aliados que se involucren
11:26
to step in and work together.
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e estean dispostos a traballar connosco.
11:28
It's a collective work.
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Require un esforzo colectivo.
11:31
What we need is what girls elsewhere need:
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O que precisamos é o que precisan o resto de mozas:
11:33
good education, and above all, not to marry whilst 11.
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unha boa educación e, sobre todo, non ter que casar con 11 anos.
11:42
And furthermore,
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É máis,
11:44
I know that together,
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sei que xuntos
11:48
we can transform the legal,
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podemos mudar o marco legal,
11:51
the cultural and political framework
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político e cultural
11:55
that denies girls of their rights.
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que lles nega ás rapazas os seus dereitos.
11:59
I am standing here today
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Hoxe estou aquí
12:04
and declaring that we can end child marriage in a generation.
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para declarar que podemos acabar co matrimonio infantil nunha xeración.
12:12
This is the moment
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É hora
12:14
where a girl and a girl, and millions of girls worldwide,
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de que millóns de rapazas no mundo
12:19
will be able to say,
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sexan quen de dicir:
12:21
"I will marry when I want."
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"Penso casar cando queira".
12:25
(Applause)
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(Aplauso)
12:35
Thank you. (Applause)
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Grazas. (Aplauso)
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