An ultra-low-cost college degree | Shai Reshef

4,880,823 views ・ 2014-08-04

TED


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Translator: Herbert Kinoti Reviewer: Joachim Mangilima
Ningependa kuwashirikisha
00:13
I would like to share with you a new model of higher education,
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muundo mpya wa helimu ya juu
00:17
a model that, once expanded,
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muundo ambao ukipanuliwa
00:20
can enhance the collective intelligence
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unaweza ukaongeza akili ya pamoja
00:22
of millions of creative and motivated individuals
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ya mamilioni ya watu binafsi walio na motisha na ubunifu
ambao vinginevyo wange achwa nyuma.
00:27
that otherwise would be left behind.
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tazama ulimwengu
00:30
Look at the world.
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chagua mahali na upaangazie
00:32
Pick a place and focus on it.
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00:34
You will find humans chasing higher education.
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utapata wanadamu wakikimbizana na elimu
ebu tukutane na wengine wao
00:39
Let's meet some of them.
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Patrick
00:41
Patrick.
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00:42
Patrick was born in Liberia to a family of 20 children.
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Patrick alizaliwa Liberia
kwa familia ya watoto ishirini
Wakati wa vita vya wenyewe kwa wenyewe, yeye na familia yake walilazimika
00:48
During the civil war,
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00:50
he and his family were forced to flee to Nigeria.
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kukimbilia Nigeria.
00:54
There, in spite of his situation,
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huko licha ya hali yake,
00:57
he graduated high school with nearly perfect grades.
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alihitimu sekondari kwa karibu alama kamili.
01:01
He wanted to continue to higher education,
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Alitaka kuendelea na elimu ya juu
01:04
but due to his family living on the poverty line,
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lakini kutokana na familia yake
kuishi katika mstari wa umaskini
01:07
he was soon sent to South Africa
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haikuchukua mda, akatumwa Afrika Kusini
kufanya kazi na kutuma fedha nyumbani
01:10
to work and send back money to feed his family.
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kulisha familia yake.
01:15
Patrick never gave up his dream of higher education.
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Patrick hakuiacha ndoto ya elimu ya juu.
01:18
Late at night, after work,
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usiku wa manane, baada ya kazi
01:21
he surfed the net, looking for ways to study.
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alipekua mtandao akitafuta njia za kusoma.
01:25
Meet Debbie.
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Kutana na Debbie.
Debbie anatoka Florida.
01:27
Debbie is from Florida.
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01:29
Her parents didn't go to college, and neither did any of her siblings.
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Wazazi wake hawakuenda chuo,
wala yeyote wa ndugu zake.
01:34
Debbie has worked all her life,
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Debbie amefanya kazi maisha yake yote,
01:38
pays taxes, supports herself month to month,
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hulipa kodi, na kujimudu mwezi kwa mwezi,
01:41
proud of the American dream,
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akijivunia ndoto ya Marekani,
01:44
a dream that just won't be complete without higher education.
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ndoto ambayo haiwezi ikawa kamili
bila elimu ya juu.
01:48
But Debbie doesn't have the savings for higher education.
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Lakini Debbie hajaweka akiba
ya elimu ya juu.
01:52
She can't pay the tuition.
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hawezi kulipia masomo,
01:54
Neither could she leave work.
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wala kuweza kuacha kazi.
Kutana na Wael.
01:58
Meet Wael.
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01:59
Wael is from Syria.
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Wael ni mkaaji wa Syria.
02:01
He's experiencing firsthand
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anapitia ana kwa ana
02:05
the misery, fear and failure imposed on his country.
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taabu, hofu na kushindwa
zilizowekewa nchi yake.
02:10
He's a big believer in education.
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Anaamini sana kwa elimu.
02:13
He knew that if he could find an opportunity for higher education,
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Alijua kwamba akipata fursa
ya elimu ya juu,
02:17
an opportunity to get ahead of the rest,
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fursa ya kutangulia wengine,
ana nafasi nzuri ya kuishi
02:20
he has a better chance to survive in a world turned upside down.
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katika dunia iliogeuka kichwa chini.
02:26
The higher education system
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Mfumo wa elimu ya juu
02:29
failed Patrick, Debbie and Wael,
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ulifeli Patrick, Debbie na Wael,
02:32
exactly as it is failing millions of potential students --
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jinsi tu inavyofeli
mamilioni ya wanafunzi
02:37
millions that graduate high school,
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mamilioni waliohitimu shule za sekondari
02:40
millions that are qualified for higher education,
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mamilioni ambao wamefuzu elimu ya juu
02:43
millions that want to study yet cannot access it for various reasons.
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mamilioni wanaotaka kusoma
bali hawawezi wakapata kwa sababu tofauti.
02:49
First: financial.
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Kwanza, za fedha.
02:52
Universities are expensive; we all know it.
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Vyuo vikuu ni ghali. sote twajua
02:55
In large parts of the world,
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Maeneo kubwa ulimwenguni
02:57
higher education is unattainable for an average citizen.
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elimu ya juu haiwezekani
kwa raia wa kawaida.
03:02
This is probably the biggest problem facing our society.
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Hii ndio pengine shida kubwa
inayokumba jamii yetu
03:06
Higher education stopped being a right for all
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elimu ya juu ilikoma kuwa haki kwa wote
03:10
and became a privilege for the few.
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ikawa teule kwa wachache.
03:13
Second: cultural.
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Pili, tamaduni.
wanafunzi waliohitimu elimu ya juu,
03:18
Students who are qualified for higher education
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03:20
can afford -- want to study -- cannot,
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wanaojimudu, wanataka masomo, hawawezi
03:24
because it is not decent, it is not a place for a woman.
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Kwa sababu haiheshimiki,
si mahali pa mwanamke.
Hii ndio taswira ya mamia ya wanawake
03:31
This is the story of countless women in Africa, for example,
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Afrika, Kwa mfano,
03:35
prevented from higher education because of cultural barriers.
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Waliozuiliwa kwa elimu ya juu
kwa sababu ya kinga za tamaduni.
03:39
And here comes the third reason:
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Na hapa ni sababu ya tatu:
03:42
UNESCO stated that in 2025,
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UNESCO ilisema kuwa mwakani 2025,
03:45
100 million students will be deprived of higher education,
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wanafunzi milioni mia moja
watanyimwa elimu ya juu
03:51
simply because there will not be enough seats to accommodate them,
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kwa sababu tu, ya kutokua na viti tosha
kuwapa malazi, kukidhi mahitaji.
03:56
to meet the demand.
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03:58
They will take a placement test, they will pass it,
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Watafanya mtihani wa usajili,
wataupita,
04:01
but they still won't have access, because there are no places available.
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lakini bado hawatapata kuingia
kwa sababu hakuna nafasi zilizoko
04:07
These are the reasons I founded University of the People,
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Hizi ndizo sababu
Nilianzisha Chuo kikuu cha watu,
si cha faida, na bila malezi,
04:12
a nonprofit, tuition-free, degree-granting university
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Chuo kinachopeana shahada ya digrii
kupeana mbadala,
04:17
to give an alternative,
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04:18
to create an alternative, to those who have no other;
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kujenga mbadala kwa wasio na mwingine
04:22
an alternative that will be affordable and scalable,
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mbadala ulio nafuu
na wenye kipimo
04:27
an alternative that will disrupt the current education system,
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mbadala utakao koroga
mfumo wa elimu wa sasa
04:33
and open the gates to higher education for every qualified student
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ufungue milango ya elimu ya juu
kwa mwanafunzi yeyote aliyehitimu
04:37
regardless of what they earn, where they live,
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bila kujali pato lao, wala wanakoishi,
04:42
or what society says about them.
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ama jamii inavyonena kuwahusu.
04:45
Patrick, Debbie and Wael
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Patrick, Debbie na Wael
04:47
are only three examples out of the 1,700 accepted students
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ni mifano tatu tu
kati ya wanafunzi 1,700 waliokubaliwa
04:51
from 143 countries.
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kutoka nchi 143.
Sisi - (Makofi) - Asanteni.
04:55
(Applause)
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04:56
Thank you.
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04:58
(Applause)
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05:00
We didn't need to reinvent the wheel.
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Hatukuitaji kuibuka na gurudumu jipya.
05:02
We just looked at what wasn't working
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Tuliangalia tu ni kipi kilikuwa hakifaulu
05:04
and used the amazing power of the Internet
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na kutumia nguvu ya ajabu ya intaneti
05:07
to get around it.
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kukizingira.
05:09
We set out to build a model
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Tuliamua kujenga muundo
05:12
that will cut down almost entirely the cost of higher education.
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utakao punguza kwa kiwango kikubwa
gharama ya elimu ya juu
05:17
And that's how we did it.
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na hivyo ndivyo tulifanya.
05:19
First, bricks and mortar cost money.
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Kwanza, matofali na chokaa ni gharama.
Vyuo vikuu vina matumizi
05:23
Universities have expenses that virtual universities don't.
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ambayo vyuo vikuu vya mtandao havina.
05:28
We don't need to pass these expenses on to our students.
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Hatuitaji kupasha gharama hizi
kwa wanafunzi wetu.
Hazipo.
05:32
They don't exist.
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05:33
We also don't need to worry about capacity.
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Pia hatufai kubabaishwa na uwezo.
05:36
There are no limits of seats in virtual university.
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hakuna mipaka ya viti
kwa vyuo vikuu vya mtandao.
05:40
Actually, nobody needs to stand at the back of the lecture hall.
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Hakika, hakuna anayeitaji kusimama
nyuma ya ukumbi.
05:45
Textbooks are also something our students don't need to buy.
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Vitabu vya kiada pia ni kitu
wanafunzi wetu hawaitaji kununua.
05:49
By using open educational resources
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Kwa kutumia raisilimali za elimu ya wazi
05:52
and the generosity of professors
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na ukarimu wa maprofesa
05:55
who are putting their material up free and accessible,
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wanaoweka nyenzo zao
bure na zinapatikana,
05:59
we don't need to send our students to buy textbooks.
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Hatuitaji kutuma wanafunzi wetu kununua vitabu vya kiada,
06:02
All of our materials come free.
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nyenzo zetu zote zinakuja bure
06:05
Even professors,
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hata maprofesa,
06:07
the most expensive line in any university balance sheet,
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Ule mustari ghali kabisa kwa mizania ya chuo kikuu chochote,
06:11
come free to our students.
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huja bure kwa wanafunzi wetu,
06:12
Over 3,000 of them,
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zaidi ya 3,000 yao
06:15
including presidents, vice chancellors, professors and academic advisers
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wakiwemo Marais, makamu wa machancellor,
maprofesa na washauri wa kitaaluma
06:21
from top universities such as NYU, Yale, Berkeley and Oxford,
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kutoka vyuo vikuu kama vile NYU,
Yale, Berkely, na Oxford,
06:27
came on board to help our students.
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wakajiunga nasi kuwasaidia wanafunzi wetu.
06:30
Finally, is our belief in peer-to-peer learning.
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Hatimaye, ni imani yetu kwa masomo ya rika kwa rika.
06:34
We use this sound pedagogical model
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Tunatumia huu muundo wa ufundishaji imara
06:37
to encourage our students from all over the world
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kuwapa moyo wanafunzi kutoka kote duniani
06:40
to interact and study together,
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kuingiliana na kujifunza pamoja
06:42
and also to reduce the time our professors need
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na pia kupunguza mda
Maprofesa wetu wanaohitaji kujizatiti kwa kazi ya mazoezi darasani.
06:47
to labor over class assignments.
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Kama intaneti imetufanya kijiji cha kimataifa,
06:53
If the Internet has made us a global village,
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06:58
this model can develop its future leadership.
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muundo huu unaweza kuuendeleza uongozi wake wa usoni.
07:02
Look how we do it.
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Angalia vile tunavyoifanya.
07:04
We only offer two programs:
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Tunatoa mipango miwili tu:
07:07
business administration and computer science,
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utawala kibiashara na sayansi ya kompyuta,
07:09
the two programs most in demand worldwide,
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hiyo mipango miwili
ndio inayosakwa sana duniani kote,
07:13
the two programs that are likeliest to help our students find a job.
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hiyo mipango miwili ndio yenye uwezo mkubwa
kuwasaidia wanafunzi wetu kupata ajira.
07:19
When our students are accepted,
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Wanafunzi wetu wanapokubalika,
07:22
they are placed in a small classroom of 20 to 30 students,
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huwekwa kwa darasa dogo
la wanafunzi 20 kwenda 30 kuhakikisha
07:28
to ensure that those who need personalized attention get it.
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wanaohitaji usaidizi binafsi wanapata.
07:32
Moreover, for every nine-week course, they meet a new peer,
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Zaidi ya hayo, kwa kila kozi ya wiki tisa,
hukutana na rika mpya,
07:38
a whole new set of students from all over the world.
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kundi nzima la wanafunzi wapya
kutoka kote ulimwenguni.
07:42
Every week, when they go into the classroom,
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Kila wiki, wanapoingia darasani,
07:45
they find the lecture notes of the week,
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wanapata maelezo ya hotuba ya wiki,
07:48
the reading assignment, the homework assignment,
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zoezi la kusoma, zoezi la ziada,
07:50
and the discussion question, which is the core of our studies.
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na swali la majadiliano,
ambayo ni msingi wa masomo yetu,
07:54
Every week, every student must contribute to the class discussion,
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Kila wiki, kila mwanafunzi
lazima achangie kwa mjadala darasani
07:58
and also must comment on the contribution of others.
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na pia lazima atoe maoni
kwa michango ya wengine.
08:03
This way, we open our students' minds,
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Kwa njia hii, tunafungua akili za wanafunzi wetu,
08:06
we develop a positive shift in attitude toward different cultures.
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tunakuza mwelekeo chanya
kuelekea tamaduni tofauti.
08:12
By the end of each week, the students take a quiz,
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Mwisho wa kila wiki,
wanafunzi hufanya jaribio,
08:15
hand in their homework,
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wanawasilisha kazi za ziada,
08:17
which are assessed by their peers under the supervision of the instructors,
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ambazo hukaguliwa na wenzao
kwa usimamizi wa waalimu,
08:22
get a grade, move to the next week.
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pata alama, enda kwa wiki nyingine.
08:24
By the end of the course, they take the final exam,
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Mwisho wa kozi, hufanya mtihani wa mwisho,
08:27
get a grade, and follow to the next course.
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pata alama, na kuenda kwa kozi nyingine.
08:32
We open the gates for higher education for every qualified student.
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Tulifungua milango ya elimu ya juu
kwa mwanafunzi yeyote aliyehitimu.
08:38
Every student with a high school diploma,
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Mwanafunzi yeyote aliyehitimu sekondari,
08:41
sufficient English and Internet connection
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kingereza tosha na muunganisho wa intaneti
08:44
can study with us.
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anaweza kusoma na sisi.
08:46
We don't use audio, we don't use video.
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Hatutumii redio. Hatutumii video.
08:49
Broadband is not necessary.
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upana wa bendi si hoja.
08:51
Any student from any part of the world with any Internet connection
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Mwanafunzi yeyote kutoka kokote duniani
aliye na mwuunganisho wowote wa intaneti
08:56
can study with us.
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anaweza kusoma nasi.
08:58
We are tuition free.
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tuko malezi-huru.
tuulizacho tu wanafunzi wetu kukidhi
09:01
All we ask our students to cover is the cost of their exams,
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ni gharama ya mitihani yao,
09:04
100 dollars per exam.
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Dola 100 kwa kila mtihani.
09:07
A full-time bachelor's degree student taking 40 courses
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Mwanafunzi wa muda kamili wa digrii ya hahada ya kwanza
anayechukua kozi 40,
09:12
will pay 1,000 dollars a year,
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atalipa dola 1,000 kwa mwaka,
09:14
4,000 dollars for the entire degree.
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Dola 4,000 kukamilisha digrii,
09:17
And for those who cannot afford even this,
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na kwa wale hawawezi kumudu hata hii,
09:21
we offer them a variety of scholarships.
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tunawapa udhamini aina mbali mbali.
09:23
It is our mission that nobody will be left behind
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Ni dhamira yetu kuwa hakuna atakayeachwa nyuma
09:26
for financial reasons.
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kwa sababu za kifedha.
09:29
With 5,000 students in 2016, this model is financially sustainable.
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Kwa wanafunzi 5,000 mwaka wa 2016,
muundo huu ni endelevu kifedha.
09:37
Five years ago, it was a vision.
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Miaka mitano iliyopita, yalikuwa maono.
09:41
Today, it is a reality.
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Leo, ni halisi.
09:44
Last month, we got the ultimate academic endorsement to our model.
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Mwezi jana, hatimaye tulipata
muhuri wa kitaaluma kwa muundo wetu.
09:50
University of the People is now fully accredited.
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Chuo kikuu cha watu sasa kina kibali rasmi
09:54
(Applause)
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(Makofi)
Asanteni.
09:56
Thank you.
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09:57
(Applause)
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10:01
With this accreditation, it's our time now to scale up.
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Kwa kibali hichi,
ni wakati wetu sasa kupaa
10:06
We have demonstrated that our model works.
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Tumeonyesha kwamba muundo wetu unafanya kazi.
nakaribisha vyuo vikuu, na maana zaidi,
10:10
I invite universities and, even more important,
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10:13
developing countries' governments,
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serikali za nchi zinazokua,
kuiga muundo huu
10:15
to replicate this model
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kuhakikisha milango ya elimu ya juu
10:17
to ensure that the gates of higher education will open widely.
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itapanuka zaidi.
10:22
A new era is coming --
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Enzi mpya inakuja
10:24
an era that will witness the disruption of the higher education model
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enzi itakayo shuhudia
kuvurugika kwa elimu ya juu
10:29
as we know it today,
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kama tunvyoijua leo,
10:31
from being a privilege for the few
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kutoka kuwa teule kwa wachache
10:35
to becoming a basic right, affordable and accessible for all.
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kuenda kuwa haki ya kimsingi,
nafuu na inayopatikana kwa wote,
10:41
Thank you.
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Asanteni.
10:43
(Applause)
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(Makofi)
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