An ultra-low-cost college degree | Shai Reshef

4,879,798 views ・ 2014-08-04

TED


請雙擊下方英文字幕播放視頻。

譯者: Qingqing Mao 審譯者: Justine Bai
我想和你們分享
00:13
I would like to share with you a new model of higher education,
0
13071
4407
一種全新的高等教育模式
00:17
a model that, once expanded,
1
17502
2782
這一模式一旦發展起來
00:20
can enhance the collective intelligence
2
20308
2318
能提升數以百萬計的有創造力
00:22
of millions of creative and motivated individuals
3
22650
4469
有上進心的個人的集體智慧
而沒有這一模式的話 他們可能被甩在後面
00:27
that otherwise would be left behind.
4
27143
2432
看看這個世界
00:30
Look at the world.
5
30250
1219
任選一個地方並聚焦於此
00:32
Pick a place and focus on it.
6
32001
2280
00:34
You will find humans chasing higher education.
7
34664
3690
你會發現人們正在追尋高等教育
讓我們來認識其中的一些人
00:39
Let's meet some of them.
8
39187
1449
派屈克
00:41
Patrick.
9
41354
1443
00:42
Patrick was born in Liberia to a family of 20 children.
10
42821
4794
派屈克出生於賴比瑞亞
一個有20個孩子的家庭
在內戰期間 他和他的家庭
00:48
During the civil war,
11
48380
1600
00:50
he and his family were forced to flee to Nigeria.
12
50004
3919
被迫逃離去奈及利亞
00:54
There, in spite of his situation,
13
54468
2738
在那裡 儘管處境惡劣
00:57
he graduated high school with nearly perfect grades.
14
57230
3508
他依然以近乎滿分的成績高中畢業
01:01
He wanted to continue to higher education,
15
61389
3064
他想要繼續接受高等教育
01:04
but due to his family living on the poverty line,
16
64477
3260
但是由於他的家庭
生活在貧困線上
01:07
he was soon sent to South Africa
17
67761
2507
他不久後被送至南非工作
寄錢回家
01:10
to work and send back money to feed his family.
18
70292
3713
供養他的家人
01:15
Patrick never gave up his dream of higher education.
19
75036
3832
派屈克從未放棄他的高等教育之夢
01:18
Late at night, after work,
20
78892
2399
結束工作後的深夜裡
01:21
he surfed the net, looking for ways to study.
21
81315
3712
他在網路上尋找各種途徑來學習
01:25
Meet Debbie.
22
85827
1266
來認識一下黛比
黛比來自佛羅里達
01:27
Debbie is from Florida.
23
87117
1866
01:29
Her parents didn't go to college, and neither did any of her siblings.
24
89897
4149
她的父母沒有上過大學
她的兄弟姐妹也都沒有
01:34
Debbie has worked all her life,
25
94706
1981
黛比生活的全部就是工作
01:38
pays taxes, supports herself month to month,
26
98013
3810
繳稅 每月維持自己的生計
01:41
proud of the American dream,
27
101847
2328
以美國夢為榮
01:44
a dream that just won't be complete without higher education.
28
104199
3981
但是沒有高等教育的話
這個夢並不完整
01:48
But Debbie doesn't have the savings for higher education.
29
108870
3719
但是黛比沒有足夠的積蓄
來負擔高等教育
01:52
She can't pay the tuition.
30
112613
1910
她付不起學費
01:54
Neither could she leave work.
31
114881
1948
她也不能抛開工作
來認識一下瓦伊爾
01:58
Meet Wael.
32
118094
1183
01:59
Wael is from Syria.
33
119750
1395
瓦伊爾來自敘利亞
02:01
He's experiencing firsthand
34
121910
2277
他正親身感受著
02:05
the misery, fear and failure imposed on his country.
35
125528
4026
他的國家所遭受的
痛苦 恐懼和失敗
02:10
He's a big believer in education.
36
130755
2551
他是教育的忠實信徒
02:13
He knew that if he could find an opportunity for higher education,
37
133330
4033
他知道 如果他能找到
接受高等教育的機會
02:17
an opportunity to get ahead of the rest,
38
137387
2795
一個能超過別人的機會
他就更有可能
02:20
he has a better chance to survive in a world turned upside down.
39
140206
4461
在一個顛倒混亂的世界裡生存下來
02:26
The higher education system
40
146057
2002
高等教育體系
02:29
failed Patrick, Debbie and Wael,
41
149495
2722
辜負了派屈克 黛比和瓦伊爾
02:32
exactly as it is failing millions of potential students --
42
152241
4945
正如它也辜負了
數百萬的潛在學生——
02:37
millions that graduate high school,
43
157210
2953
數百萬的高中畢業生
02:40
millions that are qualified for higher education,
44
160187
3388
數百萬有資格接受高等教育的學生
02:43
millions that want to study yet cannot access it for various reasons.
45
163599
5504
數百萬學生想要學習
卻因為各種原因無法實現
02:49
First: financial.
46
169618
1905
首先 經濟上的原因
02:52
Universities are expensive; we all know it.
47
172412
2895
大學是昂貴的 我們都知道這一點
02:55
In large parts of the world,
48
175331
2104
在世界上的很多地方
02:57
higher education is unattainable for an average citizen.
49
177459
3887
對於普通民衆來說
高等教育無法企及
03:02
This is probably the biggest problem facing our society.
50
182258
3844
這個可能是我們社會
所面臨的最大問題
03:06
Higher education stopped being a right for all
51
186672
3586
高等教育不再是所有人的權利
03:10
and became a privilege for the few.
52
190282
2670
而是成為一種少數人的特權
03:13
Second: cultural.
53
193971
2082
第二 文化上的原因
合格的 能負擔得起的 想要學習的學生
03:18
Students who are qualified for higher education
54
198061
2829
03:20
can afford -- want to study -- cannot,
55
200914
3239
卻無法得到高等教育
03:24
because it is not decent, it is not a place for a woman.
56
204970
5458
因為它不得體
它不是女人可以去的地方
比如 在非洲
03:31
This is the story of countless women in Africa, for example,
57
211047
3939
無數的女性
03:35
prevented from higher education because of cultural barriers.
58
215010
3930
由於文化上的阻隔
而無法得到高等教育
03:39
And here comes the third reason:
59
219686
2400
第三條原因:
03:42
UNESCO stated that in 2025,
60
222110
3812
聯合國教科文組織聲明
03:45
100 million students will be deprived of higher education,
61
225946
5644
到2025年 將有1億學生
被剝奪高等教育的機會
03:51
simply because there will not be enough seats to accommodate them,
62
231614
4970
僅僅是因為沒有那麽多的座位
來容納他們 來滿足需求
03:56
to meet the demand.
63
236608
1731
03:58
They will take a placement test, they will pass it,
64
238363
3169
他們會參加程度測驗
他們會通過測驗
04:01
but they still won't have access, because there are no places available.
65
241556
4307
但是他們仍無法得到教育
因為無處可去
04:07
These are the reasons I founded University of the People,
66
247416
4700
由於這些的原因
我創辦了人民大學(University of the People)
一所非盈利性的 免學費的
04:12
a nonprofit, tuition-free, degree-granting university
67
252140
4883
授予學位的大學
它提供了另一種選擇
04:17
to give an alternative,
68
257047
1787
04:18
to create an alternative, to those who have no other;
69
258858
3494
為那些沒有其它選擇的人 創造了一種選擇
04:22
an alternative that will be affordable and scalable,
70
262376
5441
一種價格合理的選擇
一種可擴展的選擇
04:27
an alternative that will disrupt the current education system,
71
267841
5860
一種打破
現行的教育體系的選擇
04:33
and open the gates to higher education for every qualified student
72
273725
4168
為每一位合格的學生
打開高等教育的大門
04:37
regardless of what they earn, where they live,
73
277917
4612
不論他們的收入 不論他們身處何處
04:42
or what society says about them.
74
282553
2293
不論社會如何議論他們
04:45
Patrick, Debbie and Wael
75
285449
1972
派屈克 黛比和瓦伊爾
04:47
are only three examples out of the 1,700 accepted students
76
287445
3626
只是來自143個國家的
1700位被錄取的學生中
04:51
from 143 countries.
77
291095
2351
的三個例子
我們——(掌聲)——謝謝
04:55
(Applause)
78
295492
1380
04:56
Thank you.
79
296896
1276
04:58
(Applause)
80
298196
1808
05:00
We didn't need to reinvent the wheel.
81
300028
2221
我們不需要重新發明輪子
05:02
We just looked at what wasn't working
82
302273
2512
我們只是看到那些有問題的地方
05:04
and used the amazing power of the Internet
83
304809
2739
並使用網際網路的神奇力量
05:07
to get around it.
84
307572
1296
來繞開問題
05:09
We set out to build a model
85
309386
2537
我們著手建立一種模式
05:12
that will cut down almost entirely the cost of higher education.
86
312928
3996
它將削減掉
高等教育的絕大部分成本
05:17
And that's how we did it.
87
317927
1485
我們是這樣做到的
05:19
First, bricks and mortar cost money.
88
319869
2536
首先 大樓需要花錢
大學有很多的開銷
05:23
Universities have expenses that virtual universities don't.
89
323324
5122
是虛擬大學所沒有的
05:28
We don't need to pass these expenses on to our students.
90
328470
3146
我們不需要將這些開銷
轉移到我們的學生頭上
這些開銷不存在
05:32
They don't exist.
91
332124
1380
05:33
We also don't need to worry about capacity.
92
333528
3119
我們也不需要擔心可容納的人數
05:36
There are no limits of seats in virtual university.
93
336671
3624
在虛擬大學裡
沒有座位數的限制
05:40
Actually, nobody needs to stand at the back of the lecture hall.
94
340867
3790
事實上 沒人需要
站在講堂的後面
05:45
Textbooks are also something our students don't need to buy.
95
345228
3891
我們的學生
也不需要購買課本
05:49
By using open educational resources
96
349803
2904
使用開放的教學資源
05:52
and the generosity of professors
97
352731
2456
以及教授們的慷慨饋贈
05:55
who are putting their material up free and accessible,
98
355211
4512
很多教授把他們的教學材料
免費公開
05:59
we don't need to send our students to buy textbooks.
99
359747
2752
不需要讓我們的學生去購買課本
06:02
All of our materials come free.
100
362523
2296
我們所有的材料都是免費的
06:05
Even professors,
101
365635
1606
甚至是教授
06:07
the most expensive line in any university balance sheet,
102
367265
3871
任何大學的收支表上最昂貴的一項
06:11
come free to our students.
103
371160
1656
也對我們的學生免費
06:12
Over 3,000 of them,
104
372840
2747
我們有超過3000位教師
06:15
including presidents, vice chancellors, professors and academic advisers
105
375611
6013
包括校長 副校長
教授和學術導師
06:21
from top universities such as NYU, Yale, Berkeley and Oxford,
106
381648
5552
他們來自頂尖的大學 比如紐約大學
耶魯大學 加州大學柏克萊分校 牛津大學
06:27
came on board to help our students.
107
387224
2278
來幫助我們的學生
06:30
Finally, is our belief in peer-to-peer learning.
108
390200
3784
最後 是我們對於點對點學習的信念
06:34
We use this sound pedagogical model
109
394394
3206
我們使用這個可靠的教學模式
06:37
to encourage our students from all over the world
110
397624
2713
來鼓勵我們來自世界各地的學生
06:40
to interact and study together,
111
400361
2330
一起互動並共同學習
06:42
and also to reduce the time our professors need
112
402715
5039
這同時也縮短了教授們
需要花在課堂作業上的時間
06:47
to labor over class assignments.
113
407778
2252
如果說網際網路 把我們變成了一個地球村
06:53
If the Internet has made us a global village,
114
413006
5202
06:58
this model can develop its future leadership.
115
418232
3765
這一模式能培養其未來的領導力量
07:02
Look how we do it.
116
422378
1267
看看我們如何做到這一點
07:04
We only offer two programs:
117
424251
2804
我們只提供了兩種課程:
07:07
business administration and computer science,
118
427079
2673
商業管理和計算機科學
07:09
the two programs most in demand worldwide,
119
429776
4158
這兩個項目
是世界上需求最廣的
07:13
the two programs that are likeliest to help our students find a job.
120
433958
4217
這兩個項目最有可能
幫助我們的學生找到工作
07:19
When our students are accepted,
121
439512
2738
當我們的學生被錄取後
07:22
they are placed in a small classroom of 20 to 30 students,
122
442274
5863
他們被安排到
由20至30人組成的小班
07:28
to ensure that those who need personalized attention get it.
123
448161
4152
來保證有個性化需求的學生 能得到相應的關注
07:32
Moreover, for every nine-week course, they meet a new peer,
124
452827
5763
此外 每九週的課程
他們會認識一個新的同伴
07:38
a whole new set of students from all over the world.
125
458614
3491
一組來自世界各地的
全新的同學
07:42
Every week, when they go into the classroom,
126
462129
3256
每週 當他們進入課堂
07:45
they find the lecture notes of the week,
127
465409
2733
他們會找到本週的課程筆記
07:48
the reading assignment, the homework assignment,
128
468166
2264
閱讀任務 課外作業
07:50
and the discussion question, which is the core of our studies.
129
470454
3927
以及討論問題——
這是我們學習的核心
07:54
Every week, every student must contribute to the class discussion,
130
474405
4458
每週末,每位學生
都必須為課堂討論做出貢獻
07:58
and also must comment on the contribution of others.
131
478887
4198
同時也必須對其它人的貢獻
做出評論
08:03
This way, we open our students' minds,
132
483109
3498
通過這樣的方法 我們開闊了學生的思維
08:06
we develop a positive shift in attitude toward different cultures.
133
486631
4625
我們發展了一種正面積極的態度
來對待不同的文化
08:12
By the end of each week, the students take a quiz,
134
492089
3741
每週結束的時候
學生們參加一個測驗
08:15
hand in their homework,
135
495854
1323
提交他們的課外作業
08:17
which are assessed by their peers under the supervision of the instructors,
136
497201
4202
作業會在教師的監督下
由同學互相評估
08:22
get a grade, move to the next week.
137
502292
2250
得到成績 然後繼續下一週的學習
08:24
By the end of the course, they take the final exam,
138
504566
2646
在課程的末尾 他們參加期末考試
08:27
get a grade, and follow to the next course.
139
507236
4168
得到成績 然後轉到下一個課程
08:32
We open the gates for higher education for every qualified student.
140
512703
5172
我們為每一個合格的學生
打開了高等教育的大門
08:38
Every student with a high school diploma,
141
518855
2914
每個學生 只要有高中文憑
08:41
sufficient English and Internet connection
142
521793
3140
足夠的英語能力和網路連接
08:44
can study with us.
143
524957
1592
就可以和我們一起學習
08:46
We don't use audio, we don't use video.
144
526573
2908
我們不使用音頻和影片
08:49
Broadband is not necessary.
145
529505
2360
寬帶網絡不是必須的
08:51
Any student from any part of the world with any Internet connection
146
531889
4579
來自世界任何一個地方的任何一個學生
只要能連接到網路
08:56
can study with us.
147
536492
1399
就可以和我們一起學習
08:58
We are tuition free.
148
538798
1372
我們沒有學費
我們的學生只需要負擔
09:01
All we ask our students to cover is the cost of their exams,
149
541202
3617
考試的成本
09:04
100 dollars per exam.
150
544843
2079
每門考試100美元
09:07
A full-time bachelor's degree student taking 40 courses
151
547396
4600
一個全日制本科學位的學生
選修40門課
09:12
will pay 1,000 dollars a year,
152
552020
1997
每年將支付1000美元
09:14
4,000 dollars for the entire degree.
153
554867
2630
整個學位需要4000美元
09:17
And for those who cannot afford even this,
154
557521
3576
對於連這些也無法負擔的學生
09:21
we offer them a variety of scholarships.
155
561121
2750
我們提供了各種類型的獎學金
09:23
It is our mission that nobody will be left behind
156
563895
3054
沒有人會因為經濟上的原因而被抛下
09:26
for financial reasons.
157
566973
1450
這是我們的使命
09:29
With 5,000 students in 2016, this model is financially sustainable.
158
569058
6056
到2016年 隨著5000名學生
這一模式在經濟上是可持續的
09:37
Five years ago, it was a vision.
159
577352
3606
五年前這還是一個幻象
09:41
Today, it is a reality.
160
581813
2326
而今它成為了現實
09:44
Last month, we got the ultimate academic endorsement to our model.
161
584862
4783
上個月 我們的模式
得到了學術界的最終認可
09:50
University of the People is now fully accredited.
162
590325
3573
人民大學現在已完全通過認證
09:54
(Applause)
163
594743
1262
(掌聲)
謝謝
09:56
Thank you.
164
596029
1224
09:57
(Applause)
165
597277
3948
10:01
With this accreditation, it's our time now to scale up.
166
601386
4150
有了這一認證
現在到了我們擴張的時候
10:06
We have demonstrated that our model works.
167
606179
3145
我們已經展示了 我們的模式是可行的
我邀請大學 更重要的是
10:10
I invite universities and, even more important,
168
610404
2988
10:13
developing countries' governments,
169
613416
1669
發展中國家的政府
來複製這一模式
10:15
to replicate this model
170
615109
1906
來保證高等教育的大門
10:17
to ensure that the gates of higher education will open widely.
171
617039
4531
將一直敞開
10:22
A new era is coming --
172
622490
1325
一個新的時代來臨了
10:24
an era that will witness the disruption of the higher education model
173
624450
5293
這個時代將會見證
我們今天所知的高等教育模式
10:29
as we know it today,
174
629767
1444
的瓦解
10:31
from being a privilege for the few
175
631931
2796
從一種少數人的特權
10:35
to becoming a basic right, affordable and accessible for all.
176
635658
5393
變為一種基本權利
所有人都可以承擔 可以獲得
10:41
Thank you.
177
641779
1319
謝謝
10:43
(Applause)
178
643122
4222
(掌聲)
關於本網站

本網站將向您介紹對學習英語有用的 YouTube 視頻。 您將看到來自世界各地的一流教師教授的英語課程。 雙擊每個視頻頁面上顯示的英文字幕,從那裡播放視頻。 字幕與視頻播放同步滾動。 如果您有任何意見或要求,請使用此聯繫表與我們聯繫。

https://forms.gle/WvT1wiN1qDtmnspy7