An ultra-low-cost college degree | Shai Reshef

4,879,798 views ・ 2014-08-04

TED


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翻译人员: Ye Lin 校对人员: fangfang guo
我想和你们分享
00:13
I would like to share with you a new model of higher education,
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一种全新的高等教育模式
00:17
a model that, once expanded,
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这一模式一旦发展起来
00:20
can enhance the collective intelligence
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能提升数以百万计的有创造力和上进心的个人
00:22
of millions of creative and motivated individuals
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的集体智慧,
而没有这一模式的话这些人可能会被甩在后面
00:27
that otherwise would be left behind.
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看看这个世界
00:30
Look at the world.
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任选一个地方并聚焦于此
00:32
Pick a place and focus on it.
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00:34
You will find humans chasing higher education.
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你会发现人们正在追寻高等教育
让我们来认识其中的一些人
00:39
Let's meet some of them.
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帕特里克
00:41
Patrick.
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00:42
Patrick was born in Liberia to a family of 20 children.
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帕特里克出生于利比里亚
一个有20个孩子的家庭
在内战期间,他和他的家庭
00:48
During the civil war,
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00:50
he and his family were forced to flee to Nigeria.
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被迫逃离去尼日利亚
00:54
There, in spite of his situation,
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在那里,尽管处境恶劣,
00:57
he graduated high school with nearly perfect grades.
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他依然以近乎满分的成绩高中毕业
01:01
He wanted to continue to higher education,
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他想要继续接受高等教育,
01:04
but due to his family living on the poverty line,
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但是由于他的家庭
生活在贫困线上,
01:07
he was soon sent to South Africa
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他不久后被送至南非工作,
寄钱回家
01:10
to work and send back money to feed his family.
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供养他的家人
01:15
Patrick never gave up his dream of higher education.
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帕特里克从未放弃他的高等教育之梦
01:18
Late at night, after work,
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结束工作后的深夜里,
01:21
he surfed the net, looking for ways to study.
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他在网上寻找各种途径来学习
01:25
Meet Debbie.
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来认识一下黛比
黛比来自佛罗里达
01:27
Debbie is from Florida.
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01:29
Her parents didn't go to college, and neither did any of her siblings.
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她的父母没有上过大学,
她的兄弟姐妹也都没有
01:34
Debbie has worked all her life,
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黛比生活的全部就是工作,
01:38
pays taxes, supports herself month to month,
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缴税,每月维持自己的生计,
01:41
proud of the American dream,
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以美国梦为荣,
01:44
a dream that just won't be complete without higher education.
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但是没有高等教育的话
这个梦并不完整
01:48
But Debbie doesn't have the savings for higher education.
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但是黛比没有足够的积蓄
来负担高等教育
01:52
She can't pay the tuition.
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她付不起学费
01:54
Neither could she leave work.
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她也不能抛开工作
来认识一下瓦伊尔
01:58
Meet Wael.
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01:59
Wael is from Syria.
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瓦伊尔来自叙利亚
02:01
He's experiencing firsthand
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他正亲身感受着
02:05
the misery, fear and failure imposed on his country.
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他的国家所遭受的
痛苦、恐惧和失败
02:10
He's a big believer in education.
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他是教育的忠实信徒
02:13
He knew that if he could find an opportunity for higher education,
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他知道,如果他能找到
接受高等教育的机会,
02:17
an opportunity to get ahead of the rest,
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一个能超过别人的机会,
他就更有可能
02:20
he has a better chance to survive in a world turned upside down.
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在一个颠倒混乱的世界里生存下来
02:26
The higher education system
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高等教育体系
02:29
failed Patrick, Debbie and Wael,
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辜负了帕特里克、黛比和瓦伊尔,
02:32
exactly as it is failing millions of potential students --
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正如它也辜负了
数百万的潜在的学生——
02:37
millions that graduate high school,
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数百万的高中毕业生,
02:40
millions that are qualified for higher education,
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数百万有资格接受高等教育的学生,
02:43
millions that want to study yet cannot access it for various reasons.
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数百万学生想要学习
却因为各种原因无法实现
02:49
First: financial.
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首先,经济上的原因
02:52
Universities are expensive; we all know it.
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大学是昂贵的 我们都知道这一点
02:55
In large parts of the world,
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在世界上的很多地方,
02:57
higher education is unattainable for an average citizen.
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对于普通民众来说,
高等教育无法企及
03:02
This is probably the biggest problem facing our society.
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这个可能是我们社会
所面临的最大的问题
03:06
Higher education stopped being a right for all
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高等教育不再是所有人的权力,
03:10
and became a privilege for the few.
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而是成为一种少数人的特权
03:13
Second: cultural.
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第二,文化上的原因
合格的、能负担得起的、想要学习的学生
03:18
Students who are qualified for higher education
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03:20
can afford -- want to study -- cannot,
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却无法得到高等教育,
03:24
because it is not decent, it is not a place for a woman.
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因为它不得体,
它不是女人可以去的地方
比如,在非洲,
03:31
This is the story of countless women in Africa, for example,
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无数的女性
03:35
prevented from higher education because of cultural barriers.
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由于文化上的阻隔
而无法得到高等教育
03:39
And here comes the third reason:
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第三条原因:
03:42
UNESCO stated that in 2025,
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联合国教科文组织声明,
03:45
100 million students will be deprived of higher education,
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到2025年,将有1亿学生
被剥夺高等教育的机会,
03:51
simply because there will not be enough seats to accommodate them,
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仅仅是因为没有那么多的座位
来容纳他们,来满足需求
03:56
to meet the demand.
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03:58
They will take a placement test, they will pass it,
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他们会参加程度测验,
他们会通过测验,
04:01
but they still won't have access, because there are no places available.
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但是他们仍无法得到教育,
因为没有足够的位置
04:07
These are the reasons I founded University of the People,
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由于这些的原因,
我创办了人民大学(University of the People),
一所非盈利性的、免学费的、
04:12
a nonprofit, tuition-free, degree-granting university
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授予学位的大学
它提供了另一种选择,
04:17
to give an alternative,
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04:18
to create an alternative, to those who have no other;
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为那些没有其它选择的人创造了一种选择,
04:22
an alternative that will be affordable and scalable,
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一种价格合理的选择,
一种可扩展的选择,
04:27
an alternative that will disrupt the current education system,
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一种打破
现行的教育体系的选择,
04:33
and open the gates to higher education for every qualified student
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为每一位合格的学生
打开高等教育的大门,
04:37
regardless of what they earn, where they live,
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不论他们的收入,不论他们身处何处,
04:42
or what society says about them.
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不论社会如何议论他们
04:45
Patrick, Debbie and Wael
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帕特里克、黛比和瓦伊尔
04:47
are only three examples out of the 1,700 accepted students
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只是来自143个国家的
1700位被录取的学生中
04:51
from 143 countries.
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的三个例子
我们——(掌声)——谢谢
04:55
(Applause)
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04:56
Thank you.
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04:58
(Applause)
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05:00
We didn't need to reinvent the wheel.
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我们不需要重新发明轮子
05:02
We just looked at what wasn't working
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我们只是看到那些有问题的地方,
05:04
and used the amazing power of the Internet
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并使用互联网的神奇力量
05:07
to get around it.
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来绕开问题
05:09
We set out to build a model
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我们着手建立一种模式,
05:12
that will cut down almost entirely the cost of higher education.
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它将削减掉
高等教育的绝大部分成本
05:17
And that's how we did it.
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我们是这样做到的
05:19
First, bricks and mortar cost money.
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首先,大楼需要花钱
大学有很多的开销
05:23
Universities have expenses that virtual universities don't.
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是虚拟大学所没有的
05:28
We don't need to pass these expenses on to our students.
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我们不需要将这些开销
转移到我们的学生头上
这些开销不存在
05:32
They don't exist.
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05:33
We also don't need to worry about capacity.
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我们也不需要担心可容纳的人数
05:36
There are no limits of seats in virtual university.
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在虚拟大学里
没有座位数的限制
05:40
Actually, nobody needs to stand at the back of the lecture hall.
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事实上,没人需要
站在讲堂的后面
05:45
Textbooks are also something our students don't need to buy.
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我们的学生
也不需要购买课本
05:49
By using open educational resources
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使用开放的教学资源
05:52
and the generosity of professors
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以及教授们的慷慨馈赠,
05:55
who are putting their material up free and accessible,
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很多教授把他们的教学材料
免费公开,
05:59
we don't need to send our students to buy textbooks.
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我们不需要让我们的学生去购买课本
06:02
All of our materials come free.
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我们所有的材料都是免费的
06:05
Even professors,
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甚至是教授,
06:07
the most expensive line in any university balance sheet,
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任何大学的收支表上最昂贵的一项,
06:11
come free to our students.
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也对我们的学生免费
06:12
Over 3,000 of them,
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我们有超过3000位教师,
06:15
including presidents, vice chancellors, professors and academic advisers
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包括校长、副校长、
教授和学术导师,
06:21
from top universities such as NYU, Yale, Berkeley and Oxford,
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他们来自顶尖的大学,比如纽约大学、
耶鲁大学、加州大学伯克利分校、牛津大学,
06:27
came on board to help our students.
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来帮助我们的学生
06:30
Finally, is our belief in peer-to-peer learning.
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最后,是我们对于同伴学习的信念
06:34
We use this sound pedagogical model
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我们使用这个可靠的教学模式
06:37
to encourage our students from all over the world
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来鼓励我们来自世界各地的学生
06:40
to interact and study together,
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一起互动并共同学习,
06:42
and also to reduce the time our professors need
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这同时也缩短了教授们
需要花在课堂作业上的时间
06:47
to labor over class assignments.
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如果说互联网把我们变成了一个地球村,
06:53
If the Internet has made us a global village,
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06:58
this model can develop its future leadership.
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这一模式能培养其未来的领导力量
07:02
Look how we do it.
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看看我们如何做到这一点
07:04
We only offer two programs:
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我们只提供了两个项目:
07:07
business administration and computer science,
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商业管理和计算机科学
07:09
the two programs most in demand worldwide,
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这两个项目
是世界上需求最广的,
07:13
the two programs that are likeliest to help our students find a job.
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这两个项目最有可能
帮助我们的学生找到工作
07:19
When our students are accepted,
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当我们的学生被录取后,
07:22
they are placed in a small classroom of 20 to 30 students,
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他们被安排到
由20至30人组成的小班
07:28
to ensure that those who need personalized attention get it.
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来保证那些有个性化需求的学生可以得到相应的关注
07:32
Moreover, for every nine-week course, they meet a new peer,
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此外,每九周的课程
他们会认识一个新的同伴,
07:38
a whole new set of students from all over the world.
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一组来自世界各地的
全新的同学
07:42
Every week, when they go into the classroom,
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每周,当他们进入课堂,
07:45
they find the lecture notes of the week,
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他们会找到本周的课程笔记、
07:48
the reading assignment, the homework assignment,
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阅读任务、课外作业,
07:50
and the discussion question, which is the core of our studies.
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以及讨论问题——
这是我们学习的核心
07:54
Every week, every student must contribute to the class discussion,
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每周,每位学生
都必须为课堂讨论做出贡献,
07:58
and also must comment on the contribution of others.
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同时也必须对其它人的贡献
做出评论
08:03
This way, we open our students' minds,
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通过这样的方法,我们开阔了学生的思维,
08:06
we develop a positive shift in attitude toward different cultures.
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我们发展了一种正面积极的态度
来对待不同的文化
08:12
By the end of each week, the students take a quiz,
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每周结束的时候,
学生们参加一个测验,
08:15
hand in their homework,
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提交他们的课外作业,
08:17
which are assessed by their peers under the supervision of the instructors,
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作业会在教师的监督下
由同学互相评估,
08:22
get a grade, move to the next week.
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得到成绩,然后继续下一周的学习
08:24
By the end of the course, they take the final exam,
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在课程的末尾,他们参加期末考试,
08:27
get a grade, and follow to the next course.
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得到成绩,然后开始下一个课程
08:32
We open the gates for higher education for every qualified student.
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我们为每一个合格的学生
打开了高等教育的大门
08:38
Every student with a high school diploma,
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每个学生,只要有高中文凭、
08:41
sufficient English and Internet connection
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足够的英语能力和互联网连接,
08:44
can study with us.
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就可以和我们一起学习
08:46
We don't use audio, we don't use video.
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我们不使用音频和视频
08:49
Broadband is not necessary.
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宽带网络不是必须的
08:51
Any student from any part of the world with any Internet connection
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来自世界任何一个地方的任何一个学生
只要能连接到互联网
08:56
can study with us.
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就可以和我们一起学习
08:58
We are tuition free.
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我们没有学费
我们的学生只需要负担
09:01
All we ask our students to cover is the cost of their exams,
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考试的成本,
09:04
100 dollars per exam.
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每门考试100美元。
09:07
A full-time bachelor's degree student taking 40 courses
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一个全日制本科学位的学生
选修40门课,
09:12
will pay 1,000 dollars a year,
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每年将支付1000美元,
09:14
4,000 dollars for the entire degree.
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整个学位需要4000美元
09:17
And for those who cannot afford even this,
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对于连这些也无法负担的学生,
09:21
we offer them a variety of scholarships.
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我们提供了各种类型的奖学金
09:23
It is our mission that nobody will be left behind
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没有人会因为经济上的原因而被抛下,
09:26
for financial reasons.
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这是我们的使命
09:29
With 5,000 students in 2016, this model is financially sustainable.
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到2016年,随着5000名学生,
这一模式在经济上是可持续的。
09:37
Five years ago, it was a vision.
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五年前这还是一个畅想,
09:41
Today, it is a reality.
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而今它成为了现实
09:44
Last month, we got the ultimate academic endorsement to our model.
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上个月,我们的模式
得到了学术界的最终认可
09:50
University of the People is now fully accredited.
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人民大学现在已完全通过认证
09:54
(Applause)
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(掌声)
谢谢。
09:56
Thank you.
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09:57
(Applause)
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10:01
With this accreditation, it's our time now to scale up.
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有了这一认证,
现在到了我们扩张的时候
10:06
We have demonstrated that our model works.
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我们已经展示了我们的模式是可行的
我邀请大学,更重要的是
10:10
I invite universities and, even more important,
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10:13
developing countries' governments,
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发展中国家的政府,
来复制这一模式,
10:15
to replicate this model
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来保证高等教育的大门
10:17
to ensure that the gates of higher education will open widely.
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将一直敞开
10:22
A new era is coming --
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一个新的时代来临了,
10:24
an era that will witness the disruption of the higher education model
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这个时代将会见证
我们今天所知的高等教育模式
10:29
as we know it today,
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的瓦解,
10:31
from being a privilege for the few
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从一种少数人的特权
10:35
to becoming a basic right, affordable and accessible for all.
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变为一种基本权力,
所有人都可以承担,可以获得
10:41
Thank you.
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谢谢。
10:43
(Applause)
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(掌声)
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