Why you should know how much your coworkers get paid | David Burkus

202,651 views ・ 2016-10-11

TED


请双击下面的英文字幕来播放视频。

翻译人员: Yangyang Liu 校对人员: Junyi Sha
00:13
How much do you get paid?
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你的工资是多少?
00:15
Don't answer that out loud.
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先别说出来。
00:17
But put a number in your head.
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在脑子里想一下。
00:20
Now: How much do you think the person sitting next to you gets paid?
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现在想想: 你觉得邻座的工资是多少?
00:25
Again, don't answer out loud.
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也别说出来。
00:27
(Laughter)
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(笑声)
00:29
At work, how much do you think
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你觉得办公室里
00:31
the person sitting in the cubicle or the desk next to you gets paid?
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坐在旁边的同事的工资又是多少?
00:35
Do you know?
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你知道吗?
00:36
Should you know?
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你应该知道吗?
00:38
Notice, it's a little uncomfortable for me to even ask you those questions.
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问这些问题连我都觉得不太自在,
00:42
But admit it -- you kind of want to know.
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但是承认吧—— 你有点想知道答案。
00:46
Most of us are uncomfortable with the idea of broadcasting our salary.
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我们大多数人都不想 告诉别人自己的工资,
00:50
We're not supposed to tell our neighbors,
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我们不想把工资告诉邻居,
00:52
and we're definitely not supposed to tell our office neighbors.
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也绝对不想告诉办公室的同事。
00:55
The assumed reason is that if everybody knew what everybody got paid,
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可能如果大家都知道别人的工资,
00:59
then all hell would break loose.
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就要天下大乱了。
01:01
There'd be arguments, there'd be fights,
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可能会出现争吵,打架,
01:03
there might even be a few people who quit.
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甚至会有人辞职。
01:05
But what if secrecy is actually the reason for all that strife?
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但如果这个秘密恰恰 就是冲突的起因呢?
01:09
And what would happen if we removed that secrecy?
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如果我们揭开这个秘密会发生什么呢?
01:12
What if openness actually increased the sense of fairness and collaboration
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公开薪资能不能增进公司内部的合作,
还有公平感呢?
01:16
inside a company?
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01:17
What would happen if we had total pay transparency?
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如果完全公开薪资信息,那会发生什么呢?
01:22
For the past several years,
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过去的几年里,
01:23
I've been studying the corporate and entrepreneurial leaders
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我一直在研究那些质疑 传统经营理念的
01:26
who question the conventional wisdom about how to run a company.
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企业家和创业者。
01:30
And the question of pay keeps coming up.
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而薪资待遇的问题不断浮出水面。
01:33
And the answers keep surprising.
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答案也在不断挑战传统观念。
01:36
It turns out that pay transparency --
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结果表明,薪资透明 —
01:38
sharing salaries openly across a company --
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在整个公司中公开薪资数据 —
01:40
makes for a better workplace for both the employee
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会为雇员和雇主
营造更好的工作环境。
01:43
and for the organization.
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01:45
When people don't know how their pay compares to their peers',
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当人们不知道他们同事的工资时,
01:48
they're more likely to feel underpaid
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他们总会感觉自己工资太低,
01:50
and maybe even discriminated against.
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甚至受到了歧视。
01:52
Do you want to work at a place that tolerates the idea
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你想在一个你觉得自己的工资太低
01:55
that you feel underpaid or discriminated against?
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或者遭到歧视的地方工作吗?
01:58
But keeping salaries secret does exactly that,
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对薪资保密恰恰会导致这样的结果,
02:01
and it's a practice as old as it is common,
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却被长期且普遍的接受,
02:04
despite the fact that in the United States,
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尽管美国法律
02:06
the law protects an employee's right to discuss their pay.
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保护雇员讨论薪资的权利。
02:11
In one famous example from decades ago,
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几十年前,有一个著名的例子,
02:13
the management of Vanity Fair magazine
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《名利场》杂志的管理层
02:16
actually circulated a memo entitled:
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发布了一条规则:
02:18
"Forbidding Discussion Among Employees of Salary Received."
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“禁止员工讨论工资。”
02:21
"Forbidding" discussion among employees of salary received.
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“禁止”员工讨论工资。
02:25
Now that memo didn't sit well with everybody.
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不是所有人都 接受得了这条规则,
02:27
New York literary figures Dorothy Parker,
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纽约文坛人物多乐西·帕克,
02:29
Robert Benchley and Robert Sherwood,
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罗伯特·本克利 和罗伯特·舍伍德,
02:31
all writers in the Algonquin Round Table,
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三位阿冈昆圆桌会议的作家,
02:33
decided to stand up for transparency
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决定为薪资透明而战,
02:35
and showed up for work the next day
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第二天上班时,
02:37
with their salary written on signs hanging from their neck.
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他们脖子上挂了个牌子, 上面写了自己的工资。
02:40
(Laughter)
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(笑声)
02:42
Imagine showing up for work
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想象一下你去上班时,
02:44
with your salary just written across your chest for all to see.
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胸前挂着工资牌,谁都能看到。
02:49
But why would a company even want to discourage salary discussions?
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但是为什么公司 会反对讨论薪资呢?
02:52
Why do some people go along with it, while others revolt against it?
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为什么一些人服从, 而另一些人反对呢?
02:57
It turns out that in addition to the assumed reasons,
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除了之前猜测的理由之外,
03:00
pay secrecy is actually a way to save a lot of money.
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对薪资保密还是省钱的良方。
03:04
You see, keeping salaries secret
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想想看,工资不透明会导致
03:06
leads to what economists call "information asymmetry."
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经济学家所说的“信息不对称”。
03:09
This is a situation where, in a negotiation,
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在这种情况下谈判的双方,
03:11
one party has loads more information than the other.
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一方比另一方掌握更多的信息。
03:14
And in hiring or promotion or annual raise discussions,
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在招聘、升职、加薪的讨论中,
03:18
an employer can use that secrecy to save a lot of money.
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雇主就可以用这个秘密省很多钱。
03:22
Imagine how much better you could negotiate for a raise
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想象一下,知道每个人的工资,
对你的加薪谈判多么有利。
03:25
if you knew everybody's salary.
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03:29
Economists warn that information asymmetry
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经济学家提醒道:信息不对称
03:32
can cause markets to go awry.
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会导致市场偏离正轨。
03:33
Someone leaves a pay stub on the copier,
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如果有人在复印时 不小心遗留了一张工资表,
03:35
and suddenly everybody is shouting at each other.
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很快大家就会彼此争论起来。
03:38
In fact, they even warn
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事实上,经济学家甚至还提醒,
03:40
that information asymmetry can lead to a total market failure.
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信息不对称可能导致市场失调。
03:46
And I think we're almost there.
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我认为我们正处在这个边缘,
03:48
Here's why:
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原因就在于:
03:49
first, most employees have no idea how their pay compares to their peers'.
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首先,大部分雇员不清楚 自己与同事的工资存在多少差异。
03:54
In a 2015 survey of 70,000 employees,
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在2015年进行的一项 覆盖7万名雇员的调查中,
03:58
two-thirds of everyone who is paid at the market rate
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三分之二的调查者 认为他们被压低了薪水,
04:02
said that they felt they were underpaid.
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虽然他们拿到的都是基于市场 正常水平支付的工资。
04:05
And of everybody who felt that they were underpaid,
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这些认为被压低工资的人,
04:07
60 percent said that they intended to quit,
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有60%说他们想要辞职,
04:10
regardless of where they were -- underpaid, overpaid
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不管他们的实际工资 是过低还是过高,
04:13
or right at the market rate.
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还是恰好在正常水平。
04:16
If you were part of this survey, what would you say?
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如果你参与这个调查, 你会怎么说?
04:18
Are you underpaid?
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你被压低工资了吗?
04:19
Well, wait -- how do you even know,
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等一下,既然都 不允许谈论工资,
04:22
because you're not allowed to talk about it?
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你又怎么知道是被压低了?
04:24
Next, information asymmetry, pay secrecy,
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其次,信息不对称, 薪资保密,
04:28
makes it easier to ignore the discrimination
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会让市场中现实存在的歧视
04:31
that's already present in the market today.
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更容易被忽视。
04:34
In a 2011 report from the Institute for Women's Policy Research,
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妇女政策研究协会在 2011年发布的一份报告显示,
04:37
the gender wage gap between men and women
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男性和女性的工资差距
04:40
was 23 percent.
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高达23%。
04:42
This is where that 77 cents on the dollar comes from.
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这就是“1美元中的77美分” (职场女性的薪酬是男性同事的77%)的来历。
04:45
But in the Federal Government,
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但在联邦政府部门,
薪资是有固定标准的,
04:47
where salaries are pinned to certain levels
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每个雇员都清楚这个标准,
04:49
and everybody knows what those levels are,
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那里的性别薪资 差距就只有11% —
04:51
the gender wage gap shrinks to 11 percent --
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04:53
and this is before controlling for any of the factors
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这还是在实施经济学家呼吁的
04:55
that economists argue over whether or not to control for.
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控制措施之前的数据。
04:59
If we really want to close the gender wage gap,
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如果我们真的想 消除性别薪资差距,
05:01
maybe we should start by opening up the payroll.
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可能需要从公开工资单开始。
05:04
If this is what total market failure looks like,
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如果市场失灵就是这个样子,
05:08
then openness remains the only way to ensure fairness.
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那公开透明仍是 保证公平的唯一方法。
05:12
Now, I realize that letting people know what you make
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我知道公开收入,
05:14
might feel uncomfortable,
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可能让人不舒服,
05:16
but isn't it less uncomfortable
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但总是怀疑
自己被歧视,
05:18
than always wondering if you're being discriminated against,
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05:20
or if your wife or your daughter or your sister is being paid unfairly?
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或者家里的女性被不公平的 压低薪水不是更让人郁闷吗?
05:25
Openness remains the best way to ensure fairness,
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公开是保证公平的最好手段,
05:29
and pay transparency does that.
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薪资透明就是一种。
05:31
That's why entrepreneurial leaders and corporate leaders
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这就是这些年 企业家和创业者们
05:34
have been experimenting with sharing salaries for years.
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尝试公开薪资的原因,
05:37
Like Dane Atkinson.
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比如戴恩·阿特金森。
05:38
Dane is a serial entrepreneur who started many companies
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戴恩是位连续创业者, 他在创建前几个公司时
05:42
in a pay secrecy condition
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使用了薪资保密制度,
05:44
and even used that condition to pay two equally qualified people
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甚至会给两个能力相同的员工
05:47
dramatically different salaries,
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支付截然不同的薪水,
05:49
depending on how well they could negotiate.
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仅仅因为他们 谈薪水的能力不同。
05:52
And Dane saw the strife that happened as a result of this.
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戴恩发现这导致了冲突。
05:55
So when he started his newest company, SumAll,
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所以当他创办新公司 SumAll 时,
他从一开始就实施了透明薪资制度。
05:58
he committed to salary transparency from the beginning.
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06:01
And the results have been amazing.
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然而效果出乎意料的好。
06:04
And in study after study,
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在一个个的研究中,
06:06
when people know how they're being paid
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当人们知道他们的收入
06:07
and how that pay compares to their peers',
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和同事相比处于什么水平,
他们会加倍努力工作,提高绩效,
06:10
they're more likely to work hard to improve their performance,
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06:12
more likely to be engaged, and they're less likely to quit.
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更容易被动员,更不容易辞职。
06:15
That's why Dane's not alone.
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这就是为什么像戴恩 一样的人越来越多。
06:17
From technology start-ups like Buffer,
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从类似 Buffer 的初创科技公司,
06:19
to the tens of thousands of employees at Whole Foods,
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到 Whole Foods 这样的 数万人的大公司,
06:23
where not only is your salary available for everyone to see,
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不但大家的薪资都透明化,
06:26
but the performance data for the store and for your department
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而且每个分店、 每个部门的绩效数据
06:29
is available on the company intranet
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也在公司内网
06:31
for all to see.
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对所有人公开。
06:33
Now, pay transparency takes a lot of forms.
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实际上,薪资透明有很多方式,
06:36
It's not one size fits all.
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并不是一成不变的。
06:38
Some post their salaries for all to see.
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有的公司把薪资向所有人公开。
06:40
Some only keep it inside the company.
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有的只是在公司内部公开,
06:42
Some post the formula for calculating pay,
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有的公开薪资的计算公式,
06:45
and others post the pay levels
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有的公开他们的薪资级别,
06:47
and affix everybody to that level.
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并且公开员工对应的级别。
06:49
So you don't have to make signs
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所以你不用为每个员工
06:51
for all of your employees to wear around the office.
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做个工资牌挂在身上。
06:53
And you don't have to be the only one wearing a sign
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你也不用像三位作家一样
06:56
that you made at home.
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自己做个工资牌挂在身上。
06:58
But we can all take greater steps towards pay transparency.
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但我们可以一起努力, 推进薪资透明化。
07:02
For those of you that have the authority
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如果你有权利在公司里
07:04
to move forward towards transparency:
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推进工资透明化:
现在是你向前迈进的时候了。
07:06
it's time to move forward.
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07:07
And for those of you that don't have that authority:
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如果你没有这样的权利,
现在就是站起来, 争取这个权利的时候。
07:10
it's time to stand up for your right to.
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07:13
So how much do you get paid?
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那么,你的工资是多少呢?
07:16
And how does that compare to the people you work with?
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和你的同事相比怎么样?
07:19
You should know.
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你应该知道。
07:21
And so should they.
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他们也应该知道。
07:23
Thank you.
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谢谢。
07:25
(Applause)
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(掌声)
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