Why you should know how much your coworkers get paid | David Burkus

203,382 views ・ 2016-10-11

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Translator: linda putri Reviewer:
Seberapa besar gaji Anda?
Jangan jawab kencang-kencang.
Jawab saja dalam hati.
Sekarang: Kira-kira, berapa pendapatan orang di sebelah Anda?
00:13
How much do you get paid?
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00:15
Don't answer that out loud.
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Sekali lagi, jangan dijawab kencang-kencang.
00:17
But put a number in your head.
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(Tertawa)
00:20
Now: How much do you think the person sitting next to you gets paid?
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Di tempat kerja Anda, kira-kira
berapa gaji teman kantor yang duduk di meja sebelah Anda?
00:25
Again, don't answer out loud.
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00:27
(Laughter)
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Apakah Anda tahu?
Perlukah Anda tahu?
00:29
At work, how much do you think
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Ketahuilah, bahkan saya pribadi kurang nyaman dengan pertanyaan ini.
00:31
the person sitting in the cubicle or the desk next to you gets paid?
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Tapi akui saja -- Anda pasti juga ingin tahu.
00:35
Do you know?
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00:36
Should you know?
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00:38
Notice, it's a little uncomfortable for me to even ask you those questions.
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Kebanyakan dari kita tidak nyaman membicarakan besaran gaji.
00:42
But admit it -- you kind of want to know.
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Kita tidak seharusnya memberi tahu tetangga,
dan tidak perlu juga memberitahu pekerja kantor sebelah.
00:46
Most of us are uncomfortable with the idea of broadcasting our salary.
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Asumsinya, jika orang-orang tahu berapa yang dibayarkan perusahaan,
00:50
We're not supposed to tell our neighbors,
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maka akan muncul masalah.
00:52
and we're definitely not supposed to tell our office neighbors.
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Akan timbul argumen, pertengkaran,
mungkin beberapa mengundurkan diri.
00:55
The assumed reason is that if everybody knew what everybody got paid,
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Tetapi bagaimana jika kerahasiaanlah yang menjadi akar perselisihan itu?
00:59
then all hell would break loose.
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Dan bagaimana jika itu dibahas terang-terangan?
01:01
There'd be arguments, there'd be fights,
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01:03
there might even be a few people who quit.
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Bagaimana jika keterbukaan akan meningkatkan rasa keadilan dan kerjasama
01:05
But what if secrecy is actually the reason for all that strife?
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di dalam perusahaan?
01:09
And what would happen if we removed that secrecy?
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Bagaimana jika ada transparansi gaji?
01:12
What if openness actually increased the sense of fairness and collaboration
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Beberapa tahun terakhir,
saya mengamati sejumlah pemimpin korporasi dan usaha
01:16
inside a company?
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01:17
What would happen if we had total pay transparency?
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yang mempertanyakan cara-cara konvensional dalam berbisnis.
Dan ada banyak pertanyaan seputar gaji.
01:22
For the past several years,
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01:23
I've been studying the corporate and entrepreneurial leaders
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Dan jawabannya sangat mengagetkan.
01:26
who question the conventional wisdom about how to run a company.
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Ternyata, transparansi gaji --
saat perusahaan terbuka perihal gaji --
01:30
And the question of pay keeps coming up.
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membuat lingkungan kerja lebih kondusif, baik bagi pekerja maupun perusahaan.
01:33
And the answers keep surprising.
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01:36
It turns out that pay transparency --
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Saat seseorang tidak tahu perbandingan gajinya dengan rekannya,
01:38
sharing salaries openly across a company --
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01:40
makes for a better workplace for both the employee
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mereka cenderung digaji lebih rendah
dan bahkan didiskriminasikan.
01:43
and for the organization.
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Anda mau bekerja di tempat
01:45
When people don't know how their pay compares to their peers',
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dimana Anda merasa dibayar kecil dan didiskriminasi?
01:48
they're more likely to feel underpaid
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01:50
and maybe even discriminated against.
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Merahasiakan gaji justru adalah pemicunya,
01:52
Do you want to work at a place that tolerates the idea
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dan ini sudah menjadi rahasia umum,
01:55
that you feel underpaid or discriminated against?
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bahkan di Amerika Serikat,
01:58
But keeping salaries secret does exactly that,
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dimana hukum melindungi hak pekerja membahas pendapatannya.
02:01
and it's a practice as old as it is common,
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Contohnya saja, beberapa puluh tahun lalu,
02:04
despite the fact that in the United States,
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manajemen majalah Vanity Fair
02:06
the law protects an employee's right to discuss their pay.
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mengeluarkan memo internal bertuliskan:
“Sesama Pegawai Dilarang Membahas Gaji”
02:11
In one famous example from decades ago,
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02:13
the management of Vanity Fair magazine
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“Melarang” pegawai membahas gaji yang diterima.
02:16
actually circulated a memo entitled:
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Memo itu pun bocor.
02:18
"Forbidding Discussion Among Employees of Salary Received."
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Sastrawan New York seperti Dorothy Parker,
02:21
"Forbidding" discussion among employees of salary received.
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Robert Benchley dan Robert Sherwood,
kelompok kritikus Algonquin Round Table,
02:25
Now that memo didn't sit well with everybody.
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memutuskan mendukung transparansi,
02:27
New York literary figures Dorothy Parker,
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dan keesokan harinya bekerja
02:29
Robert Benchley and Robert Sherwood,
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dengan berkalung papan bertuliskan nominal pendapatannya.
02:31
all writers in the Algonquin Round Table,
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(Tertawa)
02:33
decided to stand up for transparency
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Bayangkan saja, berangkat kerja
02:35
and showed up for work the next day
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dengan berkalung nominal gaji agar orang-orang tahu.
02:37
with their salary written on signs hanging from their neck.
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02:40
(Laughter)
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Namun sebenarnya mengapa perusahaan mencegah gaji dibahas terbuka?
02:42
Imagine showing up for work
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02:44
with your salary just written across your chest for all to see.
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Mengapa ada yang pro dan ada yang kontra?
02:49
But why would a company even want to discourage salary discussions?
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Ternyata salah satu alasannya adalah bahwa
02:52
Why do some people go along with it, while others revolt against it?
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kerahasiaan gaji merupakan cara perusahaan menghemat uang.
Anda tahu, merahasiakan rentang gaji
02:57
It turns out that in addition to the assumed reasons,
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menimbulkan apa yang ekonom sebut “ketimpangan informasi.”
03:00
pay secrecy is actually a way to save a lot of money.
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Yakni kondisi dimana, dalam sebuah negosiasi,
satu pihak menyimpan lebih banyak informasi dari yang lain.
03:04
You see, keeping salaries secret
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03:06
leads to what economists call "information asymmetry."
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Dan dalam perekrutan atau promosi atau kenaikan pangkat berkala,
03:09
This is a situation where, in a negotiation,
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pemberi kerja bisa menghemat lebih banyak pengeluaran.
03:11
one party has loads more information than the other.
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03:14
And in hiring or promotion or annual raise discussions,
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Bayangkan seberapa baik Anda bisa menegosiakan gaji
setelah tahu gaji rekan Anda.
03:18
an employer can use that secrecy to save a lot of money.
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Ekonom memperingatkan bahwa ketimpangan informasi
03:22
Imagine how much better you could negotiate for a raise
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dapat merusak pasar.
03:25
if you knew everybody's salary.
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Ada slip gaji tertinggal
dan lantas ramai dibincangkan.
03:29
Economists warn that information asymmetry
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Mereka bahkan memperingatkan
03:32
can cause markets to go awry.
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bahwa ketimpangan informasi bisa mengakibatkan kegagalan pasar.
03:33
Someone leaves a pay stub on the copier,
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03:35
and suddenly everybody is shouting at each other.
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Dan saya rasa, ini benar.
03:38
In fact, they even warn
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Ini alasannya:
03:40
that information asymmetry can lead to a total market failure.
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Pertama, sebagian besar pekerja tidak tahu rentang gaji posisinya di pasaran.
03:46
And I think we're almost there.
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Survei terhadap 70 ribu pekerja di tahun 2015 menemukan,
03:48
Here's why:
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first, most employees have no idea how their pay compares to their peers'.
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bahwa dua pertiga responden yang dibayar sesuai standar pasar
mengaku gaji mereka kecil.
03:54
In a 2015 survey of 70,000 employees,
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Dan mereka yang merasa dibayar kecil,
03:58
two-thirds of everyone who is paid at the market rate
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60 persen di antaranya merasa ingin mengundurkan diri,
04:02
said that they felt they were underpaid.
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terlepas apakah mereka -- dibayar lebih kecil atau besar
04:05
And of everybody who felt that they were underpaid,
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atau sesuai stadar gaji umumya.
04:07
60 percent said that they intended to quit,
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Jika Anda mengikuti survei ini, dimana posisi Anda?
04:10
regardless of where they were -- underpaid, overpaid
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Apakah Anda digaji kecil?
Oh, tunggu --- dari mana Anda tahu,
04:13
or right at the market rate.
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Anda bahkan tidak boleh membahasnya, ya kan?
04:16
If you were part of this survey, what would you say?
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Lalu, ketimpangan informasi dan kerahasiaan gaji,
04:18
Are you underpaid?
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04:19
Well, wait -- how do you even know,
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membuat diskriminasi makin mudah untuk diabaikan
04:22
because you're not allowed to talk about it?
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seperti yang terjadi saat ini.
04:24
Next, information asymmetry, pay secrecy,
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Lembaga untuk Kebijakan Wanita tahun 2011 menyebut
04:28
makes it easier to ignore the discrimination
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kesenjangan upah pria dan wanita
04:31
that's already present in the market today.
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sebesar 23 persen.
Di sinilah 77 sen pada dolar itu berasal.
04:34
In a 2011 report from the Institute for Women's Policy Research,
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04:37
the gender wage gap between men and women
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Sedangkan di Pemerintah Pusat,
dimana gaji ditetapkan pada kisaran tertentu
04:40
was 23 percent.
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dan setiap pegawai tahu kisaran gajinya,
04:42
This is where that 77 cents on the dollar comes from.
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kesenjangan upah gender hanya 11 persen --
dan ini terlepas dari faktor-faktor lain
04:45
But in the Federal Government,
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04:47
where salaries are pinned to certain levels
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yang disarankan ekonom untuk dikendalikan.
04:49
and everybody knows what those levels are,
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Jika kita benar-benar ingin menekan hal ini,
04:51
the gender wage gap shrinks to 11 percent --
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04:53
and this is before controlling for any of the factors
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tidak ada salahnya bila daftar upah dibuka.
04:55
that economists argue over whether or not to control for.
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Untuk menghindari kegagalan pasar
04:59
If we really want to close the gender wage gap,
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maka keterbukaan adalah satu-satunya cara.
05:01
maybe we should start by opening up the payroll.
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Sekarang, saya tahu bahwa membicarakan pendapatan
05:04
If this is what total market failure looks like,
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mungkin membuat tidak nyaman,
namun akan lebih tidak nyaman
05:08
then openness remains the only way to ensure fairness.
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bila Anda terus merasa didiskriminasi,
05:12
Now, I realize that letting people know what you make
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atau bila istri, anak perempuan, atau saudara perempua Anda dibayar rendah?
05:14
might feel uncomfortable,
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05:16
but isn't it less uncomfortable
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Keterbukaan adalah cara terbaik mencapai keadilan,
05:18
than always wondering if you're being discriminated against,
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05:20
or if your wife or your daughter or your sister is being paid unfairly?
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dan transparansi upah salah satunya.
Inilah mengapa wirausahawan dan pemimpin korporasi
05:25
Openness remains the best way to ensure fairness,
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sudah lama bereksperimen dengan pengungkapan upah.
05:29
and pay transparency does that.
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Dane Atkinson salah satunya.
Dane telah merintis beberapa perusahaan
05:31
That's why entrepreneurial leaders and corporate leaders
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05:34
have been experimenting with sharing salaries for years.
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dengan merahasiakan upah
dan bahkan menawarkan gaji berbeda pada kandidat yang sama kuat,
05:37
Like Dane Atkinson.
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05:38
Dane is a serial entrepreneur who started many companies
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sesuai kemampuan negosiasi mereka.
05:42
in a pay secrecy condition
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Dan Dane melihat perselisihan yang ditimbulkan.
05:44
and even used that condition to pay two equally qualified people
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05:47
dramatically different salaries,
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Maka saat merintis perusahaannya, SumAll,
05:49
depending on how well they could negotiate.
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sejak awal ia berkomitmen untuk transparan dalam memberi upah.
05:52
And Dane saw the strife that happened as a result of this.
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Dan dampaknya luar biasa.
05:55
So when he started his newest company, SumAll,
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Dan menurut sejumlah studi serupa.
semakin tahu bagaimana ia diberi upah
05:58
he committed to salary transparency from the beginning.
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dan semakin layak upahnya,
06:01
And the results have been amazing.
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maka semakin baik performanya,
06:04
And in study after study,
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semakin aktif mereka terlibat, dan enggan berhenti.
06:06
when people know how they're being paid
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06:07
and how that pay compares to their peers',
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Dane tidak sendiri.
Dari start-up TI seperti Buffer
06:10
they're more likely to work hard to improve their performance,
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sampai jaringan supermarket Whole Foods dengan puluhan ribu pekerja,
06:12
more likely to be engaged, and they're less likely to quit.
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tidak hanya membuka rentang gaji
06:15
That's why Dane's not alone.
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06:17
From technology start-ups like Buffer,
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namun juga data performa toko dan masing-masing departemen
06:19
to the tens of thousands of employees at Whole Foods,
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pada website perusahaan mereka
agar bebas diakses.
06:23
where not only is your salary available for everyone to see,
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Lantas, ada beragam jenis transparansi upah.
06:26
but the performance data for the store and for your department
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Tentu perlu formula yang tepat.
06:29
is available on the company intranet
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Bisa dengan mengunggah level gaji.
06:31
for all to see.
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Atau cukup dalam lingkup internal.
06:33
Now, pay transparency takes a lot of forms.
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Beberapa membagikan rumus menghitung upah,
06:36
It's not one size fits all.
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mengumumkan prosentasi kenaikan gaji,
06:38
Some post their salaries for all to see.
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dan menerapkannya di semua tingkatan.
06:40
Some only keep it inside the company.
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Jadi saya rasa tidak perlu
06:42
Some post the formula for calculating pay,
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Anda membuat lencana gaji agar dipakai semua karyawan.
06:45
and others post the pay levels
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Dan Anda tidak perlu sendirian memakai lencana
06:47
and affix everybody to that level.
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yang Anda buat sendiri.
06:49
So you don't have to make signs
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Namun kita semua bisa bersama-sama mengupayakan transparansi upah.
06:51
for all of your employees to wear around the office.
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06:53
And you don't have to be the only one wearing a sign
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untuk mengupayakan keterbukaan ini;
06:56
that you made at home.
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saatnya Anda bergerak.
06:58
But we can all take greater steps towards pay transparency.
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Dan bagi Anda yang tidak memiliki wewenang;
saatnya Anda bangkit memperjuangkan.
07:02
For those of you that have the authority
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07:04
to move forward towards transparency:
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Jadi berapa gaji yang Anda terima?
07:06
it's time to move forward.
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07:07
And for those of you that don't have that authority:
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Dan seperti apa dibanding sejawat Anda?
07:10
it's time to stand up for your right to.
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Anda sebaiknya tahu.
Mereka sebaiknya juga tahu.
07:13
So how much do you get paid?
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Terima kasih.
07:16
And how does that compare to the people you work with?
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(Tepuk tangan)
07:19
You should know.
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07:21
And so should they.
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07:23
Thank you.
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07:25
(Applause)
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