What if a single human right could change the world? | Kristen Wenz

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2020-03-23・ 2422    124


Visit http://TED.com to get our entire library of TED Talks, transcripts, translations, personalized Talk recommendations and more. More than a billion people worldwide, mostly children, do not have a legal identity. In many countries, this means they can't get access to vital services like health care and education, says legal identity expert Kristen Wenz. She discusses why this problem is one of the greatest human rights violations of our time -- and shares five strategies to ensure everyone can get registered and protected. The TED Talks channel features the best talks and performances from the TED Conference, where the world's leading thinkers and doers give the talk of their lives in 18 minutes (or less). Look for talks on Technology, Entertainment and Design -- plus science, business, global issues, the arts and more. You're welcome to link to or embed these videos, forward them to others and share these ideas with people you know. For more information on using TED for commercial purposes (e.g. employee learning, in a film or online course), submit a Media Request here: http://media-requests.TED.com Follow TED on Twitter: http://twitter.com/TEDTalks Like TED on Facebook: http://facebook.com/TED Subscribe to our channel: http://youtube.com/TED

Instruction

Double-click on the English captions to play the video from there.

00:00
So, when I was 14,
Translator: Claudia Álvarez González Reviewer: Xosé María Moreno
Cando tiña 14 anos
00:03
my family was in the process of adopting my little brothers from Ethiopia.
a miña familia estaba adoptando os meus irmáns pequenos de Etiopía.
00:07
And one day my mom asked,
E un día a miña nai preguntou:
00:09
"What day should we put for their birthday?"
"que día deberiamos poñer para o seu aniversario?"
00:13
"Uh, the day they were born, obviously?"
"O día que naceron, obviamente?"
00:16
Ridiculous question.
Foi unha pregunta ridícula.
00:17
And then my mom said,
E entón dixo a miña nai:
00:19
"Well, Kristen,
"Olla, Kristen,
00:20
neither of your little brothers have a birth certificate,
ningún dos teus irmáns ten un certificado de nacemento,
00:23
so how do you suggest we find out when that was?"
así que, como pretendes que o descubramos?"
00:26
Mind blown.
Estoupoume a cabeza.
00:28
Now, 20 years later, I'm still working on it,
Agora, 20 anos máis tarde, sigo traballando niso,
00:31
except instead of trying to solve the mystery
mais en lugar de resolver o misterio
00:33
of my brothers' missing birth certificates,
das partidas de nacemento dos meus irmáns,
00:35
I try to solve this problem globally.
intento arranxar o problema no mundo.
00:37
So what do birth certificates have to do with international development?
Que teñen que ver as partidas de nacemento co desenvolvemento internacional?
00:41
To answer that, we have to look back at the original development agenda,
A resposta a iso está na axenda de desenvolvemento orixinal,
00:44
the human rights agenda.
a axenda dos dereitos humanos.
00:46
So in 1948, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights,
En 1948, a Declaración Universal dos Dereitos Humanos,
00:50
for the first time,
por primeira vez,
00:51
set a shared vision of basic human rights and dignities
estableceu unha visión compartida de dereitos humanos e dignidades básicas
00:55
that apply to all people in all nations:
que se aplicaban a todas as persoas en todas as nacións:
00:58
Article 6, the right to be recognized as a person before the law.
O Artigo 6, o dereito a ser recoñecido como unha persoa ante a lei.
01:03
Or, a legal identity.
Ou, unha identidade legal.
01:05
For children, this is a birth certificate.
Para os nenos, isto é a partida de nacemento.
01:07
And despite this being a universal human right,
E, aínda que isto sexa un dereito humano universal,
01:10
one billion people today have no record they exist,
mil millóns de persoas hoxe en día non teñen un documento de que existen,
01:14
making it one of the greatest human rights violations of our time,
isto supón unha das maiores violacións dos dereitos humanos do noso tempo,
01:18
yet nobody seems to know about it.
aínda así parece que ninguén ten coñecemento disto.
01:22
In the face of world poverty and hunger,
Ante a pobreza e a fame no mundo,
01:24
making sure everyone in the world has a legal identity
asegurármonos de que todos temos unha identidade legal
01:27
doesn't really seem important,
non parece importante,
01:28
but in reality it is.
pero si que o é.
01:31
See, early in my career,
Nos comezos da miña carreira
01:32
I was working with a social worker in a slum community in Mumbai,
traballei cunha traballadora social nunha comunidade de asilo en Mumbai
01:36
and we were following up on a case with this little girl
e estivemos seguindo o caso dunha rapaza pequena
01:39
who had contracted polio as a baby and was paralyzed from the waist down.
que tivera polio cando era un bebé e tiña o corpo paralizado da cintura para abaixo.
01:44
When we arrived at the home,
Cando chegamos á casa,
01:46
we found her on the floor.
atopámola no chan.
01:48
Her legs were badly scarred and infected,
Tiña moitas cicatrices nas pernas e estaban infectadas,
01:51
she was malnourished,
estaba desnutrida,
01:52
she had never gone to school
non fora nunca á escola
01:55
and she had spent most of her life confined to this small, dark room.
e pasara case toda a súa vida confinada nese cuarto pequeno e escuro.
02:00
When we left, I asked the social worker what the case plan was,
Ao marchar, pregunteille á traballadora social cal era o plan para ese caso
02:04
and she said, "Well first, we have to get her a birth certificate."
e díxome: "primeiro temos que conseguir a súa partida de nacemento".
02:08
I was a little taken aback.
Isto sorprendeume un pouco.
02:09
I said, "Well, don't you think we need to get her some social assistance
Eu dixen: "non cres que deberíamos conseguirlle asistencia social
02:12
and a safe place to live and into a school?"
e un lugar seguro para vivir e ir á escola?"
02:14
She goes, "Exactly, which is why we need to get her a birth certificate."
E dixo: "exacto, por iso precisamos a súa partida de nacemento".
02:18
See, without a legal identity,
Sen identidade legal,
02:20
you are not recognized as a person by the government.
o goberno non nos recoñece como persoas.
02:23
And a person who doesn't officially exist can't access government services,
Unha persoa que non existe oficialmente non pode acceder aos servizos do goberno,
02:27
and the government can only provide services
e o goberno só pode ofrecer servizos
02:30
for the number of people they know about.
para as persoas das que ten coñecemento.
02:32
Hence, people are overlooked, for example, by routine immunization services.
Por iso, algunhas persoas son ignoradas polos servizos de inmunización rutinarios.
02:37
People without a legal identity are both uncounted and unprotected.
As persoas sen unha identidade legal non contan nin están protexidas.
02:42
They're among the poorest members of society
Atópanse entre os membros máis pobres da sociedade
02:45
from the most marginalized communities.
que pertencen ás comunidades máis marxinadas.
02:47
They're victims of trafficking.
Son vítimas de tráfico de persoas.
02:49
Human traffickers know that it's nearly impossible to find someone
Os traficantes de persoas saben que é case imposible atopar a alguén
02:53
if there was never a record they existed in the first place.
se non hai ningún rexistro de que esa persona existe.
02:57
They're victims of exploitation, such as child marriage and child labor.
Son vítimas de explotación, como o matrimonio e o traballo infantil.
03:01
Without a birth certificate, how do you prove a child is still a child?
Sen partida de nacemento, como demostras que un neno segue a ser un neno?
03:05
They're among the stateless;
Atópanse entre os apátridas;
03:07
birth certificates provide proof of who your parents are
as partidas de nacemento mostran quen son os teus pais
03:09
and where you were born,
e cando naciches,
03:11
the two main factors for acquiring nationality.
os dous factores principais para adquirir unha nacionalidade.
03:15
Of the one billion people in the world without a legal identity,
Das mil millóns de persoas no mundo sen identidade legal,
03:18
the vast majority are children who were never registered at birth.
a gran maioría son nenos que nunca foron rexistrados ao nacer.
03:22
In the least developed nations,
Nos países menos desenvolvidos,
03:24
the births of over 60 percent of children have never been recorded.
os nacementos de máis dun 60 % dos nenos nunca se rexistraron.
03:28
A study across 17 countries in sub-Saharan Africa
Un estudio realizado en 17 países en África subsahariana
03:31
found that 80 percent of children did not have a birth certificate.
descubriu que o 80 % dos nenos non tiñan unha partida de nacemento.
03:35
Out of the countries that have not yet achieved
Dos países que non teñen aínda
03:38
universal birth registration coverage,
a cobertura do rexistro universal de nacementos,
03:41
in 26 countries, a birth certificate is required to access health care,
en 26, é necesaria a partida de nacemento para acceder aos servicios sanitarios,
03:45
including vaccines.
incluídas as vacinas.
03:47
In 37 countries, it's required to access social assistance
En 37 países é necesaria para acceder á asistencia social, que intenta
03:50
intended to bring people out of poverty.
sacar as persoas da súa situación de pobreza.
03:55
And in 59 countries, a birth certificate is required
En 59 países, a partida de nacemento é necesaria para que os nenos
03:59
for a child to be enrolled or complete school.
poidan ir á escola ou completaren a súa formación.
04:02
A birth certificate is also often required for other forms of legal identity,
Tamén se precisa a partida de nacemento para outras formas de identificación legal
04:06
like a national ID or a passport.
como o carné de identidade ou o pasaporte.
04:09
And some form of legal identity in almost every country is required
Estas formas de identificación legal son necesarias en case todos os países
04:12
to vote, get a SIM card or open a bank account.
para votar, obter unha tarxeta SIM ou abrir unha conta no banco.
04:15
In fact, of the 1.7 billion people in the world who are unbanked,
De feito, dos 1 700 millóns de persoas no mundo sen servizos bancarios,
04:19
20 percent is due to not having a legal identity document.
un 20 % non os teñen porque non teñen un documento de identidade legal.
04:23
Now, you don't have to be an expert to see that this, times a billion,
Non hai que ser un experto para ver que isto, multiplicado por mil millóns
04:27
is a big problem.
é un grave problema.
04:29
So it's not surprising that evidence shows
Non nos sorprende que as probas demostren
04:31
that improved birth registration coverage goes hand in hand
que mellorar a cobertura de rexistro de nacementos mellora
04:34
with improved development outcomes,
os resultados de desenvolvemento,
04:36
from poverty alleviation
desde a redución da pobreza
04:37
to better health, nutrition, education,
ata unha mellora da saúde, a nutrición e a educación,
04:40
economic improvement
a mellora económica
04:42
and safe and orderly migration.
e a migración segura e organizada.
04:46
In 2015, world leaders came together
En 2015, os líderes mundiais reuníronse
04:51
and promised that they would uphold human rights of all people
e prometeron que defenderían os dereitos humanos de todas as persoas
04:55
and leave no one behind
e non deixarían a ningúen atrás
04:56
in efforts to end poverty,
no seu esforzo por acabar coa pobreza,
04:58
hunger
a fame
04:59
and reduce inequalities.
e reducir a desigualdade.
05:01
But how are they going to uphold human rights
Pero, en primeiro lugar, como van defender
05:03
and how do they know if anyone is being left behind
os dereitos humanos e como van saber
05:06
if they do not know who they are or where they are
se están deixando a alguén atrás se non saben
05:09
in the first place?
quen son nin onde están?
05:13
So what can countries do about this?
Que poden facer os países sobre este asunto?
05:16
Now, there's no one-size-fits-all model,
Non hai un modelo que sirva para todos
05:18
because every country context is unique.
porque o contexto de cada país é único.
05:20
There are five proven interventions that can be applied to any system.
Hai cinco intervencións probadas que poden aplicarse a calquera sistema.
05:24
Number one, reduce the distance.
A primeira é reducir a distancia.
05:26
Two, remove the cost.
A segunda, eliminar o coste.
05:28
Three, simplify the process.
A terceira, simplificar o proceso.
05:30
Four, remove discrimination.
A cuarta, eliminar a discriminación.
05:32
Five, increase demand.
A quinta, aumentar a demanda.
05:35
Gender discrimination remains a hidden problem,
A discriminación por xénero aínda é un problema oculto,
05:39
because statistically, there's no difference
porque, por estatística, non hai diferenza
05:41
between registration rates of boys and girls.
entre as cifras de rexistro de nenos e nenas.
05:43
But the discrimination isn't against the child --
Pero non se discrimina aos nenos
05:45
it's against the mother.
senón á nai.
05:47
Angola was one of 35 countries that required a father's name
Angola era un dos 35 países que precisaban o nome do pai
05:50
or to be present in order for the child's birth to be registered.
ou que el estivese presente para que se rexistrase o nacemento do neno.
05:54
So in situations where the father is unknown, unwilling
Así que, en situacións nas que o pai é descoñecido, non quere
05:58
or unable to claim paternity,
ou non pode reclamar a paternidade,
06:00
the mothers are legally prevented from registering the births
as nais son impedidas de legalmente rexistrar os nacementos
06:03
of their own children.
dos seus propios fillos.
06:05
So to address this, Angola put a policy in place
Para abordar este problema, Angola aplicou unha política
06:07
allowing mothers to register their children as a single parent.
que permite ás nais rexistrar o seu fillo como nai solteira.
06:12
In Tanzania, in 2012,
En Tanzania, en 2012,
06:14
only 13 percent of children had a birth certificate.
só un 13 % dos nenos tiñan unha partida de nacemento.
06:17
So the government came up with a new system.
Así que, o goberno desenvolveu un novo sistema.
06:20
They put registration centers in existing infrastructure,
Estableceron centros de rexistro en infraestruturas xa existentes,
06:26
such as community wards
como salas comunitarias
06:28
and in health facilities.
e en instalacións médicas.
06:29
So they brought the services closer to the people who needed them.
Así levaron estes servizos máis preto da xente que os precisaba.
06:33
They removed the fee.
Eliminaron a taxa.
06:35
They simplified the process and automated it,
Simplificaron o proceso e automatizárono,
06:37
so the birth certificate could be issued on the spot.
para poder emitir a partida de nacemento no momento.
06:40
To increase demand, they rolled out a public awareness campaign,
Para aumentaren a demanda, lanzaron unha campaña de concienciación social
06:43
letting people know that there's a new process
para que a xente saiba que hai un novo proceso
06:46
and why it was important to register the births of their children.
e por que é importante rexistrar o nacemento dos seus fillos.
06:50
In just a few years in the districts where the new system was put in place,
En poucos anos, nos distritos onde se puxo en marcha o novo sistema,
06:54
83 percent of children now have birth certificates,
o 83 % dos nenos teñen partidas de nacemento
06:57
and they're in the process of rolling this out nationwide.
e están en proceso de amplialo ao ámbito nacional.
07:01
So what can you do?
Así que, que podemos facer?
07:03
See, I believe we are all united by our humanity.
Creo que todos estamos unidos pola nosa humanidade.
07:06
We live on the same earth. We breathe the same air.
Vivimos no mesmo planeta. Respiramos o mesmo aire.
07:10
And while none of us chose to be born or the situation we were born into,
E, mentres que ningún de nós elixiu onde nace ou a situación en que naceu,
07:13
we do get to choose how we live.
si que podemos elixir como vivimos.
07:16
Change occurs when a moment of awareness
Os cambios prodúcense cando un momento de concienciación
07:19
or a moment of compassion
ou un intre de compaixón
07:21
inspires a person to act.
inspiran a unha persoa para que actúe.
07:23
And through our collective action,
E coa nosa ación colectiva
07:25
we become the most powerful agents of change.
seremos os axentes máis poderosos do cambio.
07:28
And when the cost of inaction is innocent children are left unprotected,
Se o custo da inacción é que nenos inocentes estean desprotexidos,
07:33
unvaccinated, unable to go to school,
sen vacinar e sen poder ir á escola,
07:35
growing up to be adults who are unable to find decent work or vote,
crecendo para ser adultos incapaces de atopar un bo traballo ou votar,
07:39
trapped in a cycle of poverty, exclusion and invisibility,
atrapados nun círculo de pobreza, exclusión e invisibilidade,
07:44
it comes down to us
é a nosa responsabilidade
07:46
to take this issue out of the darkness
sacar este tema da escuridade
07:48
and into the light.
e traelo á luz.
07:50
Because it's not every day you get the opportunity to change the world,
Porque non todos os días temos a oportunidade de cambiar o mundo,
07:54
but today,
pero hoxe
07:55
you do.
podemos.
07:57
Thanks.
Grazas.
07:59
(Applause)
(Aplausos)
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