You can only save one— who do you choose? - Doug MacKay

1,664,292 views

2021-12-21・ TED-Ed

You can only save one— who do you choose? - Doug MacKay

1,664,292 views・2021-12-21

TED-Ed


Double-click on the English subtitles below to play the video.

Translator: Reviewer: Thomas Tam
00:06
You are the captain of the Mallory 7, an interstellar cargo transport.
你係星際貨船 Mallory 7 嘅船長
00:11
On your way to the New Lindley spaceport, you receive a distress call.
喺去 New Lindley 嘅途中 收到求救嘅信號
00:16
There’s been an explosion on the Telic 12
Telic 12 發生爆炸
00:19
and its passengers are running out of oxygen.
乘客嘅氧氣好快無曬
00:21
As you set a course to intercept, you check the Telic 12′s manifest.
當設置攔截路線嗰陣 你檢查咗 Telic 12 嘅艙單
00:26
It’s currently transporting 30 middle-aged individuals
目前正將三十名來自地球貧民區嘅中年人
00:29
from some of Earth’s poorest districts to the labor center on New Lindley,
送往 New Lindley 勞動力中心
00:33
where they'll be assigned jobs on the spaceport.
佢哋將會喺航天站獲得分配工作
00:36
But as you approach the Telic 12, you receive a second distress call.
但你駛向 Telic 12 時 又收到第二個求救信號
00:40
A luxury space cruiser called the Pareto has lost a thruster,
豪華太空船 Pareto 失去咗一個推進器
00:44
sending them careening towards an asteroid belt.
正受影響,傾斜向一群小行星帶進發
00:47
Without your help, the 20 college students headed for vacation
沒有你嘅幫忙
二十個旅遊途中嘅大學生係命中注定喇
00:51
aboard the Pareto are all doomed.
00:54
So with only enough time to save one ship, which one should you choose?
而你只係有時間拯救一艘船 咁你會選擇邊艘船呢?
00:59
This dilemma is an example of a broader class of problems
呢種兩難嘅局面屬於更廣範疇問題嘅例子
01:03
where a life-saving resource— such as a donated organ or vaccine—
就係當救人嘅資源
01:07
is scarce.
就比如器官或疫苗面臨短缺嘅情況下
01:09
There are many schools of thought on how to approach these problems,
有好多學校研究點樣解決呢啲問題
01:12
and one of the most influential is utilitarianism,
其中最具影響力嘅解決方法係功利主義
01:15
an ethical view first systematically developed
由 Jeremy Bentham 同 John Stuart Mill
01:18
by Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill.
首先發展嘅倫理觀念
01:21
In this view, you should choose the action
認為你應該做啲
01:23
which promises the greatest sum of happiness.
畀你得到最多幸福感嘅選擇
01:26
Though, how to define and measure happiness is a difficult question.
但係點樣定義同量度幸福感係個難題
01:30
For example, hedonists would suggest a happy life
比如享樂主義者會講快樂嘅人生
01:33
contains the most pleasure and the least pain.
係有最多嘅歡樂同埋最少嘅痛苦
01:36
Others might say it’s the life where your desires are most fulfilled.
其餘啲人會講,快樂嘅人生 係能夠滿足最多嘅慾望
01:40
However happiness is defined,
唔論你點樣定義幸福感
01:42
most would agree that saving 30 lives has the potential
好多人會贊同拯救三十條人命
01:46
to generate more happiness than saving 20.
比救二十條人命,潛在 產生更多嘅幸福感
01:49
But is it enough to consider how many lives would be saved?
咁樣做決定係唔係就係足夠咩?
01:52
Or should you also consider how many life years would be?
或者,係唔係需要諗啲人 仲有幾多年可以繼續生存呢?
01:57
Assuming a life expectancy of 80, saving the lives of the students,
假設預咗人有八十歲命 拯救平均二十歲嘅學生
02:01
with an average age of 20, saves 1,200 life years,
就等於拯救咗一千二百年嘅壽命
02:05
while saving the workers, with an average age of 45, saves 1,050.
如果拯救平均四十五歲嘅工人呢﹗ 就等於救咗一千零五十年嘅壽命
02:11
All things being equal, a longer life should promise
假設其他條件唔變 救咗多啲人嘅生存年數
02:14
a greater sum of happiness than a shorter one.
可以帶來更多嘅幸福感
02:18
So perhaps saving the smaller ship actually has the potential
所以拯救嗰艘細嘅太空船
02:21
to generate the most happiness.
畀你帶來更多嘅幸福感
02:24
If all these calculations feel a bit cold,
如果你覺得咁樣計算太過冷血,
02:26
you may want to consider a different approach.
可以試下另一個方法。
02:29
The philosopher Derek Parfit argues we should give priority to the worse off,
哲學家 Derek Parfit 指出 我哋應該將優先權畀啲情況較差嘅人,
02:33
since benefits to those groups matter more
由於幫助呢啲人
02:36
than equivalent benefits to the well-off.
比起幫助富有嘅人更加重要
02:39
In this view, it’s more urgent to help those whose basic needs aren’t met
從呢個角度睇,最急切嘅係 幫助嗰啲唔能夠滿足基本生活需要嘅人
02:43
even if they’re harder to help than those who are flourishing.
儘管比起生活富足嘅人更難嚟到幫助
02:47
But often, determining which group is truly worse off can get complicated fast.
但係要判斷邊個情況較差係更加複雜。
02:52
In our case, Earth is still beset by drastic inequalities
呢種情況下,地球仍然受貧富懸殊
02:56
in wealth and opportunity.
同埋資源分配不公平嘅困擾
02:58
And those able to afford a vacation on New Lindley
嗰啲能夠負擔到 New Lindley 旅行
03:01
and transport on a luxury cruiser
坐豪華太空船嘅人
03:03
are no doubt among the most well-off people on the planet.
毫無疑問係地球上最富裕嘅一批人
03:07
The workers, by contrast, are among the most disadvantaged,
對比起嚟,工人係社會嘅低層
03:11
traveling away from home for months at a time to perform service work.
為咗生計離家幾個月
03:15
With fewer resources and opportunities,
喺缺乏資源同埋機會底下
03:17
it’s likely they’ve experienced more hardship in their lives
佢哋比起啲富有嘅遊客
03:20
than the vacationers,
已經面對咗更多艱辛嘅處境
03:21
so maybe they’re more deserving of rescue?
係唔係佢哋更值得我哋拯救呢?
03:23
On the other hand, the students have experienced less life overall—
睇嚟學生未能夠得到更多嘅人生經驗
03:27
so perhaps they’re worse off?
佢哋嘅情況又係唔係更差呢?
03:29
Or maybe none of these variables should influence our decision.
或者我哋嘅決定 唔應該受任何變數嘅影響好啲
03:33
The philosopher John Taurek famously argued that in these types of cases,
哲學家 John Taurek 出名嘅觀點指出,喺呢種情況下
03:37
the numbers don’t count.
數字並唔係咁緊要
03:40
Each person is deserving of equal concern and respect,
每一個人都值得我哋關心同埋尊重
03:43
so the best way to decide which passengers to save is to flip a coin.
所以掟銀仔做決定 拯救邊一啲乘客係最佳嘅方法
03:48
While this might seem arbitrary at first, this approach treats all parties equally,
雖然睇嚟呢啲方法好隨便 但係對持份者係公平嘅
03:53
giving each individual an equal chance of being rescued.
每一個人都得到同樣嘅拯救機會
03:57
Could any passenger argue that they're being treated unfairly by a coin flip?
有邊個乘客可以指出 掟銀仔嘅做法係唔公平咩?
04:02
It’s tough to say.
咁就好難講啦﹗
04:04
But how they— and you— feel about the result may be another dilemma altogether.
但係佢哋或者你哋對結果嘅感受 講真就係另一個兩難嘅題目啦!
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