Art in the age of machine intelligence | Refik Anadol

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2020-08-19・ 15333    349


Visit http://TED.com to get our entire library of TED Talks, transcripts, translations, personalized talk recommendations and more. What does it look like inside the mind of a machine? Inspired by the architectural vision of a futuristic Los Angeles in "Blade Runner," media artist Refik Anadol melds art with artificial intelligence in his studio's collaborations with architects, data scientists, neuroscientists, musicians and more. Witness otherworldly installations that might make you rethink the future of tech and creativity. The TED Talks channel features the best talks and performances from the TED Conference, where the world's leading thinkers and doers give the talk of their lives in 18 minutes (or less). Look for talks on Technology, Entertainment and Design -- plus science, business, global issues, the arts and more. You're welcome to link to or embed these videos, forward them to others and share these ideas with people you know. For more information on using TED for commercial purposes (e.g. employee learning, in a film or online course), submit a Media Request here: http://media-requests.TED.com Follow TED on Twitter: http://twitter.com/TEDTalks Like TED on Facebook: http://facebook.com/TED Subscribe to our channel: http://youtube.com/TED

Instruction

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Translator: Alba Gil Vicente Reviewer: Mario Cal
00:12
Hi, I'm Refik. I'm a media artist.
Ola, o meu nome é Refik e son artista multimedia.
00:15
I use data as a pigment
O meu pigmento son os datos
00:17
and paint with a thinking brush
e pinto co pincel do pensamento
00:19
that is assisted by artificial intelligence.
asistido por unha intelixencia artificial.
00:23
Using architectural spaces as canvases,
Uso espazos arquitectónicos no canto de lenzos,
00:25
I collaborate with machines
colaboro con máquinas
00:27
to make buildings dream and hallucinate.
para que os edificios soñen e alucinen.
00:30
You may be wondering, what does all this mean?
Preguntarédesvos, que quere dicir todo isto?
00:33
So let me please take you into my work and my world.
Permitídeme que vos introduza no meu traballo e no meu mundo.
00:37
I witnessed the power of imagination when I was eight years old,
Fun testemuña do poder da imaxinación con 8 anos,
00:41
as a child growing up in Istanbul.
en Istambul, cando era neno.
00:43
One day, my mom brought home a videocassette
Un día, miña nai levou para a casa unha cinta de vídeo
00:47
of the science-fiction movie "Blade Runner."
do filme de ciencia ficción Blade Runner.
00:50
I clearly remember being mesmerized
Lembro con claridade estar fascinado
00:53
by the stunning architectural vision of the future of Los Angeles,
pola incrible visión arquitectónica de Los Ángeles do futuro,
00:58
a place that I had never seen before.
un lugar que eu non vira nunca.
01:00
That vision became a kind of a staple of my daydreams.
Esa visión converteuse na base do meu soñar esperto.
01:06
When I arrived in LA in 2012
Cando cheguei a Los Ángeles en 2012
01:08
for a graduate program in Design Media Arts,
para estudar un posgrao en Deseño e Artes Dixitais,
01:11
I rented a car and drove downtown
aluguei un coche e fun ó centro da cidade
01:13
to see that wonderful world of the near future.
para ver ese marabilloso mundo do futuro próximo.
01:17
I remember a specific line
Lembro que había unha escena
01:19
that kept playing over and over in my head:
que se repetía na miña cabeza unha e outra vez:
01:22
the scene when the android Rachael
aquela na que Rachael, o androide,
01:24
realizes that her memories are actually not hers,
se decata de que as súas lembranzas en verdade non son súas,
01:28
and when Deckard tells her they are someone else's memories.
e Deckard lle di que son lembranzas doutra persoa.
01:32
Since that moment,
Dende ese instante,
01:34
one of my inspirations has been this question.
unha das miñas inspiracións foi esta pregunta.
01:37
What can a machine do with someone else's memories?
Que pode facer unha máquina cos recordos doutra persoa?
01:41
Or, to say that in another way,
Ou, por dicilo doutro xeito,
01:44
what does it mean to be an AI in the 21st century?
que significa ser unha IA no século XXI?
01:49
Any android or AI machine
Calquera androide ou intelixencia artificial
01:51
is only intelligent as long as we collaborate with it.
é intelixente sempre e cando colaboremos con ela.
01:55
It can construct things
Pode construír cousas
01:56
that human intelligence intends to produce
que a intelixencia humana aspira a producir
02:00
but does not have the capacity to do so.
pero que non ten a capacidade de lograr.
02:03
Think about your activities and social networks, for example.
Pensade nas vosas actividades e redes sociais, por exemplo.
02:07
They get smarter the more you interact with them.
Canto máis interactuades con elas, máis intelixentes son.
02:10
If machines can learn or process memories,
Se as máquinas poden aprender ou procesar lembranzas,
02:15
can they also dream?
poden tamén soñar?
02:17
Hallucinate?
Alucinar?
02:18
Involuntarily remember,
Ter recordos involuntarios,
02:21
or make connections between multiple people's dreams?
ou facer conexións entre os soños de varias persoas?
02:25
Does being an AI in the 21st century simply mean not forgetting anything?
Ser unha IA no século XXI significa non esquecer nada?
02:32
And, if so,
E, se é así,
02:33
isn't it the most revolutionary thing that we have experienced
non é a experiencia máis revolucionaria de todas as que vivimos
02:37
in our centuries-long effort to capture history across media?
tras séculos de esforzos para inmortalizar a historia de diferentes formas?
02:43
In other words,
Dito doutro xeito,
02:44
how far have we come since Ridley Scott's "Blade Runner"?
Canto avanzamos dende o Blade Runner de Ridley Scott?
02:48
So I established my studio in 2014
Abrín o meu estudio en 2014
02:52
and invited architects,
e convidei a arquitectos,
02:54
computer and data scientists, neuroscientists,
analistas de datos, informáticos, neurocientíficos,
02:56
musicians and even storytellers
músicos e mesmo contacontos
02:59
to join me in realizing my dreams.
para que se unisen a min para cumprir os meus soños.
03:03
Can data become a pigment?
Poden os datos ser un pigmento?
03:05
This was the very first question we asked
Esa foi a primeira pregunta que fixemos
03:08
when starting our journey to embed media arts into architecture,
cando comezamos a viaxe de integrar as artes dixitais na arquitectura,
03:13
to collide virtual and physical worlds.
e unir os mundos físico e virtual.
03:16
So we began to imagine what I would call the poetics of data.
Comezamos imaxinando o que eu chamo a "poesía dos datos".
03:22
One of our first projects, "Virtual Depictions,"
Un dos primeiros proxectos, "Representacións Virtuais",
03:24
was a public data sculpture piece
era unha escultura de datos públicos
03:26
commissioned by the city of San Francisco.
encargada pola cidade de San Francisco.
03:29
The work invites the audience
O traballo invita ó público
03:31
to be part of a spectacular aesthetic experience
a participar nunha experiencia artística extraordinaria
03:35
in a living urban space
nun espazo urbano vivo
03:36
by depicting a fluid network of connections of the city itself.
coa representación dunha rede de conexións fluídas da propia cidade.
03:42
It also stands as a reminder
Tamén é un recordatorio
03:45
of how invisible data from our everyday lives,
de como os datos invisibles do noso día a día,
03:48
like the Twitter feeds that are represented here,
coma os fíos de Twitter representados aquí,
03:51
can be made visible
poden facerse visibles
03:53
and transformed into sensory knowledge that can be experienced collectively.
e transformarse en coñecemento sensorial que se pode experimentar colectivamente.
04:00
In fact, data can only become knowledge when it's experienced,
De feito, os datos só se converten en coñecemento cando os experimentamos,
04:05
and what is knowledge and experience can take many forms.
e o coñecemento e a experiencia poden tomar moitas formas.
04:09
When exploring such connections
Ó explorar estas conexións
04:11
through the vast potential of machine intelligence,
mediante o potencial da intelixencia das máquinas,
04:15
we also pondered the connection between human senses
tamén reflexionamos sobre a conexión entre os sentidos humanos
04:21
and the machines' capacity for simulating nature.
e a capacidade das máquinas para simular a natureza.
04:24
These inquiries began while working on wind-data paintings.
Esta investigación xurdiu ó traballarmos en pinturas baseadas en datos eólicos.
04:29
They took the shape of visualized poems
Adoptaron a forma de poemas visualizados
04:32
based on hidden data sets that we collected from wind sensors.
baseados en conxuntos de datos ocultos que recollemos dos sensores eólicos.
04:37
We then used generative algorithms
Empregamos algoritmos xerativos
04:40
to transform wind speed, gust and direction
para transformar a velocidade do vento, os refachos e a dirección
04:44
into an ethereal data pigment.
nun pigmento de datos etéreos.
04:48
The result was a meditative yet speculative experience.
O resultado foi unha experiencia meditativa e especulativa á vez.
04:53
This kinetic data sculpture, titled "Bosphorus,"
Esta escultura de datos cinéticos, titulada Bósforo,
04:56
was a similar attempt to question our capacity to reimagine
era un intento similar de cuestionar a nosa capacidade de reimaxinar
05:00
natural occurrences.
os fenómenos naturais.
05:03
Using high-frequency radar collections of the Marmara Sea,
Cos datos do radar de alta frecuencia do mar de Mármara,
05:07
we collected sea-surface data
recollimos datos da superficie do mar
05:10
and projected its dynamic movement with machine intelligence.
e proxectamos o movemento dinámico coa Intelixencia das Máquinas.
05:13
We create a sense of immersion
Creamos unha sensación de inmersión
05:15
in a calm yet constantly changing synthetic sea view.
nunhas vistas artificiais do mar tranquilizadoras e sempre cambiantes.
05:21
Seeing with the brain is often called imagination,
Chamámoslle imaxinación a "ver co cerebro"
05:25
and, for me, imagining architecture
e, para mi, imaxinar arquitectura
05:27
goes beyond just glass, metal or concrete,
vai alén do cristal, do metal ou do formigón,
05:31
instead experimenting with the furthermost possibilities of immersion
e chega até a experimentación coas opcións máis remotas da inmersión
05:36
and ways of augmenting our perception in built environments.
e cos xeitos de mellorar a percepción dos espazos construídos.
05:40
Research in artificial intelligence is growing every day,
Os estudos sobre intelixencia artificial aumentan cada día,
05:44
leaving us with the feeling of being plugged into a system
e déixannos coa sensación de estar enchufados a un sistema
05:48
that is bigger and more knowledgeable
que é meirande e ten máis coñecementos
05:50
than ourselves.
ca nós mesmos.
05:51
In 2017, we discovered an open-source library
En 2017, descubrimos unha biblioteca de acceso aberto
05:55
of cultural documents in Istanbul
con documentos culturais de Istanbul
05:58
and began working on "Archive Dreaming,"
e comezamos a traballar no "Arquivo Soñado",
06:01
one of the first AI-driven public installations in the world,
unha das primeiras instalacións públicas do mundo impulsada por unha IA
06:06
an AI exploring approximately 1.7 million documents that span 270 years.
que explora case 1,7 millóns de documentos que comprenden 270 anos de historia.
06:13
One of our inspirations during this process
Unha das nosas inspiracións durante este proceso
06:16
was a short story called "The Library of Babel"
foi un relato breve chamado "A biblioteca de Babel"
06:20
by the Argentine writer Jorge Luis Borges.
do arxentino Jorge Luis Borges.
06:23
In the story, the author conceives a universe in the form of a vast library
Na historia, o autor imaxina un universo con forma de gran biblioteca
06:29
containing all possible 410-page books of a certain format and character set.
que contén tódolos libros de 410 páxinas cun formato e caracteres concretos.
06:35
Through this inspiring image,
Mediante esta visión,
06:36
we imagine a way to physically explore the vast archives of knowledge
ideamos un xeito de explorar fisicamente os vastos arquivos do coñecemento
06:41
in the age of machine intelligence.
na era da intelixencia das máquinas.
06:43
The resulting work, as you can see,
O resultado, como podedes ver,
06:45
was a user-driven immersive space.
foi un espazo inmersivo impulsado polos usuarios.
06:48
"Archive Dreaming" profoundly transformed the experience of a library
O "Arquivo soñado" transformou totalmente a experiencia dunha biblioteca
06:53
in the age of machine intelligence.
na era da intelixencia das máquinas.
06:56
"Machine Hallucination" is an exploration of time and space
"Alucinación das Máquinas" é un estudo do tempo e do espazo
07:00
experienced through New York City's public photographic archives.
baseado nós arquivos fotográficos públicos da cidade de Nova York.
07:04
For this one-of-a-kind immersive project,
Para este proxecto inmersivo único,
07:07
we deployed machine-learning algorithms
empregamos algoritmos de aprendizaxe automática
07:10
to find and process over 100 million photographs of the city.
para atopar e procesar máis de 100 millóns de fotografías da cidade.
07:15
We designed an innovative narrative system
Deseñamos un sistema narrativo innovador
07:18
to use artificial intelligence to predict or to hallucinate new images,
para empregar a intelixencia artificial para predicir ou alucinar novas imaxes,
07:24
allowing the viewer to step into a dreamlike fusion
permitindo que o espectador entre nunha fusión onírica
07:28
of past and future New York.
do pasado e do futuro de Nova York.
07:31
As our projects delve deeper
Canto máis afondan os nosos proxectos
07:33
into remembering and transmitting knowledge,
en lembrar e transmitir coñecementos,
07:37
we thought more about how memories were not static recollections
pensamos máis sobre como as lembranzas non son recordos estáticos,
07:42
but ever-changing interpretations of past events.
senón interpretacións de feitos pasados que cambian constantemente.
07:46
We pondered how machines
Consideramos de que xeito as máquinas
07:48
could simulate unconscious and subconscious events,
poden simular feitos inconscientes e subconscientes,
07:52
such as dreaming, remembering and hallucinating.
como os soños, os recordos e as alucinacións.
07:57
Thus, we created "Melting Memories"
Por iso creamos Fundindo Recordos
08:00
to visualize the moment of remembering.
para visualizar o momento de lembrar.
08:03
The inspiration came from a tragic event,
A inspiración veu do momento tráxico
08:06
when I found out that my uncle was diagnosed with Alzheimer's.
no que lle diagnosticaron alzhéimer a meu tío.
08:11
At that time, all I could think about
Naquel momento eu só podía pensar
08:14
was to find a way to celebrate how and what we remember
en atopar un xeito de celebrar o que lembramos e como o lembramos
08:19
when we are still able to do so.
cando aínda temos a capacidade de facelo.
08:21
I began to think of memories not as disappearing
Comecei a pensar nos recordos non como elementos que esvaecen
08:25
but as melting or changing shape.
senón como elementos que se funden ou cambian de forma.
08:28
With the help of machine intelligence,
Coa axuda da intelixencia das máquinas,
08:30
we worked with the scientists at the Neuroscape Laboratory
traballamos cos científicos do Laboratorio Neuroscape
08:33
at the University of California,
na Universidade de California,
08:35
who showed us how to understand brain signals as memories are made.
que nos ensinaron a ler os sinais cerebrais
durante a creación de recordos.
08:41
Although my own uncle was losing the ability to process memories,
Malia que o meu propio tío estaba a perder a capacidade de procesar recordos,
08:46
the artwork generated by EEG data
a obra de arte creada cos datos dos encefalogramas
08:49
explored the materiality of remembering
exploraba a materialidade dos recordos
08:53
and stood as a tribute to what my uncle had lost.
e servía como tributo a aquilo que meu tío xa perdera.
09:00
Almost nothing about contemporary LA
Case nada do Los Ángeles contemporáneo
09:03
matched my childhood expectation of the city,
coincidía coas miñas expectativas de infancia sobre a cidade,
09:07
with the exception of one amazing building:
a excepción dun edificio incrible:
09:10
the Walt Disney Concert Hall, designed by Frank Gehry,
o Walt Disney Concert Hall (WDCH), deseñado por Frank Gehry,
09:13
one of my all-time heroes.
un dos meus heroes.
09:16
In 2018, I had a call from the LA Philharmonic
En 2018, recibín unha chamada da Filharmónica de Los Ángeles
09:19
who was looking for an installation
que quería unha instalación
09:21
to help mark the celebrated symphony's hundred-year anniversary.
para celebrar o centenario desta célebre Sinfónica.
09:25
For this, we decided to ask the question,
Para isto, fixemos a seguinte pregunta:
09:29
"Can a building learn? Can it dream?"
"Pode aprender un edificio? Pode soñar?"
09:32
To answer this question,
Para responder,
09:33
we decided to collect everything recorded in the archives of the LA Phil and WDCH.
decidimos recompilar todas as gravacións dos arquivos da Filharmónica e do WDCH.
09:39
To be precise, 77 terabytes of digitally archived memories.
Para ser exactos, 77 terabytes de recordos arquivados dixitalmente.
09:44
By using machine intelligence,
Empregando a intelixencia das máquinas,
09:46
the entire archive, going back 100 years,
o arquivo enteiro, que se remonta 100 anos,
09:50
became projections on the building's skin,
converteuse en proxeccións na fachada do edificio.
09:53
42 projectors to achieve this futuristic public experience
42 proxectores para conseguir esta experiencia futurista pública
09:57
in the heart of Los Angeles,
no corazón de Los Ángeles,
09:59
getting one step closer to the LA of "Blade Runner."
e achegármonos un pouquiño máis ao Los Ángeles de Blade Runner.
10:04
If ever a building could dream,
Se algunha vez un edificio puido soñar,
10:06
it was in this moment.
foi neste momento.
10:11
Now, I am inviting you to one last journey into the mind of a machine.
Agora, invítovos a unha última viaxe polo cerebro dunha máquina.
10:17
Right now, we are fully immersed in the data universe
Neste intre, estamos totalmente inmersos no universo dos datos
10:21
of every single curated TED Talk from the past 30 years.
de tódalas Charlas TED dos últimos 30 anos.
10:25
That means this data set includes 7,705 talks from the TED stage.
Iso quere dicir que este conxunto de datos inclúe 7.705 charlas dos escenarios TED.
10:33
Those talks have been translated into 7.4 million seconds,
Esas charlas foron convertidas en 7,4 millóns de segundos,
10:37
and each second is represented here in this data universe.
e cada segundo está representado neste universo de datos.
10:41
Every image that you are seeing in here
Cada imaxe que vedes aquí
10:43
represents unique moments from those talks.
representa un momento único desas charlas.
10:46
By using machine intelligence,
Empregando a intelixencia das máquinas,
10:48
we processed a total of 487,000 sentences
procesamos un total de 487.000 frases
10:53
into 330 unique clusters of topics like nature, global emissions,
de 330 grupos de temas únicos como a natureza, as emisións globais,
10:57
extinction, race issues, computation,
a extinción, os temas raciais, a informática,
11:00
trust, emotions, water and refugees.
a confianza, as emocións, a auga e os refuxiados.
11:04
These clusters are then connected to each other
Estes grupos conéctanse entre eles
11:07
by an algorithm,
mediante un algoritmo,
11:08
[that] generated 113 million line segments,
que xera 113 millóns segmentos de liña,
11:12
which reveal new conceptual relationships.
que revelan novas relacións conceptuais.
11:15
Wouldn't it be amazing to be able to remember
Non sería incrible poder lembrar
11:18
all the questions that have ever been asked on the stage?
tódalas preguntas que se fixeron neste escenario?
11:23
Here I am,
Aquí estou,
11:24
inside the mind of countless great thinkers,
dentro da mente de incontables pensadores,
11:27
as well as a machine, interacting with various feelings
e dunha máquina, interactuando con varios sentimentos
11:31
attributed to learning,
atribuídos ó aprender,
11:33
remembering, questioning
lembrar, cuestionar
11:36
and imagining all at the same time,
e imaxinar todo ó mesmo tempo,
11:39
expanding the power of the mind.
expandindo o poder da mente.
11:43
For me, being right here
Para min, estar aquí
11:45
is indeed what it means to be an AI in the 21st century.
é precisamente o que significa ser unha intelixencia artificial no século XXI,
11:50
It is in our hands, humans,
Está nas nosas mans, humanos,
11:52
to train this mind to learn and remember
adestrar esta mente para que aprenda e lembre
11:56
what we can only dream of.
o que nós só podemos soñar.
11:59
Thank you.
Grazas.
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