Art in the age of machine intelligence | Refik Anadol

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2020-08-19・ 15333    349


Visit http://TED.com to get our entire library of TED Talks, transcripts, translations, personalized talk recommendations and more. What does it look like inside the mind of a machine? Inspired by the architectural vision of a futuristic Los Angeles in "Blade Runner," media artist Refik Anadol melds art with artificial intelligence in his studio's collaborations with architects, data scientists, neuroscientists, musicians and more. Witness otherworldly installations that might make you rethink the future of tech and creativity. The TED Talks channel features the best talks and performances from the TED Conference, where the world's leading thinkers and doers give the talk of their lives in 18 minutes (or less). Look for talks on Technology, Entertainment and Design -- plus science, business, global issues, the arts and more. You're welcome to link to or embed these videos, forward them to others and share these ideas with people you know. For more information on using TED for commercial purposes (e.g. employee learning, in a film or online course), submit a Media Request here: http://media-requests.TED.com Follow TED on Twitter: http://twitter.com/TEDTalks Like TED on Facebook: http://facebook.com/TED Subscribe to our channel: http://youtube.com/TED

Instruction

Double-click on the English captions to play the video from there.

譯者: Lilian Chiu 審譯者: SF Huang
00:12
Hi, I'm Refik. I'm a media artist.
嗨,我是雷菲克,我是媒體藝術家。
00:15
I use data as a pigment
我用資料當顏料,
00:17
and paint with a thinking brush
用人工智慧輔助的
00:19
that is assisted by artificial intelligence.
智能筆刷來作畫,
00:23
Using architectural spaces as canvases,
我用建築空間當作畫布,
00:25
I collaborate with machines
和機器合作,
00:27
to make buildings dream and hallucinate.
讓建築物也能作夢、幻想。
00:30
You may be wondering, what does all this mean?
你可能在納悶,這些是什麼意思?
00:33
So let me please take you into my work and my world.
請容我帶你來看看 我的工作和我的世界。
00:37
I witnessed the power of imagination when I was eight years old,
在伊斯坦堡長大的我,
八歲時,目擊了想像力的力量。
00:41
as a child growing up in Istanbul.
00:43
One day, my mom brought home a videocassette
有一天,我媽媽帶了一支錄影帶回家,
00:47
of the science-fiction movie "Blade Runner."
是部科幻電影《銀翼殺手》。
00:50
I clearly remember being mesmerized
我清楚記得我對未來洛杉磯的
00:53
by the stunning architectural vision of the future of Los Angeles,
驚人建築想像深深著迷,
00:58
a place that I had never seen before.
那是我從來沒有見過的地方。
01:00
That vision became a kind of a staple of my daydreams.
那幅影像便成了我作白日夢的主題。
01:06
When I arrived in LA in 2012
2012 年我到洛杉磯
01:08
for a graduate program in Design Media Arts,
就讀設計媒體藝術研究所,
01:11
I rented a car and drove downtown
我租了一輛車開到市區,
01:13
to see that wonderful world of the near future.
去看那個在不遠未來的美妙世界。
01:17
I remember a specific line
我記得在我腦中有一句話
01:19
that kept playing over and over in my head:
不斷重覆播放:
01:22
the scene when the android Rachael
在這一幕中,機器人瑞秋
01:24
realizes that her memories are actually not hers,
發現她的記憶其實不是她的,
01:28
and when Deckard tells her they are someone else's memories.
戴克告訴她那些是別人的記憶。
01:32
Since that moment,
從那一刻起,這個問題 就一直是我的靈感之一。
01:34
one of my inspirations has been this question.
01:37
What can a machine do with someone else's memories?
機器如何使用他人的記憶?
01:41
Or, to say that in another way,
或者,換個說法,
01:44
what does it mean to be an AI in the 21st century?
身為二十一世紀中的 人工智慧,有什麼意涵?
01:49
Any android or AI machine
任何機器人或人工智慧機器
01:51
is only intelligent as long as we collaborate with it.
都只有在我們和它 連結合作時,它才具有智慧。
01:55
It can construct things
它能夠建造出
01:56
that human intelligence intends to produce
人類智慧想要製作
卻沒有能力做出來的東西。
02:00
but does not have the capacity to do so.
02:03
Think about your activities and social networks, for example.
比如,想想你在社交網路上的活動。
02:07
They get smarter the more you interact with them.
你越和它們互動,它們就變得越聰明。
02:10
If machines can learn or process memories,
如果機器能學習或處理記憶,
02:15
can they also dream?
它們是否也能作夢?
02:17
Hallucinate?
幻想?
02:18
Involuntarily remember,
非自願性地回想
02:21
or make connections between multiple people's dreams?
或在多人的夢境中建立連結?
02:25
Does being an AI in the 21st century simply mean not forgetting anything?
身為二十一世紀的人工智慧
就僅表示什麼都不會忘記嗎?
02:32
And, if so,
若是如此,
02:33
isn't it the most revolutionary thing that we have experienced
我們花數世紀的努力 在各媒體中捕捉歷史,
02:37
in our centuries-long effort to capture history across media?
這不就是我們所能體驗到 最革命性的經歷了嗎?
02:43
In other words,
換言之,
02:44
how far have we come since Ridley Scott's "Blade Runner"?
從雷利史考特的《銀翼殺手》之後, 我們又走了多遠?
02:48
So I established my studio in 2014
於是,我在 2014 年 成立了我的工作室,
02:52
and invited architects,
並邀請建築師、
02:54
computer and data scientists, neuroscientists,
電腦及資料科學家、神經科學家、
02:56
musicians and even storytellers
音樂家,甚至說故事的人
02:59
to join me in realizing my dreams.
一同加入來實現我的夢想。
03:03
Can data become a pigment?
資料能變成顏料嗎?
03:05
This was the very first question we asked
當我們開始這段旅程時, 這就是我們問的第一個問題,
03:08
when starting our journey to embed media arts into architecture,
我們的目標是將媒體藝術 置入到建築當中,
03:13
to collide virtual and physical worlds.
讓虛擬和實體世界碰撞。
03:16
So we began to imagine what I would call the poetics of data.
我們開始想像我所謂的資料詩學。
03:22
One of our first projects, "Virtual Depictions,"
我們最初的計畫之一是《虛擬描繪》,
03:24
was a public data sculpture piece
它是一件公共資料雕塑作品,
03:26
commissioned by the city of San Francisco.
由舊金山市委任我們製作。
03:29
The work invites the audience
這件作品邀請觀眾
03:31
to be part of a spectacular aesthetic experience
在一個活生生的都市空間中
參與壯觀的美學體驗,
03:35
in a living urban space
03:36
by depicting a fluid network of connections of the city itself.
這件作品描繪出 城市本身的連結網路。
03:42
It also stands as a reminder
它也是在提醒我們,
03:45
of how invisible data from our everyday lives,
我們日常生活中看不見的資料,
03:48
like the Twitter feeds that are represented here,
如這裡所呈現的推特推文,
03:51
can be made visible
也能變成可見的,
03:53
and transformed into sensory knowledge that can be experienced collectively.
並轉變為可全體一同體驗的
感官知識。
04:00
In fact, data can only become knowledge when it's experienced,
事實上,資料一定要被體驗, 之後才能夠變成知識,
04:05
and what is knowledge and experience can take many forms.
而知識和體驗都可以 有許多不同的形式。
04:09
When exploring such connections
在透過機器智慧的強大潛能
04:11
through the vast potential of machine intelligence,
探索這類連結時,
04:15
we also pondered the connection between human senses
我們也會思索人類感官與機器
04:21
and the machines' capacity for simulating nature.
模擬大自然的能力有什麼關聯。
04:24
These inquiries began while working on wind-data paintings.
這些疑問出現在用風的資料作畫時。
04:29
They took the shape of visualized poems
它們呈現出來的形式,是視覺化的詩,
04:32
based on hidden data sets that we collected from wind sensors.
其基礎是我們從風感測器 收集來的隱藏資料集,
04:37
We then used generative algorithms
接著,我們使用生成演算法
04:40
to transform wind speed, gust and direction
將風速、陣風以及風向
04:44
into an ethereal data pigment.
轉變成為以太資料顏料。
04:48
The result was a meditative yet speculative experience.
產生的結果是種帶著沉思 又有推測性的體驗。
04:53
This kinetic data sculpture, titled "Bosphorus,"
這件名為《博斯普魯斯海峽》的 動態資料雕塑作品,
04:56
was a similar attempt to question our capacity to reimagine
則是質疑我們重新想像
自然現象的類似嘗試。
05:00
natural occurrences.
05:03
Using high-frequency radar collections of the Marmara Sea,
我們用馬摩拉海的高頻率雷達
05:07
we collected sea-surface data
收集海面的資料,
05:10
and projected its dynamic movement with machine intelligence.
並用機器智慧將其動態做投射。
05:13
We create a sense of immersion
我們在一種平靜卻又經常 改變的合成海景中,
05:15
in a calm yet constantly changing synthetic sea view.
創造出了一種沉浸感。
05:21
Seeing with the brain is often called imagination,
用大腦來看,通常就稱作想像,
05:25
and, for me, imagining architecture
對我來說,對建築的想像
05:27
goes beyond just glass, metal or concrete,
超越了單純的玻璃、金屬或混凝土,
05:31
instead experimenting with the furthermost possibilities of immersion
而是去實驗沉浸的最大可能性,
05:36
and ways of augmenting our perception in built environments.
以及在既有環境中 擴增我們感知的方法。
05:40
Research in artificial intelligence is growing every day,
人工智慧的研究每天都有進展,
05:44
leaving us with the feeling of being plugged into a system
讓我們覺得被連接到一個比我們自己
05:48
that is bigger and more knowledgeable
更大、更有知識的系統上。
05:50
than ourselves.
05:51
In 2017, we discovered an open-source library
2017 年,我們發現了 一個開放原始碼的圖書館,
05:55
of cultural documents in Istanbul
裡面有伊斯坦堡文化的文件,
05:58
and began working on "Archive Dreaming,"
因此我們便開始投入《檔案夢》,
06:01
one of the first AI-driven public installations in the world,
它是世界上最早的 人工智慧導向公共裝置之一,
06:06
an AI exploring approximately 1.7 million documents that span 270 years.
這個人工智慧所探究的 近 170 萬份文件
橫跨了 270 年。
06:13
One of our inspirations during this process
在這個過程中,我們的靈感之一
06:16
was a short story called "The Library of Babel"
是一個短篇故事, 叫做《巴別塔圖書館》,
06:20
by the Argentine writer Jorge Luis Borges.
作者是阿根廷作家 豪爾赫.路易斯.波赫士。
06:23
In the story, the author conceives a universe in the form of a vast library
在這個故事中, 作者構想出的宇宙形式
是個巨大的圖書館,
06:29
containing all possible 410-page books of a certain format and character set.
盡可能收藏所有 410 頁的書籍,
都有一個特定的格式和字元集。
06:35
Through this inspiring image,
透過這個啟發性的影像,
06:36
we imagine a way to physically explore the vast archives of knowledge
我們想像出了一種方式, 可以在機器智慧的時代,
實體去探索浩瀚的知識檔案。
06:41
in the age of machine intelligence.
06:43
The resulting work, as you can see,
因此做出的成品,各位可以看到,
06:45
was a user-driven immersive space.
是一個使用者導向的沉浸式空間。
06:48
"Archive Dreaming" profoundly transformed the experience of a library
《檔案夢》深刻地轉變了
機器智慧時代的圖書館體驗。
06:53
in the age of machine intelligence.
06:56
"Machine Hallucination" is an exploration of time and space
《機器幻想》是在探索 透過紐約市公共照片檔案
07:00
experienced through New York City's public photographic archives.
所體驗到的時間和空間。
07:04
For this one-of-a-kind immersive project,
為了這個獨一無二的沉浸式計畫,
07:07
we deployed machine-learning algorithms
我們採用了機器學習演算法
07:10
to find and process over 100 million photographs of the city.
來找出並處理該城市的一億張照片。
07:15
We designed an innovative narrative system
我們設計了一個創新的敘事系統,
07:18
to use artificial intelligence to predict or to hallucinate new images,
用人工智慧來預測
或幻想出新的影像,
07:24
allowing the viewer to step into a dreamlike fusion
讓觀者能夠步入
紐約的過去和未來 融合成的如夢境之地。
07:28
of past and future New York.
07:31
As our projects delve deeper
隨著我們的計畫更深入到
07:33
into remembering and transmitting knowledge,
記住和傳送知識,
07:37
we thought more about how memories were not static recollections
我們想了更多關於 記憶為什麼不是靜態的回憶
07:42
but ever-changing interpretations of past events.
而是對過去的事件 做出千變萬化的詮釋。
07:46
We pondered how machines
我們思索了機器如何
07:48
could simulate unconscious and subconscious events,
模擬無意識和潛意識的事件,
07:52
such as dreaming, remembering and hallucinating.
比如作夢、回想和幻想。
07:57
Thus, we created "Melting Memories"
因此,我們創作出了《熔化的記憶》,
08:00
to visualize the moment of remembering.
將回想的時刻視覺化。
08:03
The inspiration came from a tragic event,
這個靈感來自一個悲劇事件,
08:06
when I found out that my uncle was diagnosed with Alzheimer's.
我得知我叔叔被診斷出阿茲海默症。
08:11
At that time, all I could think about
那時,我唯一能想的就是要找方法
08:14
was to find a way to celebrate how and what we remember
來讚頌我們回想的方式、回想的內容,
08:19
when we are still able to do so.
且要在我們還能做的時候就去做。
08:21
I began to think of memories not as disappearing
我開始認為,記憶並不是消失,
08:25
but as melting or changing shape.
而是熔化了或改變了形態。
08:28
With the help of machine intelligence,
在機器智慧的協助下,
08:30
we worked with the scientists at the Neuroscape Laboratory
我們和加州大學 Neuroscape 實驗室的
08:33
at the University of California,
科學家合作,
08:35
who showed us how to understand brain signals as memories are made.
他們告訴我們如何了解 在記憶形成時的大腦訊號。
08:41
Although my own uncle was losing the ability to process memories,
雖然我自己的叔叔失去了 處理記憶的能力,
08:46
the artwork generated by EEG data
腦電圖資料所產生的藝術作品
08:49
explored the materiality of remembering
探索了回想的具體性,
08:53
and stood as a tribute to what my uncle had lost.
並向我叔叔所失去的致上敬意。
09:00
Almost nothing about contemporary LA
現代洛杉磯幾乎完全不符合
09:03
matched my childhood expectation of the city,
我童年時對該城市的期望,
09:07
with the exception of one amazing building:
不過有一棟很不凡的建築物例外:
09:10
the Walt Disney Concert Hall, designed by Frank Gehry,
華特迪士尼音樂廳, 由法蘭克.蓋瑞設計,
09:13
one of my all-time heroes.
他一直是我心目中的英雄。
09:16
In 2018, I had a call from the LA Philharmonic
2018 年,我接到 洛杉磯愛樂樂團的電話,
09:19
who was looking for an installation
他們想找一個裝置,
09:21
to help mark the celebrated symphony's hundred-year anniversary.
作為這個知名交響樂團的百年紀念。
09:25
For this, we decided to ask the question,
為此,我們決定要問這個問題:
09:29
"Can a building learn? Can it dream?"
「建築物能學習嗎?它會作夢嗎?」
09:32
To answer this question,
為了回答這個問題,
09:33
we decided to collect everything recorded in the archives of the LA Phil and WDCH.
我們決定要收集洛杉磯愛樂樂團
和華特迪士尼音樂廳的檔案中 所記載的一切資訊。
09:39
To be precise, 77 terabytes of digitally archived memories.
精確來說,是轉成 77 TB 的 數位檔案的記憶。
09:44
By using machine intelligence,
使用機器智慧,
09:46
the entire archive, going back 100 years,
我們讓所有這一百年來的檔案
09:50
became projections on the building's skin,
變成了建築物外牆上的投影,
09:53
42 projectors to achieve this futuristic public experience
用四十二台投影機, 在洛杉磯的心臟地帶,
實現了這種未來感的公眾體驗,
09:57
in the heart of Los Angeles,
09:59
getting one step closer to the LA of "Blade Runner."
朝《銀翼殺手》中的 洛杉磯又邁進了一步。
10:04
If ever a building could dream,
如果真有建築物能夠作夢,
10:06
it was in this moment.
那肯定就是這一刻。
10:11
Now, I am inviting you to one last journey into the mind of a machine.
現在,我邀請各位 再跟我去最後一個地方:
機器的腦中。
10:17
Right now, we are fully immersed in the data universe
現在,我們完全沉浸在過去三十年
10:21
of every single curated TED Talk from the past 30 years.
所有舉辦過的 TED 演講 所構成的資料宇宙中。
10:25
That means this data set includes 7,705 talks from the TED stage.
也就是說,
這個資料集包含了
TED 舞台上的 7705 場演講。
10:33
Those talks have been translated into 7.4 million seconds,
那些演講被轉變成 740 萬秒,
10:37
and each second is represented here in this data universe.
每一秒都在這個資料宇宙中呈現出來。
10:41
Every image that you are seeing in here
各位在這裡看到的每一個影像
10:43
represents unique moments from those talks.
都代表那些演講中某個獨特的時刻。
10:46
By using machine intelligence,
我們使用機器智慧
10:48
we processed a total of 487,000 sentences
處理了總共 487,000 個句子,
10:53
into 330 unique clusters of topics like nature, global emissions,
分成 330 個不重覆的 主題叢集,比如:大自然、
全球排放、絕種、種族議題、計算、
10:57
extinction, race issues, computation,
11:00
trust, emotions, water and refugees.
信任、情緒、水和難民。
11:04
These clusters are then connected to each other
接著,再用一個演算法 將這些叢集連結起來,
11:07
by an algorithm,
11:08
[that] generated 113 million line segments,
這個演算法產生出 一億一千三百萬條線段,
11:12
which reveal new conceptual relationships.
這些線段揭示出新的概念關係。
11:15
Wouldn't it be amazing to be able to remember
如果能記得在演講台上 曾經被問過的所有問題,
11:18
all the questions that have ever been asked on the stage?
不是很不可思議嗎?
11:23
Here I am,
我進來了,
11:24
inside the mind of countless great thinkers,
身在無數偉大思想家的腦中,
11:27
as well as a machine, interacting with various feelings
同時也是機器的腦中, 和各種感覺互動,
11:31
attributed to learning,
這些感覺源自於學習、
11:33
remembering, questioning
回想、質疑,
11:36
and imagining all at the same time,
以及想像,全都同時發生,
11:39
expanding the power of the mind.
將大腦的力量擴張出去。
11:43
For me, being right here
對我來說,在這裡
11:45
is indeed what it means to be an AI in the 21st century.
的確就是身為二十一世紀 人工智慧的意涵。
11:50
It is in our hands, humans,
我們人類有責任
11:52
to train this mind to learn and remember
要訓練這個大腦去學習和記憶
11:56
what we can only dream of.
我們所能想像的夢想。
11:59
Thank you.
謝謝。
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