Art in the age of machine intelligence | Refik Anadol

509,558 views

2020-08-19・ 15333    349


Visit http://TED.com to get our entire library of TED Talks, transcripts, translations, personalized talk recommendations and more. What does it look like inside the mind of a machine? Inspired by the architectural vision of a futuristic Los Angeles in "Blade Runner," media artist Refik Anadol melds art with artificial intelligence in his studio's collaborations with architects, data scientists, neuroscientists, musicians and more. Witness otherworldly installations that might make you rethink the future of tech and creativity. The TED Talks channel features the best talks and performances from the TED Conference, where the world's leading thinkers and doers give the talk of their lives in 18 minutes (or less). Look for talks on Technology, Entertainment and Design -- plus science, business, global issues, the arts and more. You're welcome to link to or embed these videos, forward them to others and share these ideas with people you know. For more information on using TED for commercial purposes (e.g. employee learning, in a film or online course), submit a Media Request here: http://media-requests.TED.com Follow TED on Twitter: http://twitter.com/TEDTalks Like TED on Facebook: http://facebook.com/TED Subscribe to our channel: http://youtube.com/TED

Instruction

Double-click on the English captions to play the video from there.

翻译人员: Wanting Zhong 校对人员: Yanyan Hong
00:12
Hi, I'm Refik. I'm a media artist.
嗨,我是雷菲克(Refik), 一名媒体艺术家。
00:15
I use data as a pigment
我用数据作为颜料,
00:17
and paint with a thinking brush
用一支由人工智能辅助的、
00:19
that is assisted by artificial intelligence.
能够思考的笔刷来作画。
00:23
Using architectural spaces as canvases,
我将建筑空间用作画布,
00:25
I collaborate with machines
和机器合作
00:27
to make buildings dream and hallucinate.
让建筑也能做梦和幻想。
00:30
You may be wondering, what does all this mean?
你可能在纳闷,这是什么意思?
00:33
So let me please take you into my work and my world.
那么,请让我带你走进我的作品和世界。
00:37
I witnessed the power of imagination when I was eight years old,
我在伊斯坦布尔长大,
八岁时,我就见证了想象的力量。
00:41
as a child growing up in Istanbul.
00:43
One day, my mom brought home a videocassette
有一天,我妈妈带回家 一盘录影带——
00:47
of the science-fiction movie "Blade Runner."
是一部名为《银翼杀手》的科幻电影。
00:50
I clearly remember being mesmerized
我清楚地记得,自己深深地着迷于
00:53
by the stunning architectural vision of the future of Los Angeles,
未来洛杉矶震撼人心的建筑影像,
00:58
a place that I had never seen before.
那是一个我从未见过的地方。
01:00
That vision became a kind of a staple of my daydreams.
那幅影像成了我白日梦中的砥柱。
01:06
When I arrived in LA in 2012
当我在 2012 年来到洛杉矶,
01:08
for a graduate program in Design Media Arts,
入读设计媒体艺术的研究生项目时,
01:11
I rented a car and drove downtown
我租了一辆车开到市区,
01:13
to see that wonderful world of the near future.
以一睹那个在不远未来的奇妙世界。
01:17
I remember a specific line
我记得有句台词
01:19
that kept playing over and over in my head:
一直在我的脑海中反复回放:
01:22
the scene when the android Rachael
在这一幕中,当仿生人瑞秋
01:24
realizes that her memories are actually not hers,
意识到她的记忆其实并不是她的,
01:28
and when Deckard tells her they are someone else's memories.
戴克告诉她,那些是他人的记忆。
01:32
Since that moment,
自从那一刻起,
01:34
one of my inspirations has been this question.
这个问题就成了我的灵感之一。
01:37
What can a machine do with someone else's memories?
一台机器能用他人的记忆做些什么?
01:41
Or, to say that in another way,
或者,换句话说,
01:44
what does it mean to be an AI in the 21st century?
在 21 世纪当个人工智能意味着什么?
01:49
Any android or AI machine
任何机器人或人工智能机器
01:51
is only intelligent as long as we collaborate with it.
只有在我们与其合作时才具有智慧。
01:55
It can construct things
它能建造出
01:56
that human intelligence intends to produce
人类智慧想要创造、
02:00
but does not have the capacity to do so.
却心有余而力不足的事物。
02:03
Think about your activities and social networks, for example.
比如说,想想你的动态和社交网络。
02:07
They get smarter the more you interact with them.
你和它们的互动越多, 它们就会变得愈加聪明。
02:10
If machines can learn or process memories,
如果机器能学习或处理记忆,
02:15
can they also dream?
那它们也能做梦吗?
02:17
Hallucinate?
能出现幻觉吗?
02:18
Involuntarily remember,
能不由自主地记起、
02:21
or make connections between multiple people's dreams?
或是联结起多个人的梦境吗?
02:25
Does being an AI in the 21st century simply mean not forgetting anything?
身为 21 世纪人工智能 就意味着不会忘记任何事吗?
02:32
And, if so,
若是如此,
02:33
isn't it the most revolutionary thing that we have experienced
这难道不是我们在长达数世纪 用媒体捕捉历史的尝试中,
02:37
in our centuries-long effort to capture history across media?
所经历的最具颠覆性的事吗?
02:43
In other words,
换言之,自雷德利·斯科特 (Ridley Scott)的
02:44
how far have we come since Ridley Scott's "Blade Runner"?
《银翼杀手》之后, 我们究竟前进了多少?
02:48
So I established my studio in 2014
于是,我在 2014 年 成立了自己的工作室,
02:52
and invited architects,
并邀请了建筑师、
02:54
computer and data scientists, neuroscientists,
计算机和数据科学家、神经科学家、
02:56
musicians and even storytellers
音乐家,甚至讲故事的人
02:59
to join me in realizing my dreams.
加入我实现梦想的旅程。
03:03
Can data become a pigment?
数据能否变成颜料?
03:05
This was the very first question we asked
这是我们踏上旅程, 将媒体艺术嵌入建筑,
03:08
when starting our journey to embed media arts into architecture,
让虚拟和现实世界产生碰撞时,
03:13
to collide virtual and physical worlds.
提出的第一个问题。
03:16
So we began to imagine what I would call the poetics of data.
于是我们开始想象 我称之为的 “数据的诗学”。
03:22
One of our first projects, "Virtual Depictions,"
我们最初的一个项目, 《虚拟描述》(Virtual Depictions),
03:24
was a public data sculpture piece
是由旧金山市政府委托的
03:26
commissioned by the city of San Francisco.
一件公共数据雕塑作品。
03:29
The work invites the audience
这个作品通过描绘
03:31
to be part of a spectacular aesthetic experience
城市自身的联系所形成的流动网络,
03:35
in a living urban space
邀请观众成为
03:36
by depicting a fluid network of connections of the city itself.
这个生活都市空间中 无比壮观的美学体验的一部分。
03:42
It also stands as a reminder
同时,它也提醒了我们,
03:45
of how invisible data from our everyday lives,
日常生活中无形的数据,
03:48
like the Twitter feeds that are represented here,
例如这里所呈现的推特动态,
03:51
can be made visible
也能变成可见的,
03:53
and transformed into sensory knowledge that can be experienced collectively.
并转变为能共同体验的感官知识。
04:00
In fact, data can only become knowledge when it's experienced,
事实上,数据只有 通过体验才能变成知识,
04:05
and what is knowledge and experience can take many forms.
而知识与体验又具有许多形态。
04:09
When exploring such connections
当我们通过机器智能的无限潜力
04:11
through the vast potential of machine intelligence,
探索这样的联系时,
04:15
we also pondered the connection between human senses
我们也在思考人类感官
和机器模拟自然的能力之间的联系。
04:21
and the machines' capacity for simulating nature.
04:24
These inquiries began while working on wind-data paintings.
这些探索是在我们创作 风能数据的绘画时开始的。
04:29
They took the shape of visualized poems
它们是基于从风传感器 收集的隐藏数据集
04:32
based on hidden data sets that we collected from wind sensors.
而成型的可视化的诗篇。
04:37
We then used generative algorithms
然后我们使用生成算法
04:40
to transform wind speed, gust and direction
将风速、阵风和风向
转换成一种空灵飘逸的数据颜料。
04:44
into an ethereal data pigment.
04:48
The result was a meditative yet speculative experience.
得到的就是一种冥思中 却又不乏奇想的体验。
04:53
This kinetic data sculpture, titled "Bosphorus,"
这个题为《博斯普鲁斯海峡》 (Bosphorus)的
04:56
was a similar attempt to question our capacity to reimagine
动态数据雕塑,同样也是询问我们
能否重新想象自然事件的一种尝试。
05:00
natural occurrences.
05:03
Using high-frequency radar collections of the Marmara Sea,
我们使用马尔马拉海的高频雷达数据,
05:07
we collected sea-surface data
采集了海平面数据,
05:10
and projected its dynamic movement with machine intelligence.
用机器智能投影出了海面的动态活动。
05:13
We create a sense of immersion
我们创造出了一种
05:15
in a calm yet constantly changing synthetic sea view.
沉浸在宁静却又时刻变化的 合成海景中的感觉。
05:21
Seeing with the brain is often called imagination,
用大脑去看,通常就称之为 “想象”,
05:25
and, for me, imagining architecture
而对我来说,对建筑的想象
05:27
goes beyond just glass, metal or concrete,
超越了单纯的玻璃、金属或水泥,
05:31
instead experimenting with the furthermost possibilities of immersion
而是试验沉浸式体验 最前沿的可能性,
05:36
and ways of augmenting our perception in built environments.
以及在建成环境中 扩增我们感官的各种方法。
05:40
Research in artificial intelligence is growing every day,
人工智能的研究与日俱增,
05:44
leaving us with the feeling of being plugged into a system
让我们觉得自己像是被安插进了
一个比我们自身
05:48
that is bigger and more knowledgeable
更加庞大博识的系统。
05:50
than ourselves.
05:51
In 2017, we discovered an open-source library
在 2017 年,我们在伊斯坦布尔
发现了一个文化档案的开源图书馆,
05:55
of cultural documents in Istanbul
05:58
and began working on "Archive Dreaming,"
于是便开始了《档案梦境》 (Archive Dreaming)的创作,
06:01
one of the first AI-driven public installations in the world,
这是世界上最早 由人工智能驱动的公共装置之一,
06:06
an AI exploring approximately 1.7 million documents that span 270 years.
这个人工智能可以探索 横跨 270 年的约 170 万份文档。
06:13
One of our inspirations during this process
这个创作过程的灵感来源之一
06:16
was a short story called "The Library of Babel"
是阿根廷作家
豪尔赫·路易斯·博尔赫斯 (Jorge Luis Borges)的
06:20
by the Argentine writer Jorge Luis Borges.
一篇短篇小说,《巴别图书馆》。
06:23
In the story, the author conceives a universe in the form of a vast library
在这个故事里,作家设想了 由一个浩渺的图书馆形成的宇宙,
06:29
containing all possible 410-page books of a certain format and character set.
馆中藏有符合某种版式和字符集, 且有 410 页厚的全部书籍。
06:35
Through this inspiring image,
受到这个意象的启发, 我们想象出一种方式,
06:36
we imagine a way to physically explore the vast archives of knowledge
可以在机器智能的时代里 以实体探索浩瀚的知识档案。
06:41
in the age of machine intelligence.
06:43
The resulting work, as you can see,
如你所见,从中诞生的作品
06:45
was a user-driven immersive space.
是一个由用户驱动的沉浸式空间。
06:48
"Archive Dreaming" profoundly transformed the experience of a library
《档案梦境》深刻地转变了 在机器智能时代的图书馆体验。
06:53
in the age of machine intelligence.
06:56
"Machine Hallucination" is an exploration of time and space
《机器幻觉》(Machine Hallucination)
是通过纽约市公共摄影档案库体验的
07:00
experienced through New York City's public photographic archives.
对时间与空间的探索。
07:04
For this one-of-a-kind immersive project,
在这个独一无二的沉浸式项目中,
07:07
we deployed machine-learning algorithms
我们使用机器学习算法,
07:10
to find and process over 100 million photographs of the city.
发现并处理了纽约市的一亿多张照片。
07:15
We designed an innovative narrative system
我们设计了一个创新的叙事系统,
07:18
to use artificial intelligence to predict or to hallucinate new images,
用人工智能来预测或幻想出新的影像,
07:24
allowing the viewer to step into a dreamlike fusion
让观看者得以步入
纽约的过去和未来 融合而成的梦境世界。
07:28
of past and future New York.
07:31
As our projects delve deeper
随着我们的项目更深入地探究
07:33
into remembering and transmitting knowledge,
对知识的记忆与传播,
07:37
we thought more about how memories were not static recollections
我们更多地想到 记忆并非静止的回想,
07:42
but ever-changing interpretations of past events.
而是过去的事件做出千变万化的解读。
07:46
We pondered how machines
我们思索了机器该如何
07:48
could simulate unconscious and subconscious events,
模拟无意识和下意识的事件,
07:52
such as dreaming, remembering and hallucinating.
比如梦、记忆和幻觉。
07:57
Thus, we created "Melting Memories"
于是,我们创作了《融化的记忆》 (Melting Memories),
08:00
to visualize the moment of remembering.
来表现回想的瞬间。
08:03
The inspiration came from a tragic event,
此灵感的来源是一个不幸的事件——
08:06
when I found out that my uncle was diagnosed with Alzheimer's.
我得知我叔叔确诊了 阿茨海默症的那一刻。
08:11
At that time, all I could think about
在那一刻,我唯一能想到的
08:14
was to find a way to celebrate how and what we remember
就是找到一个办法, 在我们还能记得时
赞颂我们如何记得、 以及能够记得的一切。
08:19
when we are still able to do so.
08:21
I began to think of memories not as disappearing
我开始觉得,记忆不是在消失,
08:25
but as melting or changing shape.
而是在融化,或改变形态。
08:28
With the help of machine intelligence,
借助机器智能的力量,
08:30
we worked with the scientists at the Neuroscape Laboratory
我们与加州大学神经地形 (Neuroscape)实验室的
08:33
at the University of California,
科学家们合作,
08:35
who showed us how to understand brain signals as memories are made.
他们向我们展示了 该如何理解生成记忆时的脑信号。
08:41
Although my own uncle was losing the ability to process memories,
虽然我的亲叔叔 正在失去处理记忆的能力,
08:46
the artwork generated by EEG data
这幅由脑电图(EEG)数据生成的画作
08:49
explored the materiality of remembering
探索了记忆的物质形态,
08:53
and stood as a tribute to what my uncle had lost.
并向我叔叔已失去记忆的致意。
09:00
Almost nothing about contemporary LA
现代洛杉矶几乎没有任何一点
09:03
matched my childhood expectation of the city,
与我孩提时对这个城市的憧憬相符,
09:07
with the exception of one amazing building:
唯有这幢美妙的建筑是个例外:
09:10
the Walt Disney Concert Hall, designed by Frank Gehry,
华特·迪士尼音乐厅, 它的设计师弗兰克·盖里(Frank Gehry)
09:13
one of my all-time heroes.
一直都是我的英雄榜样。
09:16
In 2018, I had a call from the LA Philharmonic
2018 年时,我接到了 洛杉矶爱乐乐团的来电,
09:19
who was looking for an installation
他们在物色一件装置
09:21
to help mark the celebrated symphony's hundred-year anniversary.
作为这个大名鼎鼎的乐团 成立 100 周年的纪念。
09:25
For this, we decided to ask the question,
这次,我们决定提出这个问题,
09:29
"Can a building learn? Can it dream?"
“一幢建筑能学习吗?它能做梦吗?”
09:32
To answer this question,
为了回答这个问题,
09:33
we decided to collect everything recorded in the archives of the LA Phil and WDCH.
我们决定去搜集乐团 和音乐厅档案中的所有记录。
09:39
To be precise, 77 terabytes of digitally archived memories.
准确说来,是 77 TB 数码归档的记忆。
09:44
By using machine intelligence,
通过机器智能,
09:46
the entire archive, going back 100 years,
追溯至 100 年前的整个档案
09:50
became projections on the building's skin,
都变成了建筑外皮上的投影,
09:53
42 projectors to achieve this futuristic public experience
在洛杉矶中心
用 42 架投影仪打造出 这场充满未来感的公共体验,
09:57
in the heart of Los Angeles,
09:59
getting one step closer to the LA of "Blade Runner."
离《银翼杀手》中的洛杉矶 又近了一步。
10:04
If ever a building could dream,
如果建筑也会做梦,
10:06
it was in this moment.
那一定是在这个瞬间。
10:11
Now, I am inviting you to one last journey into the mind of a machine.
现在,我想邀请各位踏上 进入机器内心的最后一次旅程。
10:17
Right now, we are fully immersed in the data universe
此时此刻,我们正完全 沉浸于过去 30 年内策划的
10:21
of every single curated TED Talk from the past 30 years.
所有 TED 演讲的数据宇宙中。
10:25
That means this data set includes 7,705 talks from the TED stage.
这意味着这个数据集包括了 来自 TED 舞台的 7705 次演讲。
10:33
Those talks have been translated into 7.4 million seconds,
这些演讲被转换成了 740 万秒,
10:37
and each second is represented here in this data universe.
每一秒都存在于这个数据宇宙中。
10:41
Every image that you are seeing in here
你在这里看到的每一幅图像
10:43
represents unique moments from those talks.
都代表了这些演讲中独一无二的瞬间。
10:46
By using machine intelligence,
通过机器智能,
10:48
we processed a total of 487,000 sentences
我们处理了共计 48.7 万个句子
把它们分成 330 个独特的话题组集, 比如自然、全球排放、
10:53
into 330 unique clusters of topics like nature, global emissions,
10:57
extinction, race issues, computation,
物种灭绝、种族问题、数据计算、
11:00
trust, emotions, water and refugees.
信任、情感、水资源和难民。
11:04
These clusters are then connected to each other
这些组集又被一个算法
11:07
by an algorithm,
互相连接,
11:08
[that] generated 113 million line segments,
生成出 1.13 亿条线段,
11:12
which reveal new conceptual relationships.
揭示出了崭新的概念关系。
11:15
Wouldn't it be amazing to be able to remember
如果能够记住 在这舞台上问过的所有问题,
11:18
all the questions that have ever been asked on the stage?
不是很令人惊叹吗?
11:23
Here I am,
我现在正身处
11:24
inside the mind of countless great thinkers,
无数伟大思想家的头脑里,
11:27
as well as a machine, interacting with various feelings
也身处一台机器的大脑中, 与各种感受进行互动,
11:31
attributed to learning,
这些源于学习、
11:33
remembering, questioning
记忆、质疑、
11:36
and imagining all at the same time,
以及想象的感受都在同一时间迸发,
11:39
expanding the power of the mind.
将大脑的力量拓展。
11:43
For me, being right here
对我来说,置身于此
11:45
is indeed what it means to be an AI in the 21st century.
确实就是身为 21 世纪 人工智能的意义。
11:50
It is in our hands, humans,
而我们人类掌握着的力量,
11:52
to train this mind to learn and remember
能训练这个大脑去学习并记忆
11:56
what we can only dream of.
只存在于我们梦想中的事物。
11:59
Thank you.
谢谢。
About this site

This site was created for the purpose of learning English through video.

Each video can be played with simultaneous captions in English and your native language.

Double-click on the English captions will play the video from there.

If you have any comments or suggestions, please contact us using this contact form.