A day in the life of a Cossack warrior - Alex Gendler

618,109 views

2019-08-22・ TED-Ed

A day in the life of a Cossack warrior - Alex Gendler

618,109 views・2019-08-22

TED-Ed


Please double-click on the English subtitles below to play the video.

翻译人员: Carol Wang 校对人员: Shanshan (Alice) Lin
00:06
Despite a serene sunset on the Dnipro river,
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虽然聂伯河上的落日十分宁静,
00:09
the mood is tense for the Zaporozhian Cossacks.
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扎波罗热哥萨克人依然情绪紧张。
00:13
The year is 1676, and the Treaty of Żurawno has officially ended hostilities
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时值 1676 年, 茹拉夫诺条约签订
正式终结了波兰立陶宛联邦 和奥斯曼帝国间的敌对关系。
00:18
between the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and the Ottoman Empire.
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00:23
But as Stepan and his men ride towards their stronghold,
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但当史戴潘与他的人马 朝他们的据点前进时,
00:26
peace is far from their minds.
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就没想过“和平”二字。
00:29
Having made their home in the Wild Fields north of the Black Sea,
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在黑海北方的大草原定居之后,
00:32
these cossacks— derived from a Turkic word for "free man"—
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这些哥萨克人 —— 来自突厥语"自由人"一词 ——
00:37
are renowned as one of Europe’s most formidable military forces.
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成为了一支闻名欧洲的 让人畏惧的强劲之旅。
00:41
Composed of hunters, fishermen, nomads and outlaws,
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这些哥萨克人由猎人、渔民、 游牧民族和亡命徒组成,
00:44
the Cossacks found freedom in these fertile unclaimed lands.
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在这些无人认领的沃土上, 他们找到了自由。
00:48
Yet this freedom has proven increasingly difficult to maintain.
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可是,这自由越来越难以维持,
00:52
Their decades-long strategy of shifting alliances between Poland and Moscow
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在波兰和莫斯科之间 长达数十年变换同盟关系的战略,
00:57
has led to the partitioning of their lands.
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导致他们的土地被分割。
01:00
In a desperate bid to reclaim independence and reunite the fractured Cossack state,
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他们不顾一切地想要恢复独立 并使破碎的哥萨克重新统一,
01:05
their most recent leader, hetman Petro Doroshenko allied with the Ottoman Empire.
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新领导人盖特曼·多罗申科指挥官 和奥斯曼帝国结为同盟。
01:10
This alliance successfully freed the Zaporozhian Cossacks
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这个联盟成功地解放了 西方被波兰统治的札波罗结哥萨克人,
01:14
in the west from Polish dominion, but their victory was a bitter one.
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但这场胜利也付出了惨重代价。
01:18
Doroshenko’s Ottoman allies ravaged the countryside,
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多罗申科的奥斯曼盟友劫掠乡间,
01:22
carrying off peasants into slavery.
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抓走农夫、迫其为奴。
01:24
And outrage at allying with Muslims against fellow Christians
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因为多罗申科和穆斯林结盟 来对抗基督教徒引发众怒,
01:28
cost him any remaining local support.
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致使他失去了原有的当地支持。
01:32
Now, with Doroshenko deposed and exiled,
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多罗申科被罢免、放逐,
01:35
the Cossacks are at odds, disagreeing on what their next move should be.
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哥萨克人四分五裂, 对下一步行动难以达成共识。
01:40
Until then, Stepan must keep order.
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在达成共识之前, 史戴潘必须维持秩序。
01:42
With his musket and curved saber, he cuts an imposing figure.
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他带着毛瑟枪和弧形军刀, 塑造了使人印象深刻的形象。
01:46
He surveys his battalion of 180 men.
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他调查了自己的 180 人营队,
01:50
Most are Orthodox Christians and speak a Slavic language
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大部分是东正教基督徒,
讲斯拉夫语,即现代的乌克兰语。
01:53
that will become modern Ukrainian.
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01:55
But there are also Greeks, Tatars, and even some Mongolian Kalmyks,
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但是也有希腊人、鞑靼人, 甚至一些蒙古卡尔梅克人,
02:00
many with different opinions on recent events.
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很多人对当时的局势 持着不同的意见。
02:03
Officially, all of Stepan’s men have sworn to uphold the Cossack code
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理论上,所有史戴潘的人 都要宣誓遵守哥萨克法典,
02:08
by undergoing seven years of military training and remaining unmarried.
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接受七年军事训练,并保持未婚。
02:12
In practice, some are part-timers, holding more closely to their own traditions,
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但实际上,有些人是兼差的, 更倾向于遵从他们自己的传统,
02:17
and maintaining families in nearby villages, outside Cossack lands.
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并在哥萨克土地外 附近的村庄里成立家庭。
02:22
Thankfully, the tenuous peace is not broken before they reach the Sich—
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值得庆幸的是,在到达塞契前, 脆弱的和平并没有被打破——
02:26
the center of Cossack military life.
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塞契是对哥萨克 军事生活中心的称呼。
02:29
Currently located at Chortomlyk,
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目前赛契设在乔尔托姆利克,
02:31
the Sich’s location shifts with the tide of military action.
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但会随着军事行动而迁址。
02:35
The settlement is remarkably well- organized, with administrative buildings,
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这个定居地的组织良好, 设有行政大楼、
02:39
officers’ quarters, and even schools, as Cossacks prize literacy.
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军官的总部,甚至学校, 因为哥萨克人很重视识字。
02:44
Stepan and his men make their way to the barracks where they live and train
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史戴潘和他的人马抵达了 他们居住和训练的兵营,
02:47
alongside several other battalions or kurins,
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营中还有数支其他军队,
02:51
all of which make up a several hundred man regiment.
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每支军队都是数百人的军团。
02:54
Inside, the men dine on dried fish, sheep’s cheese, and salted pork fat—
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在营中,大家吃的是晒干的鱼、 羊乳起司、咸猪肥肉 ——
02:59
along with plenty of wine.
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还有许多葡萄酒。
03:02
Stepan instructs his friend Yuri to lighten the mood with his bandura.
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史戴潘指示他的朋友尤里 用班杜拉琴来活跃气氛。
03:06
But before long, an argument has broken out.
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但不久就起了争执。
03:09
One of his men has raised a toast to Doroshenko.
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他的手下之一举杯敬多罗申科,
03:12
Stepan cuts him off.
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史戴潘阻止了他。
03:14
The room is silent until he raises his own toast to Ivan Sirko,
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房间中一片寂静, 直到他举杯致敬伊万·西尔科,
03:18
the new hetman who favors an alliance with Moscow against the Turks.
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一名新的指挥官, 倾向与莫斯科结盟对抗突厥人。
03:23
Stepan plans to support him, and he expects his men to do the same.
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史戴潘打算要支持他, 他也期望自己的手下会跟进。
03:27
Suddenly, one of Sirko’s men rushes in,
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突然, 西尔科的一名手下冲进来,
03:30
calling an emergency Rada, or general council meeting.
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传达要召开紧急拉达, 即全体会议。
03:34
Stepan and the others make their way towards the church square—
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史戴潘和其他人赶到教堂广场——
03:37
the center of Sich life.
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塞契生活的中心地点。
03:39
Ivan Sirko welcomes the confused crowd with exciting news—
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伊万西尔科向困惑的人群 宣布了振奋人心的消息——
03:43
scouts have located a large Ottoman camp completely vulnerable on one side.
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侦察兵发现一大型奥斯曼营地, 且营地一侧的防守特别薄弱。
03:48
Sirko vows that tomorrow, they will ride against their common enemy,
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西尔科誓言,明天, 他们要出征对抗他们共同的敌人,
03:52
defend the Cossacks’ autonomy, and bring unity to the Wild Fields.
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保卫哥萨克的自治权, 并一统乌克兰原野。
03:57
As the men cheer in unison,
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当大家一致欢呼时,
03:59
Stepan is relieved at their renewed sense of brotherhood.
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这种重新找回的兄弟情感 让史戴潘松了一口气。
04:03
Over the next 200 years, these freedom fighters would take on many foes.
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在接下来的两百年里, 这些自由斗士会面对许多敌手。
04:07
And tragically,
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他们曾经对抗过俄国政府,
04:08
they would eventually become the oppressive hand of the Russian government
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但不幸的是,
他们最后会成为 俄国政府镇压施政的帮手。
04:12
they once opposed.
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04:13
But today, these 17th century Cossacks
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但现今,大家记得这些 十七世纪的哥萨克人,
04:16
are remembered for their spirit of independence and defiance.
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是因为他们的独立与反抗精神。
04:20
As the Russian painter Ilya Repin once said:
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俄国画家伊利亚·列宾曾说过:
04:23
“No people in the world held freedom, equality, and fraternity so deeply.”
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“世界上没有其他人对自由、 平等和友爱抱着如此深切的感情。 ”
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