A day in the life of a Cossack warrior - Alex Gendler

618,109 views

2019-08-22・ TED-Ed

A day in the life of a Cossack warrior - Alex Gendler

618,109 views・2019-08-22

TED-Ed


Please double-click on the English subtitles below to play the video.

譯者: Lilian Chiu 審譯者: Helen Chang
00:06
Despite a serene sunset on the Dnipro river,
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雖然聶伯河上的落日十分寧靜,
00:09
the mood is tense for the Zaporozhian Cossacks.
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札波羅結哥薩克的氣氛卻十分緊繃。
00:13
The year is 1676, and the Treaty of Żurawno has officially ended hostilities
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時間是 1676 年,
茹拉夫諾協定讓波蘭立陶宛
00:18
between the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and the Ottoman Empire.
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與鄂圖曼帝國之間的對立正式告終。
00:23
But as Stepan and his men ride towards their stronghold,
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但當史戴潘與他的人馬 朝他們的據點前進時,
00:26
peace is far from their minds.
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他們的腦中完全沒有和平這個詞。
00:29
Having made their home in the Wild Fields north of the Black Sea,
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他們在黑海北方的大草原定居之後,
00:32
these cossacks— derived from a Turkic word for "free man"—
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這些哥薩克人—— 這詞來自突厥語的「自由人」——
00:37
are renowned as one of Europe’s most formidable military forces.
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是歐洲以讓人畏懼而聞名的軍隊。
00:41
Composed of hunters, fishermen, nomads and outlaws,
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哥薩克人的組成分子包括獵人、 漁夫、遊牧民族、法外之徒,
00:44
the Cossacks found freedom in these fertile unclaimed lands.
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他們在這些肥沃且無主的 土地上找到自由。
00:48
Yet this freedom has proven increasingly difficult to maintain.
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但這樣的自由卻越來越難維持。
00:52
Their decades-long strategy of shifting alliances between Poland and Moscow
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數十年來,他們的策略是 在波蘭和莫斯科之間轉換盟友,
00:57
has led to the partitioning of their lands.
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結果導致他們的土地被瓜分。
01:00
In a desperate bid to reclaim independence and reunite the fractured Cossack state,
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他們拼命努力想要取回獨立, 並將破裂的哥薩克國家重新團結,
01:05
their most recent leader, hetman Petro Doroshenko allied with the Ottoman Empire.
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他們最新的領導人蓋特曼 · 多羅申科 將軍和鄂圖曼帝國結盟。
01:10
This alliance successfully freed the Zaporozhian Cossacks
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這結盟成功解放了 西方札波羅結哥薩克,
01:14
in the west from Polish dominion, but their victory was a bitter one.
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讓他們脫離波蘭統治, 但他們勝利有痛苦的代價。
01:18
Doroshenko’s Ottoman allies ravaged the countryside,
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多羅申科的鄂圖曼盟友 劫掠了鄉間,
01:22
carrying off peasants into slavery.
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抓走農夫,將他們奴役。
01:24
And outrage at allying with Muslims against fellow Christians
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因為和穆斯林結盟來對抗 基督教夥伴所造成的憤怒
01:28
cost him any remaining local support.
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讓他也失去了 所有剩下的當地支援。
01:32
Now, with Doroshenko deposed and exiled,
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多羅申科被罷免、放逐,
01:35
the Cossacks are at odds, disagreeing on what their next move should be.
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哥薩克人四分五裂, 對下一步該做什麼完全沒有共識。
01:40
Until then, Stepan must keep order.
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在那之前,史戴潘必須要維持秩序。
01:42
With his musket and curved saber, he cuts an imposing figure.
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他帶著毛瑟槍和弧形軍刀, 塑造了使人印象深刻的形象。
01:46
He surveys his battalion of 180 men.
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他環視著 180 人的大軍。
01:50
Most are Orthodox Christians and speak a Slavic language
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大部分的東正教基督徒 說的是斯拉夫語,
01:53
that will become modern Ukrainian.
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也就是現代的烏克蘭語。
01:55
But there are also Greeks, Tatars, and even some Mongolian Kalmyks,
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但還有希臘人、韃靼人、 甚至一些蒙古卡爾梅克人,
02:00
many with different opinions on recent events.
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對近期的事件, 許多人都有不同的意見。
02:03
Officially, all of Stepan’s men have sworn to uphold the Cossack code
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史戴潘的所有手下都有 正式立誓要信守哥薩克規則,
02:08
by undergoing seven years of military training and remaining unmarried.
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要進行七年的軍事訓練,且不結婚。
02:12
In practice, some are part-timers, holding more closely to their own traditions,
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實際上,有些人是兼差的, 比較遵從他們自己的傳統,
02:17
and maintaining families in nearby villages, outside Cossack lands.
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且在哥薩克土地之外的 鄰近村落中還有家庭。
02:22
Thankfully, the tenuous peace is not broken before they reach the Sich—
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謝天謝地,在他們到達塞契之前, 脆弱的和平並沒有被打破——
02:26
the center of Cossack military life.
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塞契(要塞)是哥薩克 軍事生活的中心。
02:29
Currently located at Chortomlyk,
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當前的塞契位在喬爾托姆利克,
02:31
the Sich’s location shifts with the tide of military action.
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但會隨著軍事行動而轉變所在。
02:35
The settlement is remarkably well- organized, with administrative buildings,
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這個新定居地的組織 非常良好,內有行政大樓、
02:39
officers’ quarters, and even schools, as Cossacks prize literacy.
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軍官的總部、甚至學校, 因為哥薩克人很重視識字。
02:44
Stepan and his men make their way to the barracks where they live and train
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史戴潘和他的人馬到了 他們居住和訓練的兵營,
02:47
alongside several other battalions or kurins,
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營中還有數支其他軍隊,
02:51
all of which make up a several hundred man regiment.
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每支軍隊都是數百人的軍團。
02:54
Inside, the men dine on dried fish, sheep’s cheese, and salted pork fat—
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在營中,大家吃的是曬乾的魚、 羊乳起司、鹹豬肥肉——
02:59
along with plenty of wine.
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還有許多葡萄酒。
03:02
Stepan instructs his friend Yuri to lighten the mood with his bandura.
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史戴潘指示他的朋友尤里 用班杜拉琴來抒援氣氛。
03:06
But before long, an argument has broken out.
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但不久就起了爭執。
03:09
One of his men has raised a toast to Doroshenko.
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他的手下之一舉杯敬多羅申科。
03:12
Stepan cuts him off.
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史戴潘打斷他。
03:14
The room is silent until he raises his own toast to Ivan Sirko,
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房間中一片寂靜, 直到他舉杯敬伊萬西爾科,
03:18
the new hetman who favors an alliance with Moscow against the Turks.
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西爾科是新的將軍,偏好 與莫斯科結盟對抗土耳其人。
03:23
Stepan plans to support him, and he expects his men to do the same.
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史戴潘打算要支持他, 他也期望他的手下會跟進。
03:27
Suddenly, one of Sirko’s men rushes in,
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突然,一個西爾科的手下衝進來,
03:30
calling an emergency Rada, or general council meeting.
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傳達要緊急召開大會。
03:34
Stepan and the others make their way towards the church square—
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史戴潘和其他人趕到教堂廣場——
03:37
the center of Sich life.
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塞契生活的中心地。
03:39
Ivan Sirko welcomes the confused crowd with exciting news—
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伊萬西爾科用讓人興奮的消息 來歡迎困惑的大眾——
03:43
scouts have located a large Ottoman camp completely vulnerable on one side.
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偵察兵發現了一個大型鄂圖曼 營地,且有一邊防守薄弱。
03:48
Sirko vows that tomorrow, they will ride against their common enemy,
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西爾科誓言,明天,他們要 出征對抗他們的共同敵人,
03:52
defend the Cossacks’ autonomy, and bring unity to the Wild Fields.
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保衛哥薩克的自治權, 並讓大草原統一。
03:57
As the men cheer in unison,
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當大家一致歡呼時,
03:59
Stepan is relieved at their renewed sense of brotherhood.
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他們重新找回的兄弟情感 讓史戴潘鬆了一口氣。
04:03
Over the next 200 years, these freedom fighters would take on many foes.
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在接下來的兩百年, 這些自由鬥士會面對許多敵手。
04:07
And tragically,
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不幸的是,他們最後會成為
04:08
they would eventually become the oppressive hand of the Russian government
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他們曾經對抗的 俄國政府的壓迫幫手。
04:12
they once opposed.
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04:13
But today, these 17th century Cossacks
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但,現今,大家記得這些 十七世紀的哥薩克人,
04:16
are remembered for their spirit of independence and defiance.
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是因為他們的獨立與反抗精神。
04:20
As the Russian painter Ilya Repin once said:
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俄國畫家伊利亞列賓曾經說過:
04:23
“No people in the world held freedom, equality, and fraternity so deeply.”
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「世界上沒有其他人把自由、 平等,和友愛看得這麼深重。」
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