The gender-fluid history of the Philippines | France Villarta

125,569 views

2020-04-03・ TED

The gender-fluid history of the Philippines | France Villarta

125,569 views・2020-04-03

TED


Please double-click on the English subtitles below to play the video.

翻译人员: CINDY WANG 校对人员: Wanting Zhong
00:13
I was an eight-year-old kid in the mid-1990s.
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90 年代中期时,我才 8 岁,
00:15
I grew up in southern Philippines.
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在菲律宾南部长大。
00:18
At that age, you're young enough to be oblivious
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在那个年纪, 你稚嫩得难以察觉
00:20
about what society expects from each of us
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社会对于每个人的期望,
00:22
but old enough to be aware of what's going on around you.
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但也已懂事到能知晓 周围发生的一切。
我们一家五口
00:26
We lived in a one-bedroom house,
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都住在只有一间 卧室的房子里,
00:28
all five of us.
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00:29
Our house was amongst clusters of houses
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夹在一群主要由 木头和瓦楞金属板
00:32
made mostly of wood and corrugated metal sheets.
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建成的房子中间。
00:36
These houses were built very close to each other
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这些房子沿着 未铺砌的土路建造,
00:39
along unpaved roads.
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一座紧挨着一座,
00:41
There was little to no expectation of privacy.
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几乎没有任何隐私。
00:44
Whenever an argument broke out next door,
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每当隔壁发生争吵时,
00:47
you heard it all.
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你都能听得一清二楚。
00:49
Or, if there was a little ... something something going on --
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或者,如果有人······ 在做这样那样的事情······
00:53
(Laughter)
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(笑声)
00:55
you would probably hear that, too.
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你大概也能听见。
00:58
(Laughter)
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(笑声)
00:59
Like any other kid, I learned what a family looked like.
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像其他孩子一样, 我了解了一个家庭是什么样的。
01:03
It was a man, a woman, plus a child or children.
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它由一个男人,一个女人, 外加上一个或一群孩子组成。
01:07
But I also learned it wasn't always that way.
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但我也学到了, 事实并非总是如此。
01:09
There were other combinations that worked just as well.
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还有其他的家庭组合 也同样有效。
01:12
There was this family of three who lived down the street.
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有一个三口之家 就住在我们这条街上。
01:15
The lady of the house was called Lenie.
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这家的女主人名叫蕾妮。
01:18
Lenie had long black hair, often in a ponytail,
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蕾妮有一头长长的黑发, 通常扎着马尾,
01:21
and manicured nails.
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指甲修剪得整整齐齐。
01:23
She always went out with a little makeup on
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她出门的时候总是化着淡妆,
01:25
and her signature red lipstick.
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涂着标志性的口红。
01:28
Lenie's other half, I don't remember much about him
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蕾妮的另一半, 我不太记得他了,
01:30
except that he had a thing for white sleeveless shirts
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只记得他热衷穿 白色无袖衬衫,
01:33
and gold chains around his neck.
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脖子上戴着金链子。
01:36
Their daughter was a couple years younger than me.
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他们的女儿比我小几岁。
01:39
Now, everybody in the village knew Lenie.
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村子里的每个人都认识蕾妮。
01:42
She owned and ran what was the most popular beauty salon
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她拥有并经营着我们这边
01:45
in our side of town.
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最受欢迎的美容院。
01:46
Every time their family would walk down the roads,
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每次他们一家人走在路上,
人们总会对他们抱以微笑,
01:49
they would always be greeted with smiles
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01:51
and occasionally stopped for a little chitchat.
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偶尔还会停下来聊聊天。
01:56
Now, the interesting thing about Lenie
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蕾妮有意思的地方在于,
01:58
is that she also happened to be a transgender woman.
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她是一位变性女人。
02:03
She exemplified one of the Philippines' long-standing stories
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她是菲律宾历史悠久的 性别多元化故事
02:07
about gender diversity.
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的一个例证。
02:10
Lenie was proof that oftentimes we think of something as strange
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蕾妮证明了,往往 我们觉得某件事物古怪,
02:16
only because we're not familiar with it,
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只是因为我们对其不熟悉,
02:18
or we haven't taken enough time to try and understand.
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或者没有花足够的时间 尝试去理解。
02:23
In most cultures around the world,
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在世界上大多数文化中,
02:26
gender is this man-woman dichotomy.
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性别是男女的二元划分,
02:29
It's this immovable, nonnegotiable, distinct classes of individuals.
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是无法改变、毋容置疑、 泾渭分明的两组个体。
02:35
We assign characteristics and expectations
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在一个人的生物性别 确定的那一刻,
02:38
the moment a person's biological sex is determined.
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我们便对其赋予了特质与期望。
02:42
But not all cultures are like that.
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但并非所有的文化都是如此。
02:45
Not all cultures are as rigid.
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并不是所有的文化都这么死板。
02:47
Many cultures don't look at genitalia primarily
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很多文化并不将生殖器
02:50
as basis for gender construction,
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作为性别建构的主要基础。
02:52
and some communities in North America, Africa, the Indian subcontinent
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在北美、非洲、 印度次大陆、太平洋诸岛,
02:58
and the Pacific Islands, including the Philippines,
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包括菲律宾的一些社区,
03:01
have a long history of cultural permissiveness
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有着对文化宽容、
03:05
and accommodation of gender variances.
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对性别差异适应的悠久历史。
03:08
As you may know,
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各位或许知道,
03:09
the people of the Philippines were under Spanish rule for over 300 years.
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菲律宾人民被西班牙 统治了 300 多年。
03:14
That's from 1565 to 1898.
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那是在 1565 年到 1898 年之间。
03:17
This explains why everyday Filipino conversations
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这就解释了为什么 菲律宾的日常对话
03:20
are peppered with Spanish words
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会夹杂着西班牙语,
03:22
and why so many of our last names, including mine, sound very Spanish.
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为什么我们的这么多姓氏, 包括我的,听起来很像西班牙语。
03:28
This also explains the firmly entrenched influence of Catholicism.
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这也解释了根深蒂固的 天主教影响。
03:34
But precolonial Philippine societies,
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但是前殖民社会的菲律宾社会,
03:36
they were mostly animists.
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大多数人都是万物有灵论者。
03:39
They believed all things had a distinct spiritual essence:
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他们相信一切事物 有着独特的精神本质:
03:45
plants, animals, rocks, rivers, places.
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植物,动物,岩石,河流,地点。
03:50
Power resided in the spirit.
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力量存在于精神之中,
03:53
Whoever was able to harness that spiritual power was highly revered.
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能够驾驭这种精神力量的人 会备受尊崇。
03:59
Now, scholars who have studied the Spanish colonial archives
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研究西班牙殖民档案的学者 也告诉我们,
04:02
also tell us that these early societies were largely egalitarian.
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这些早期社会大体上是平等的。
04:08
Men did not necessarily have an advantage over women.
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男人不一定比女人有优势。
04:12
Wives were treated as companions, not slaves.
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妻子被视作同伴,而不是奴隶。
04:15
And family contracts were not done without their presence and approval.
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家庭合同的生效必须要有 她们在场并批准。
04:20
In some ways, women had the upper hand.
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在某些方面,女性占了上风。
04:23
A woman could divorce her husband and own property under her own name,
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一个女人可以和丈夫离婚, 拥有自己名下的财产,
04:28
which she kept even after marriage.
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甚至在婚后仍能保留。
04:30
She had the prerogative to have a baby or not
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她有决定是否生孩子、
04:33
and then decide the baby's name.
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并为孩子命名的特权。
04:36
But the real key to the power of the precolonial Filipino woman
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但前殖民社会的菲律宾女人 拥有权力的关键在于
04:41
was in her role as "babaylan,"
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她担任的“巴巴伊兰”一职,
04:45
a collective term for shamans of various ethnic groups.
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这是不同民族对萨满的统称。
04:49
They were the community healers,
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她们是社区医师,
04:52
specialists in herbal and divine lore.
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是草药和传说的专家。
04:56
They delivered babies
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她们接生婴儿,
04:57
and communicated with the spirit world.
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与灵界沟通。
05:00
They performed exorcisms
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她们进行驱魔仪式,
05:03
and occasionally, and in defense of their community,
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偶尔,为了保护她们的社区,
05:07
they kicked some ass.
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她们还能暴打犯事者。
05:09
(Laughter)
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(笑声)
05:11
And while the babaylan was a female role,
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虽说巴巴伊兰是女性的职责,
05:14
there were also, in fact, male practitioners in the spiritual realm.
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事实上,在精神领域 也有男性从业者。
05:18
Reports from early Spanish chroniclers contain several references
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西班牙早期编年史作家的记载中 有几处提到了一些
05:23
to male shamans who did not conform to normative Western masculine standards.
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不符合西方男性标准的男性萨满。
05:29
They cross-dressed
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他们穿着女装,
05:30
and appeared effeminate
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看上去偏女性化
05:33
or sexually ambiguous.
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或中性化。
05:35
A Jesuit missionary named Francisco Alcina
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一位名叫弗朗西斯科·阿尔西纳 (Francisco Alcina)的耶稣会传教士说,
05:37
said that one man he believed to be a shaman
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一位他认为是萨满的男性
05:40
was "so effeminate
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“如此女性化,
05:42
that in every way he was more a woman than a man.
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以至于在所有方面, 他都更像女人,而非男人。
05:47
All the things the women did
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女人做的所有事情
05:49
he performed,
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他都会做,
05:51
such as weaving blankets,
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比如编织毯子、
05:53
sewing clothes and making pots.
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缝衣服和制作陶艺。
05:57
He danced also like they did,
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男女的舞蹈不同,
06:00
never like a man,
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他也和她们跳同样的舞,
06:02
whose dance is different.
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从来不跳男人的舞蹈。
06:04
In all, he appeared more a woman than a man."
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总之,他表现得更像女人, 而不是男人。”
06:10
Well, any other juicy details in the colonial archives?
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在殖民地档案里 还有什么更劲爆的细节吗?
06:16
Thought you'd never ask.
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还以为你们不会问呢。
06:17
(Laughter)
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(笑声)
06:19
As you may have deduced by now,
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你们现在或许已经推断出了,
06:21
the manner in which these precolonial societies conducted themselves
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这些前殖民社会的行为方式
06:25
didn't go over so well.
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不太受(殖民者的)欢迎。
06:27
All the free-loving, gender-variant-permitting,
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所有那些热爱自由、 对多元化性别宽容
06:30
gender equality wokeness
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的性别平等觉醒意识,
06:32
clashed viciously with the European sensibilities at the time,
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都与当时欧洲人的感性 发生了剧烈冲突,
06:36
so much so that the Spanish missionaries spent the next 300 years
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导致西班牙传教士 在接下来的 300 年里,
06:41
trying to enforce their two-sex, two-gender model.
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一直试图强制实施 他们的那套两性模式。
06:44
Many Spanish friars also thought that the cross-dressing babaylan
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许多西班牙修士也认为, 异装的巴巴伊兰
06:49
were either celibates like themselves
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要么和他们一样独身禁欲,
06:53
or had deficient or malformed genitals.
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要么有生殖器官缺陷或畸形。
06:56
But this was pure speculation.
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但这纯粹是臆测。
06:58
Documents compiled between 1679 and 1685, called "The Bolinao Manuscript,"
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1679 年至 1685 年间 编纂的文件《波里瑙手稿》中
07:04
mentions male shamans marrying women.
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提到了男性萨满和女性结婚。
07:08
The Boxer Codex, circa 1590,
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约 1590 年编写的《谟区查抄本》 (又名《马尼拉手稿》)
07:11
provide clues on the nature of the male babaylan sexuality.
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提供了关于男性巴巴伊兰 性取向的线索:
07:16
It says, "Ordinarily they dress as women,
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“他们平时打扮成女人,
07:21
act like prudes
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表现得很禁欲,
07:23
and are so effeminate
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而且女性化到
07:25
that one who does not know them would believe they are women.
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不认识他们的人 会以为他们是女人。
07:29
Almost all are impotent for the reproductive act,
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他们几乎全员都生殖无能,
07:33
and thus they marry other males and sleep with them as man and wife
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因此他们和别的男性结婚, 像夫妻一样共寝,
07:39
and have carnal knowledge."
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并拥有肉体知识。”
07:42
Carnal knowledge, of course, meaning sex.
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“肉体知识”当然 指的是性行为。
07:47
Now, there's an ongoing debate in contemporary society
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在当代社会中, 关于性别是什么,
07:50
about what constitutes gender and how it should be defined.
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以及如何定义性别的争论 一直在持续。
07:53
My country is no exception.
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我的国家也不例外。
07:55
Some countries like Australia, New Zealand, Pakistan, Nepal and Canada
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一些国家,比如澳大利亚、 新西兰、巴基斯坦、尼泊尔和加拿大,
08:00
have begun introducing nonbinary options in their legal documents,
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已经开始在法律文件中, 引入男女性别之外的选项了。
08:04
such as their passports and their permanent resident cards.
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比如他们的护照 和永久居民卡。
08:08
In all these discussions about gender,
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在所有这些关于性别的讨论中,
08:10
I think it's important to keep in mind
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我认为有一点很重要:
08:12
that the prevailing notions of man and woman as static genders
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主流观点中, 严格以生理性别为基础
08:16
anchored strictly on biological sex
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的男女静态性别,
08:19
are social constructs.
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是一种社会建构。
08:22
In my people's case, this social construct is an imposition.
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以我的国家为例, 这种社会建构是强行施加的。
08:28
It was hammered into their heads over hundreds of years
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几百年以来,这种建构 都被强行灌输给他们,
08:33
until they were convinced that their way of thinking was erroneous.
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直到他们深信自己原本 的思想是错误的。
08:38
But the good thing about social constructs
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但社会建构的好处是,
08:42
is they can be reconstructed
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它们可以被重建,
08:44
to fit a time and age.
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以适应时代。
08:47
They can be reconstructed
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它们可以被重建,
08:49
to respond to communities that are becoming more diverse.
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以响应变得更加多样化的社区。
08:53
And they can be reconstructed
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它们可以被重建,
08:55
for a world that's starting to realize
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因为这个世界 已经开始意识到,
08:58
we have so much to gain from learning and working through our differences.
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从差异中学习、在差异中合作, 能够让我们受益匪浅。
09:04
When I think about this subject,
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当我思考这个话题时,
09:06
I think about the Filipino people
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我会想到菲律宾的人民,
09:08
and an almost forgotten but important legacy
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和我们几乎被遗忘、 却无比重要的
09:12
of gender equality and inclusivity.
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性别平等与包容的遗产。
09:15
I think about lovers who were some of the gentlest souls I had known
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我想起了一对对恋人, 拥有最温柔的灵魂,
09:21
but could not be fully open.
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却不能完全公开。
09:23
I think about people who have made an impact in my life,
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我想起了对我的人生 产生过影响的人们,
09:28
who showed me that integrity, kindness and strength of character
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是他们教会我,正直、 善良和坚强的品格
09:32
are far better measures of judgment,
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才是评判一个人更好的标准,
09:35
far better than things that are beyond a person's control
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远远优于那些不在 个人掌控下的东西,
09:38
such as their skin color, their age
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比如肤色、年龄
09:42
or their gender.
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或者性别。
09:44
As I stand here today, on the shoulders of people like Lenie,
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今天我站在这里, 站在像蕾妮这样的人的肩上,
09:49
I feel incredibly grateful for all who have come before me,
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我深深地感谢那些先驱者,
09:54
the ones courageous enough to put themselves out there,
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那些有足够勇气 坦露自我的人们,
09:59
who lived a life that was theirs
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那些过着属于自己生活的人们,
10:02
and in the process, made it a little easier for us to live our lives now.
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在这个过程中,他们也让 我们现在的生活轻松了些许。
10:07
Because being yourself is revolutionary.
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因为“做你自己”是革命性的。
10:12
And to anyone reeling from forces trying to knock you down
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如果有人试图击垮你,把你塞进
10:16
and cram you into these neat little boxes people have decided for you:
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早已为你设计好的 精美的小盒子里,我想对你说:
10:22
don't break.
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不要屈服。
10:24
I see you.
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我看得见你。
10:26
My ancestors see you.
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我的祖先们也看得见你。
10:28
Their blood runs through me as they run through so many of us.
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他们的血在我的体内流淌, 也在我们许多人的体内流淌。
10:33
You are valid, and you deserve rights and recognition
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你的存在方式是合理的, 你值得获得权利和认可,
10:40
just like everyone else.
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就像任何人一样。
10:44
Thank you.
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谢谢大家。
10:45
(Applause)
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(鼓掌)
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