The gender-fluid history of the Philippines | France Villarta

127,917 views Ńâ╗ 2020-04-03

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Videoyu oynatmak i├žin l├╝tfen a┼ča─č─▒daki ─░ngilizce altyaz─▒lara ├žift t─▒klay─▒n─▒z.

├çeviri: Yusuf Kerem Sa─člam G├Âzden ge├žirme: Esra ├çakmak
00:13
I was an eight-year-old kid in the mid-1990s.
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1990'lar─▒n ortas─▒nda sekiz ya┼č─▒nda bir ├žocuktum.
00:15
I grew up in southern Philippines.
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Filipinler'in g├╝neyinde b├╝y├╝d├╝m.
00:18
At that age, you're young enough to be oblivious
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O ya┼člarda, toplumun bizden beklentilerini anlamayacak kadar k├╝├ž├╝k
00:20
about what society expects from each of us
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00:22
but old enough to be aware of what's going on around you.
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fakat etrafta neler oldu─čunu anlayacak kadar b├╝y├╝kt├╝k.
00:26
We lived in a one-bedroom house,
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Be┼č ki┼čilik bir aile olarak
00:28
all five of us.
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tek yatak odal─▒ bir evde ya┼čad─▒k.
00:29
Our house was amongst clusters of houses
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Evimiz, ├žo─čunlukla odun
00:32
made mostly of wood and corrugated metal sheets.
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ve oluklu metal saclardan yap─▒lm─▒┼č site evlerin i├žindeydi.
00:36
These houses were built very close to each other
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Bu evler asfalts─▒z yollar boyunca
00:39
along unpaved roads.
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birbirlerine ├žok yak─▒n in┼ča edilmi┼čti.
00:41
There was little to no expectation of privacy.
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Mahremiyetle alakal─▒ en ufak bir beklenti yoktu.
00:44
Whenever an argument broke out next door,
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Yan kom┼čuda ne zaman bir tart─▒┼čma ├ž─▒ksa
00:47
you heard it all.
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her ┼čeyi duyuyordunuz.
00:49
Or, if there was a little ... something something going on --
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Ya da birazc─▒k i┼či pi┼čirseler bile duyuyordunuz.
00:53
(Laughter)
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(Kahkaha)
00:55
you would probably hear that, too.
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Bunu muhtemelen siz de duyard─▒n─▒z.
00:58
(Laughter)
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(Kahkaha)
00:59
Like any other kid, I learned what a family looked like.
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Her ├žocuk gibi, bir ailenin neye benzedi─čini ├Â─črendim.
01:03
It was a man, a woman, plus a child or children.
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Bir adam, kad─▒n, ├žocuk ya da ├žocuklar.
01:07
But I also learned it wasn't always that way.
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Fakat bunun her zaman b├Âyle olmad─▒─č─▒n─▒ da ├Â─črendim.
01:09
There were other combinations that worked just as well.
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Ayn─▒ ┼čekilde ├žal─▒┼čan ba┼čka kombinasyonlar da var.
01:12
There was this family of three who lived down the street.
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Soka─č─▒n a┼ča─č─▒s─▒nda ya┼čayan ├╝├ž ki┼čilik bir aile vard─▒.
01:15
The lady of the house was called Lenie.
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Evin han─▒m─▒n─▒n ad─▒ Lenie'ydi.
01:18
Lenie had long black hair, often in a ponytail,
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Lenie'nin genellikle at kuyru─ču yapt─▒─č─▒ uzun siyah sa├žlar─▒
01:21
and manicured nails.
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ve manik├╝r yap─▒lm─▒┼č t─▒rnaklar─▒ vard─▒.
01:23
She always went out with a little makeup on
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D─▒┼čar─▒ her seferinde hafif makyaj
01:25
and her signature red lipstick.
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ve imzas─▒ niteli─čindeki k─▒rm─▒z─▒ rujuyla ├ž─▒kard─▒.
01:28
Lenie's other half, I don't remember much about him
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Lenie'nin e┼či hakk─▒nda pek bir ┼čey hat─▒rlamasam da
01:30
except that he had a thing for white sleeveless shirts
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beyaz kolsuz ti┼č├Ârtler giydi─čini
01:33
and gold chains around his neck.
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ve alt─▒n zincir takt─▒─č─▒n─▒ hat─▒rl─▒yorum.
01:36
Their daughter was a couple years younger than me.
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K─▒zlar─▒ benden birka├ž ya┼č k├╝├ž├╝kt├╝.
01:39
Now, everybody in the village knew Lenie.
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K├Âydeki herkes Lenie'yi tan─▒rd─▒.
01:42
She owned and ran what was the most popular beauty salon
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Kasaban─▒n bizim taraf─▒ndaki
en pop├╝ler g├╝zellik salonunun sahibi ve i┼čletmecisiydi.
01:45
in our side of town.
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01:46
Every time their family would walk down the roads,
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Ne zaman ailesi yoldan ge├žse
01:49
they would always be greeted with smiles
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her zaman g├╝l├╝msemelerle selamlan─▒rlard─▒
01:51
and occasionally stopped for a little chitchat.
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ve bazen, ayak├╝st├╝ sohbetler i├žin dururlard─▒.
01:56
Now, the interesting thing about Lenie
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Lenie'yle ilgili enteresan olan,
01:58
is that she also happened to be a transgender woman.
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ayr─▒ca transeks├╝el bir kad─▒n olmas─▒yd─▒.
02:03
She exemplified one of the Philippines' long-standing stories
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Filipinler'in cinsiyet ├že┼čitlili─čiyle alakal─▒
k├Âkl├╝ hik├óyelerinden birine ├Ârnek oldu.
02:07
about gender diversity.
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02:10
Lenie was proof that oftentimes we think of something as strange
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Lenie, s─▒rf a┼čina olmad─▒─č─▒m─▒z i├žin
02:16
only because we're not familiar with it,
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veya anlamak i├žin vakit ay─▒rmamam─▒zdan kaynakl─▒
02:18
or we haven't taken enough time to try and understand.
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├žo─čunlukla bize yabanc─▒ gelen ┼čeylerin kan─▒t─▒yd─▒.
02:23
In most cultures around the world,
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D├╝nyadaki ├žo─ču k├╝lt├╝rde,
02:26
gender is this man-woman dichotomy.
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cinsiyet erkek-kad─▒n ayr─▒m─▒d─▒r.
02:29
It's this immovable, nonnegotiable, distinct classes of individuals.
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Bu sars─▒lmaz, tart─▒┼č─▒lmaz ┼čekilde bireylerin s─▒n─▒f ayr─▒m─▒d─▒r.
02:35
We assign characteristics and expectations
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Birinin biyolojik cinsiyeti belirlendi─činde
02:38
the moment a person's biological sex is determined.
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onun karakterine ve beklentilerimize karar veriyoruz.
02:42
But not all cultures are like that.
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Fakat b├╝t├╝n k├╝lt├╝rler ├Âyle de─čil.
02:45
Not all cultures are as rigid.
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B├╝t├╝n k├╝lt├╝rler b├Âyle sabit de─čil.
02:47
Many cultures don't look at genitalia primarily
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Bir├žok k├╝lt├╝r cinsiyet fark─▒n─▒ olu┼čturmak i├žin
02:50
as basis for gender construction,
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ilk olarak genital b├Âlgeye bakm─▒yor.
02:52
and some communities in North America, Africa, the Indian subcontinent
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Kuzey Amerika, Afrika, Hint Yar─▒madas─▒
02:58
and the Pacific Islands, including the Philippines,
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ve Filipinler de dahil Pasifik Adalar─▒'nda
03:01
have a long history of cultural permissiveness
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baz─▒ cemiyetlerin k├╝lt├╝rel serbestlik
ve cinsiyet ├že┼čitlili─čiyle alakal─▒ uzun hik├óyeleri var.
03:05
and accommodation of gender variances.
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03:08
As you may know,
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Belki bilirsiniz,
03:09
the people of the Philippines were under Spanish rule for over 300 years.
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Filipin halk─▒ 300 y─▒ldan uzun bir s├╝re ─░spanyol h├╝km├╝ alt─▒ndayd─▒.
03:14
That's from 1565 to 1898.
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1565 y─▒l─▒ndan 1898 y─▒l─▒na kadar.
03:17
This explains why everyday Filipino conversations
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Bu, g├╝nl├╝k hayattaki Filipince sohbetlerin
03:20
are peppered with Spanish words
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neden ─░spanyolca kelimelerle harmanland─▒─č─▒n─▒n
03:22
and why so many of our last names, including mine, sound very Spanish.
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ve benimki de dahil, soyadlar─▒m─▒z─▒n kula─ča ─░spanyolca gelmesinin sebebi.
03:28
This also explains the firmly entrenched influence of Catholicism.
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Bu ayr─▒ca Katolikli─čin olduk├ža de─či┼čmez etkisini de a├ž─▒kl─▒yor.
03:34
But precolonial Philippine societies,
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S├Âm├╝rgecilik ├Âncesi d├Ânemde,
03:36
they were mostly animists.
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Filipin halklar─▒ ├žo─čunlukla animistikti.
03:39
They believed all things had a distinct spiritual essence:
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Onlar her ┼čeyde belirgin ruhsal esas─▒n─▒n oldu─čuna inan─▒yordu;
bitkiler, hayvanlar,
03:45
plants, animals, rocks, rivers, places.
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ta┼člar, nehirler, mek├ónlar.
03:50
Power resided in the spirit.
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G├╝├ž, ruhta ikamet ediyordu.
03:53
Whoever was able to harness that spiritual power was highly revered.
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Her kim o ruhsal g├╝ce bir ko┼čum takabilirse ├žok sayg─▒ g├Âr├╝rd├╝.
03:59
Now, scholars who have studied the Spanish colonial archives
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┼×imdi, ─░spanyol s├Âm├╝rgecilik ar┼čivlerinde ├žal─▒┼čmalar yapan bilim insanlar─▒,
04:02
also tell us that these early societies were largely egalitarian.
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bu eski topluluklar─▒n ayr─▒ca e┼čitlik taraftar─▒ oldu─čunu ortaya ├ž─▒kard─▒.
04:08
Men did not necessarily have an advantage over women.
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Erkeklerin kad─▒nlardan fazla avantaj─▒ yoktu.
04:12
Wives were treated as companions, not slaves.
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Kad─▒n e┼člere bir k├Âle gibi de─čil, dost gibi davran─▒l─▒rd─▒.
04:15
And family contracts were not done without their presence and approval.
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Aile mukaveleleri onlar─▒n varl─▒─č─▒ ve onay─▒ olmadan yap─▒lmazd─▒.
04:20
In some ways, women had the upper hand.
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Baz─▒ k─▒s─▒mlarda kad─▒nlar daha ├╝st├╝nd├╝.
04:23
A woman could divorce her husband and own property under her own name,
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Bir kad─▒n bo┼čanabilirdi
ve bo┼čand─▒ktan sonra bile elinde tutabilece─či
04:28
which she kept even after marriage.
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kendi topra─č─▒n─▒n sahibi olabilirdi.
04:30
She had the prerogative to have a baby or not
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Bir bebek sahibi olma ya da olmama imtiyaz─▒na sahipti
04:33
and then decide the baby's name.
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ve bebe─čin ad─▒na karar verebilirdi.
04:36
But the real key to the power of the precolonial Filipino woman
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Fakat s├Âm├╝rgecilik ├Âncesi Filipin kad─▒nlar─▒n─▒n as─▒l g├╝c├╝,
04:41
was in her role as "babaylan,"
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farkl─▒ etnik gruplardan ┼čamanlar i├žin kullan─▒lan ortak bir terim olan
04:45
a collective term for shamans of various ethnic groups.
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''babaylan'' rol├╝nden gelmekteydi.
04:49
They were the community healers,
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Bitkilerde ve ilahi irfanda uzmanla┼čm─▒┼č
04:52
specialists in herbal and divine lore.
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toplum ┼čifac─▒lar─▒yd─▒lar.
04:56
They delivered babies
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Bebek do─čurtuyorlar
04:57
and communicated with the spirit world.
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ve ruh ├ólemiyle ileti┼čim kuruyorlard─▒.
05:00
They performed exorcisms
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┼×eytan ├ž─▒karma yap─▒yorlard─▒
05:03
and occasionally, and in defense of their community,
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ve s─▒kl─▒kla toplumu korumak ad─▒na
05:07
they kicked some ass.
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k─▒├ž tekmeliyorlard─▒.
05:09
(Laughter)
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(Kahkaha)
05:11
And while the babaylan was a female role,
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Babaylan bir kad─▒n rol├╝ olmas─▒na ra─čmen,
05:14
there were also, in fact, male practitioners in the spiritual realm.
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ayrıca ruhsal âlemde pratik yapan erkekler de vardı.
05:18
Reports from early Spanish chroniclers contain several references
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Eski ─░spanyol kolonisinden raporlarda erkek ┼čamanlar─▒n,
05:23
to male shamans who did not conform to normative Western masculine standards.
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normal Bat─▒ erkeklerinin standartlar─▒na uymad─▒─č─▒n─▒ g├Âsteren referanslar var.
05:29
They cross-dressed
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Çapraz giyinimli
05:30
and appeared effeminate
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ve kad─▒ns─▒ g├Âr├╝n├╝yorlard─▒
ya da cinsiyet anlam─▒nda belirsizdiler.
05:33
or sexually ambiguous.
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05:35
A Jesuit missionary named Francisco Alcina
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Francisco Alcina ad─▒ndaki cizvit misyonerin dedi─čine g├Âre,
05:37
said that one man he believed to be a shaman
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┼čaman oldu─čunu d├╝┼č├╝nd├╝─č├╝ bir adam,
05:40
was "so effeminate
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''O kadar kad─▒ns─▒yd─▒ ki
05:42
that in every way he was more a woman than a man.
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varl─▒─č─▒ her a├ž─▒dan bir erkekten ├žok, bir kad─▒nd─▒.
05:47
All the things the women did
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Kad─▒nlar─▒n yapt─▒─č─▒ her ┼čeyi;
05:49
he performed,
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battaniye dokumak,
05:51
such as weaving blankets,
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k─▒yafetleri dikmek ve ├ž├Âmlek yapmak gibi
05:53
sewing clothes and making pots.
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her ┼čeyi o da yap─▒yordu.
05:57
He danced also like they did,
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Ayr─▒ca kad─▒n gibi dans ediyordu,
06:00
never like a man,
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hi├žbir zaman danslar─▒ farkl─▒ olan
06:02
whose dance is different.
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erkekler gibi de─čildi.
06:04
In all, he appeared more a woman than a man."
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Genel olarak erkekten ├žok kad─▒na benziyordu.''
06:10
Well, any other juicy details in the colonial archives?
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Peki, s├Âm├╝rgecilik ar┼čivlerinde ba┼čka ilgin├ž detay var m─▒?
06:16
Thought you'd never ask.
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Hi├ž sormayacaks─▒n─▒z sand─▒m.
06:17
(Laughter)
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(Kahkaha)
06:19
As you may have deduced by now,
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┼×u ana kadar ├ž─▒karabildi─činiz kadar─▒yla,
06:21
the manner in which these precolonial societies conducted themselves
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bu s├Âm├╝rgecilik ├Âncesi toplumlarda
kendini idare etme olay─▒ pek iyi gitmedi.
06:25
didn't go over so well.
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06:27
All the free-loving, gender-variant-permitting,
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B├╝t├╝n bu ├Âzg├╝r, sevgi dolu, cinsiyet ├že┼čitlili─či oluru,
06:30
gender equality wokeness
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cinsiyet e┼čitli─či ayd─▒nl─▒─č─▒
06:32
clashed viciously with the European sensibilities at the time,
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zamanla Avrupal─▒lar─▒n duyarl─▒l─▒─č─▒yla ├žarp─▒┼čt─▒
06:36
so much so that the Spanish missionaries spent the next 300 years
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ve ─░spanyol misyonerler gelecek 300 y─▒l─▒
iki cinsiyet ayr─▒m─▒ modellerini empoze etmeye ├žal─▒┼čt─▒lar.
06:41
trying to enforce their two-sex, two-gender model.
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06:44
Many Spanish friars also thought that the cross-dressing babaylan
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Ayr─▒ca bir├žok ─░spanyol ke┼či┼či,
├žapraz giyimli babaylanlar─▒n
06:49
were either celibates like themselves
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ya kendileri gibi dini nedenlerle evlenmedi─čini
ya da yetersiz veya kusurlu ├╝reme organlar─▒na sahip olduklar─▒n─▒ d├╝┼č├╝nd├╝ler.
06:53
or had deficient or malformed genitals.
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06:56
But this was pure speculation.
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Fakat bu tamamen tahminden ibaretti.
06:58
Documents compiled between 1679 and 1685, called "The Bolinao Manuscript,"
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1679 ve 1685 y─▒l─▒nda derlenen "Bolinao El Yazmas─▒" ad─▒ndaki dosyalarda
07:04
mentions male shamans marrying women.
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erkek ┼čamanlar─▒n kad─▒nlarla evlendi─činden bahsediyor.
07:08
The Boxer Codex, circa 1590,
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Tahminen 1590 y─▒llar─▒nda Boksor Kodeksi,
07:11
provide clues on the nature of the male babaylan sexuality.
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bize do─čal erkek babaylan cinsellik e─čilimiyle alakal─▒ ipu├žlar─▒ sa─čl─▒yor.
07:16
It says, "Ordinarily they dress as women,
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''Normalde kad─▒n gibi giyinirler,
07:21
act like prudes
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a┼č─▒r─▒ iffetli davran─▒rlar
07:23
and are so effeminate
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ve o kadar kad─▒ns─▒lard─▒ ki
07:25
that one who does not know them would believe they are women.
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erkek oldu─čunu bilmeyene kad─▒n oldu─čunu inand─▒rabilirdiniz.
07:29
Almost all are impotent for the reproductive act,
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Neredeyse hepsi ├╝reme konusunda iktidars─▒zd─▒
07:33
and thus they marry other males and sleep with them as man and wife
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ve nitekim ba┼čka erkeklerle evlenip kar─▒ koca olarak birlikte yatt─▒lar
07:39
and have carnal knowledge."
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ve bedensel bilgiye sahiptiler.''
07:42
Carnal knowledge, of course, meaning sex.
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Bedensel bilgi, tabii ki seks anlam─▒nda.
07:47
Now, there's an ongoing debate in contemporary society
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┼×imdilerde ├ža─čda┼č toplumlarda,
07:50
about what constitutes gender and how it should be defined.
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cinsiyet nedir ve nas─▒l tan─▒mlanmal─▒ ┼čeklinde
s├╝regelen bir tart─▒┼čma var.
07:53
My country is no exception.
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Benim ├╝lkem de istisna de─čil.
07:55
Some countries like Australia, New Zealand, Pakistan, Nepal and Canada
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Avustralya, Yeni Zelanda, Pakistan,
Nepal ve Kanada gibi baz─▒ ├╝lkeler
08:00
have begun introducing nonbinary options in their legal documents,
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resmi evraklarda cinsiyet ayr─▒m─▒ olmayan se├ženekleri sunmaya ba┼člad─▒lar.
08:04
such as their passports and their permanent resident cards.
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Bu evraklar pasaport ve kimlik kart─▒ gibi ┼čeyler.
08:08
In all these discussions about gender,
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B├╝t├╝n bu cinsiyetle alakal─▒ tart─▒┼čmalarda,
08:10
I think it's important to keep in mind
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bence kad─▒n ve erkek cinsiyetiyle alakal─▒ hakim kavramlar─▒n
08:12
that the prevailing notions of man and woman as static genders
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kat─▒ca biyolojik cinsiyetimize ba─čl─▒
08:16
anchored strictly on biological sex
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sosyal yap─▒lar oldu─čunu
08:19
are social constructs.
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akl─▒m─▒zda bulundurmakta fayda var.
08:22
In my people's case, this social construct is an imposition.
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Halk─▒m i├žin bu sosyal yap─▒ dayatmadan geliyor.
08:28
It was hammered into their heads over hundreds of years
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Y├╝zy─▒llarca onlar─▒n d├╝┼č├╝nce ┼čekillerinin
yanl─▒┼č oldu─čuna inand─▒r─▒lana kadar
08:33
until they were convinced that their way of thinking was erroneous.
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kafalar─▒na sokuldu.
08:38
But the good thing about social constructs
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Sosyal d├╝zenle alakal─▒ iyi olan ┼čey,
08:42
is they can be reconstructed
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zamana ve ├ža─ča uymak ayak uydurmak i├žin
08:44
to fit a time and age.
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yeniden in┼ča edilebilir olu┼ču.
08:47
They can be reconstructed
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Toplumlar─▒n daha ├že┼čitli olmas─▒na cevap verebilecek ┼čekilde
08:49
to respond to communities that are becoming more diverse.
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yeniden in┼ča edilebilir.
08:53
And they can be reconstructed
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Birbirimizin farklar─▒ndan ├Â─črenip
08:55
for a world that's starting to realize
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onlar i├žin ├žal─▒┼čabilece─čimizi fark etmeye ba┼člayan bir d├╝nya
08:58
we have so much to gain from learning and working through our differences.
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yeniden in┼ča edilebilir.
09:04
When I think about this subject,
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Bu konu hakk─▒nda d├╝┼č├╝nd├╝─č├╝mde
09:06
I think about the Filipino people
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Filipin halk─▒n─▒, cinsiyet e┼čitli─či
09:08
and an almost forgotten but important legacy
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ve kapsay─▒c─▒l─▒─č─▒yla alakal─▒ unutulmak ├╝zere olan
09:12
of gender equality and inclusivity.
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├žok ├Ânemli bir miras─▒ d├╝┼č├╝n├╝yorum.
09:15
I think about lovers who were some of the gentlest souls I had known
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Bildi─čim en nazik ruhlara sahip olup da
a┼čklar─▒n─▒ tam olarak a├žamayanlar─▒ d├╝┼č├╝n├╝yorum.
09:21
but could not be fully open.
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09:23
I think about people who have made an impact in my life,
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Bana karakterdeki d├╝r├╝stl├╝─č├╝n, nazikli─čin ve g├╝c├╝n
09:28
who showed me that integrity, kindness and strength of character
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yarg─▒dan daha ├Ânemli ├Âl├ž├╝leri oldu─čunu;
09:32
are far better measures of judgment,
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insanlar─▒n ten rengi, ya┼č─▒ ya da cinsiyeti gibi
09:35
far better than things that are beyond a person's control
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kontrol sahibi olmad─▒klar─▒ ┼čeylerden daha ├Ânemli ├Âl├ž├╝ler oldu─čunu g├Âsterip
09:38
such as their skin color, their age
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hayat─▒mda etki sahibi olanlar─▒ d├╝┼č├╝n├╝yorum.
09:42
or their gender.
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09:44
As I stand here today, on the shoulders of people like Lenie,
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Lenie gibi insanlar─▒n arkas─▒nda olup burada dururken
09:49
I feel incredibly grateful for all who have come before me,
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benden ├Ânce ya┼čam─▒┼č olup hayatlar─▒n─▒ kendi istedi─či gibi ya┼čam─▒┼č
09:54
the ones courageous enough to put themselves out there,
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ve kendilerini ortaya koyup
bug├╝n kendi hayatlar─▒n─▒ istedi─či gibi ya┼čayabilen insanlara kolayl─▒k olu┼čturmu┼č
09:59
who lived a life that was theirs
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insanlara inan─▒lmaz minnettar─▒m.
10:02
and in the process, made it a little easier for us to live our lives now.
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10:07
Because being yourself is revolutionary.
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Çünkü kendiniz olmak devrimseldir.
10:12
And to anyone reeling from forces trying to knock you down
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Pes ettirmek amac─▒yla herhangi birini ├žile ├žektirerek
10:16
and cram you into these neat little boxes people have decided for you:
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bu muntazam kutulara sizi t─▒kan insanlar sizin yerinize karar verdi:
Pes etmeyin.
10:22
don't break.
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10:24
I see you.
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Sizi g├Âr├╝yorum.
10:26
My ancestors see you.
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Atalar─▒m sizi g├Âr├╝yor.
10:28
Their blood runs through me as they run through so many of us.
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Onlar─▒n kan─▒, bir ├žo─čumuzda gezdi─či gibi bende de geziyor.
10:33
You are valid, and you deserve rights and recognition
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Siz do─črusunuz ve di─čer herkes gibi
haklar─▒n─▒z─▒ ve tan─▒nmay─▒ hak ediyorsunuz.
10:40
just like everyone else.
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10:44
Thank you.
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Te┼čekk├╝r ederim.
10:45
(Applause)
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(Alk─▒┼č)
About this site

Bu site size ─░ngilizce ├Â─črenmek i├žin yararl─▒ olan YouTube videolar─▒n─▒ tan─▒tacakt─▒r. D├╝nyan─▒n d├Ârt bir yan─▒ndan birinci s─▒n─▒f ├Â─čretmenler taraf─▒ndan verilen ─░ngilizce derslerini g├Âreceksiniz. Videoyu oradan oynatmak i├žin her video sayfas─▒nda g├Âr├╝nt├╝lenen ─░ngilizce altyaz─▒lara ├žift t─▒klay─▒n. Altyaz─▒lar video oynat─▒m─▒ ile senkronize olarak kayar. Herhangi bir yorumunuz veya iste─činiz varsa, l├╝tfen bu ileti┼čim formunu kullanarak bizimle ileti┼čime ge├žin.

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