Have we reached the end of physics? | Harry Cliff

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2016-01-26・ 10703    508


Why is there something rather than nothing? Why does so much interesting stuff exist in the universe? Particle physicist Harry Cliff works on the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, and he has some potentially bad news for people who seek answers to these questions. Despite the best efforts of scientists (and the help of the biggest machine on the planet), we may never be able to explain all the weird features of nature. Is this the end of physics? Learn more in this fascinating talk about the latest research into the secret structure of the universe. TEDTalks is a daily video podcast of the best talks and performances from the TED Conference, where the world's leading thinkers and doers give the talk of their lives in 18 minutes (or less). Look for talks on Technology, Entertainment and Design -- plus science, business, global issues, the arts and much more. Find closed captions and translated subtitles in many languages at http://www.ted.com/translate Follow TED news on Twitter: http://www.twitter.com/tednews Like TED on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/TED Subscribe to our channel: http://www.youtube.com/user/TEDtalksDirector

Instruction

Double-click on the English captions to play the video from there.

Translator: Amy K Reviewer: Aznah Arshad
00:12
A hundred years ago this month, a 36-year-old Albert Einstein
Seratus tahun lepas, bulan ini, 36 tahun Albert Einstein
00:16
stood up in front of the Prussian Academy of Sciences in Berlin
berdiri di depan Akademi Prussian Sains di Berlin
00:19
to present a radical new theory of space, time and gravity:
untuk memyampaikan satu teori baru radikal tentang ruang, masa dan graviti:
00:23
the general theory of relativity.
teori umum relativiti.
00:27
General relativity is unquestionably Einstein's masterpiece,
Tanpa disangkal relativiti umum adalah karya agung Einstein.
00:30
a theory which reveals the workings of the universe at the grandest scales,
Satu teori yang mendedahkan cara alam semesta berfungsi dalam skala termegah
00:34
capturing in one beautiful line of algebra
dijelaskan dalam satu baris algebra yang cantik
00:36
everything from why apples fall from trees to the beginning of time and space.
dari menagapa epal jatuh dari pokok ke permulaan masa and ruang.
00:41
1915 must have been an exciting year to be a physicist.
1915 mestilah tahun yang menarik untuk menjadi seorang ahli fizik.
00:44
Two new ideas were turning the subject on its head.
Dua idea baru menjadi subjek hangat.
00:48
One was Einstein's theory of relativity,
Satu adalah teori relativiti Einstein,
00:50
the other was arguably even more revolutionary:
dan satu lagi boleh dikatakan lebih revolusioner:
00:53
quantum mechanics,
mekanik quantum,
00:55
a mind-meltingly strange yet stunningly successful new way
satu cara baru berkesan yang aneh tetapi menakjubkan
00:58
of understanding the microworld, the world of atoms and particles.
untuk memahami dunia mikro, dunia atom dan zarah.
01:03
Over the last century, these two ideas have utterly transformed
Sejak sedekad yang lalu, kedua-dua idea ini mengubah sepenuhnya
01:07
our understanding of the universe.
kefahaman kita tentang alam semesta.
01:09
It's thanks to relativity and quantum mechanics
Atas jasa relativiti dan mekanik quantum
01:11
that we've learned what the universe is made from,
kita belajar asal alam semesta,
01:14
how it began and how it continues to evolve.
bagaimana ia bermula dan terus berevolusi.
01:17
A hundred years on, we now find ourselves at another turning point in physics,
Seabad kemudian, kita dapati penemuan perubahan dalam fizik,
01:21
but what's at stake now is rather different.
tetapi lain yang dipertaruhkan sekarang.
01:24
The next few years may tell us whether we'll be able
Tahun mendatang mungkin jelaskan samada kita boleh
01:27
to continue to increase our understanding of nature,
terus meningkatkan kefahaman kita tentang alam semulajadi,
01:30
or whether maybe for the first time in the history of science,
atau adakah buat kali pertama dalam sejarah sains,
01:33
we could be facing questions that we cannot answer,
kita berhadapan dengan persoalan yang tak terungkai,
01:37
not because we don't have the brains or technology,
bukan kerana kita tiada akal atau teknologi,
01:40
but because the laws of physics themselves forbid it.
akan tetapi kerana hukum-hukum fizik melarangya.
01:44
This is the essential problem: the universe is far, far too interesting.
Inilah masalah asasnya: alam semesta adalah jauh terlalu menarik
01:49
Relativity and quantum mechanics appear to suggest
Relativiti dan mekanik quantum mengesyorkan
01:51
that the universe should be a boring place.
alam semesta sepatutnya tempat yang membosankan.
01:54
It should be dark, lethal and lifeless.
Ia sepatutnya gelap, membunuh dan tiada hidupan.
01:57
But when we look around us, we see we live in a universe full of interesting stuff,
Namun bila lihat sekeliling, kita alam semesta yang penuh benda menarik
02:01
full of stars, planets, trees, squirrels.
penuh dengan bintang, planet, pokok dan tupai.
02:04
The question is, ultimately,
Persoalan paling utama,
02:05
why does all this interesting stuff exist?
kenapa semua benda menarik ini wujud?
02:08
Why is there something rather than nothing?
Mengapa ada sesuatu dari tiada apa-apa?
02:13
This contradiction is the most pressing problem in fundamental physics,
Percanggahan ini adalah masalah paling jelas dalam asas fizik,
02:16
and in the next few years, we may find out whether we'll ever be able to solve it.
dan dalam tahun-tahun mendatang, kita mungkin ketahui jika boleh diselesaikan.
02:23
At the heart of this problem are two numbers,
Di pusat masalah ini, ada dua nombor
02:26
two extremely dangerous numbers.
dua nombor yang paling bahaya.
02:28
These are properties of the universe that we can measure,
Inilah sifat-sifat alam semesta yang boleh diukur,
02:31
and they're extremely dangerous
dan sifat ini amat bahaya
02:33
because if they were different, even by a tiny bit,
kerana jika berbeza, walaupun sedikit,
02:35
then the universe as we know it would not exist.
alam semesta yang kita kenal tidak akan wujud.
02:38
The first of these numbers is associated with the discovery that was made
Satu daripada nombor ini dikaitkan dengan penemuan yang dibuat
02:42
a few kilometers from this hall, at CERN, home of this machine,
beberapa kilometer dari dewan ini, di CERN, letaknya mesin ini,
02:45
the largest scientific device ever built by the human race,
peranti saintifik terbesar dicipta umat manusia,
02:48
the Large Hadron Collider.
Pelanggar Hadron Besar.
02:50
The LHC whizzes subatomic particles around a 27-kilometer ring,
LHC berdesing zarah subatom kira-kira satu 27km bulatan,
02:54
getting them closer and closer to the speed of light
menjadikan ia semakin menghampiri kelajuan cahaya
02:56
before smashing them into each other inside gigantic particle detectors.
sebelum berlanggar satu sama lain dalam pengesan partikel gergasi.
03:01
On July 4, 2012, physicists at CERN announced to the world
Pada4 Julai 2012, ahli-ahli fizik di CERN mengumumkan kepada dunia
03:05
that they'd spotted a new fundamental particle
mereka menemui satu partikel asas yang baru
03:08
being created at the violent collisions at the LHC: the Higgs boson.
dicipta dalam perlanggaran hebat di LHC: Higgs Boson.
03:13
Now, if you followed the news at the time,
Jika anda mengikuti berita ketika itu,
03:15
you'll have seen a lot of physicists getting very excited indeed,
anda akan lihat ramai ahli-ahli fizik yang sangat teruja,
03:18
and you'd be forgiven for thinking
dana anda dimaafkan jika fikir
03:20
we get that way every time we discover a new particle.
kita jadi begitu apabila menemui partikel baru.
03:22
Well, that is kind of true,
Sebenarnya, memang betul,
03:24
but the Higgs boson is particularly special.
akan tetapi Higgs Boson sedikit istimewa.
03:26
We all got so excited because finding the Higgs
Kami semua begitu teruja kerana penemuan Higgs
03:29
proves the existence of a cosmic energy field.
membuktikan kewujudan medan tenaga kosmik.
03:32
Now, you may have trouble imagining an energy field,
Anda mungkin sukar bayangkan satu medan tenaga,
03:35
but we've all experienced one.
tetapi kita semua pernah alaminya.
03:36
If you've ever held a magnet close to a piece of metal
Jika anda pernah memegang magnet dekat dengan logam
03:39
and felt a force pulling across that gap,
dan rasakan tarikan antara ruang itu,
03:41
then you've felt the effect of a field.
itulah kesan medan.
03:43
And the Higgs field is a little bit like a magnetic field,
Medan Higgs sedikit menyerupai medan magnet,
03:46
except it has a constant value everywhere.
kecuali ia mempunyai nilai malar di mana-mana.
03:49
It's all around us right now.
Ia mengelilingi kita sekarang.
03:51
We can't see it or touch it,
Kita tak nampak ataupun sentuh,
03:52
but if it wasn't there,
tetapi jika ia tiada,
03:54
we would not exist.
kita juga tidak akan wujud.
03:56
The Higgs field gives mass
Medan Higgs memberi jisim
03:58
to the fundamental particles that we're made from.
kepada partikel asas tubuh badan kita.
04:00
If it wasn't there, those particles would have no mass,
Jika ia tiada, partikel-partikel ini tiada jisim,
04:03
and no atoms could form and there would be no us.
dan tiada atom boleh membentuk dan tiadalah kita semua.
04:06
But there is something deeply mysterious about the Higgs field.
Tetapi ada sesuatu yang penuh misteri tentang medan Higgs.
04:11
Relativity and quantum mechanics tell us that it has two natural settings,
Relativiti dan mekanik quantum menyatakan ia mempunyai dua tetapan semulajadi,
04:15
a bit like a light switch.
hampir menyerupai suis lampu,
04:16
It should either be off,
Sama ada ia ditutup,
04:18
so that it has a zero value everywhere in space,
supaya ada nilai sifar di mana-mana dalam ruang,
04:20
or it should be on so it has an absolutely enormous value.
atau dibuka supaya mempunyai nilai yang sangat besar.
04:24
In both of these scenarios, atoms could not exist,
Dalam kedua-dua senario ini, atom-atom tidak boleh wujud,
04:27
and therefore all the other interesting stuff
makan semua benda-benda menarik yang lain
04:29
that we see around us in the universe would not exist.
yang dilihat di sekeliling kita dalam dunia tidak wujud.
04:33
In reality, the Higgs field is just slightly on,
Realitinya, medan Higgs hanya sedikit terbuka,
04:36
not zero but 10,000 trillion times weaker than its fully on value,
bukan sifar tapi 10,000 trilion kali lebih lemah dari nilai sebenar,
04:41
a bit like a light switch that's got stuck just before the off position.
menyerupai suis lampu yang tersekatsebelum posisi tutup.
04:46
And this value is crucial.
Nilai ini penting.
04:48
If it were a tiny bit different,
Jika sedikit sahaja perbezaannya,
04:50
then there would be no physical structure in the universe.
tidak akan wujud struktur fizikal di alam semesta.
04:53
So this is the first of our dangerous numbers,
Jadi inilah nombor-nombor pertama bahaya kita,
04:55
the strength of the Higgs field.
kekuatan medan Higgs.
04:57
Theorists have spent decades trying to understand
Ahli-ahli teori meluangkan berdekad-dekad mencuba memahami
05:00
why it has this very peculiarly fine-tuned number,
kenapa ia mempunyai nombor yang khusus diperhalusi ini,
05:03
and they've come up with a number of possible explanations.
dan mereka mengeluarkan beberapa penjelasan mungkin.
05:06
They have sexy-sounding names like "supersymmetry"
Mereka mempunyai nama yang seksi seperti "simetri super"
05:09
or "large extra dimensions."
atau "dimensi-dimensi lebih besar".
05:11
I'm not going to go into the details of these ideas now,
Saya tak akan perincikan butiran idea-idea ini sekarang,
05:13
but the key point is this:
tapi inilah kunci utama:
05:16
if any of them explained this weirdly fine-tuned value of the Higgs field,
jika antara mereka menjelaskan nilai medan Higgs dengan sangat terperinci,
05:20
then we should see new particles being created at the LHC
kita seharusnya nampak partikel-pertikel baru dicipta di LHC
05:24
along with the Higgs boson.
seiring dengan Higgs Boson.
05:26
So far, though, we've not seen any sign of them.
Hingga kini, kita tidak pernah jumpa apa-apa tanda tentangnya.
05:29
But there's actually an even worse example
Tapi, ada contoh yang lebih teruk
05:32
of this kind of fine-tuning of a dangerous number,
tentang penalaan halus nombor bahaya sebegini,
05:34
and this time it comes from the other end of the scale,
dan kali ini ia datang dari skala hujung yang lain,
05:37
from studying the universe at vast distances.
iaitu dari mengkaji alam semesta dari jarak yang jauh.
05:39
One of the most important consequences of Einstein's general theory of relativity
Salah satu kesan yang penting tentang teori umum relativiti Einstein
05:44
was the discovery that the universe began as a rapid expansion of space and time
adalah penemuan alam semesta bermula dengan perkembangan pesat ruang dan masa
05:48
13.8 billion years ago, the Big Bang.
13.8 bilion tahun lalu, iaitu " the Big Bang".
05:52
Now, according to early versions of the Big Bang theory,
Dari versi-versi awal tentang teori Big Bang,
05:55
the universe has been expanding ever since
alam semesta semakin berkembang sejak itu
05:57
with gravity gradually putting the brakes on that expansion.
dengan graviti memberhentikan perkembangan secara beransur.
06:01
But in 1998, astronomers made the stunning discovery
Tapi pada 1998, ahli-ahli astronomi membuat penemuan menakjubkan
06:04
that the expansion of the universe is actually speeding up.
bahawa perkembangan alam semesta sebenarnya dipercepatkan.
06:07
The universe is getting bigger and bigger faster and faster
Alam semesta sedang menjadi lebih besar dengan lebih cepat
06:10
driven by a mysterious repulsive force called dark energy.
didorong daya tolakan bermisteri dikenali sebagai tenaga gelap.
06:15
Now, whenever you hear the word "dark" in physics,
Bila anda mendengar perkataan "gelap" dalam fizik,
06:17
you should get very suspicious
anda patut jadi sangat curiga
06:19
because it probably means we don't know what we're talking about.
kerana ia mungkin bererti kita tak tahu perkara yang kita katakan.
06:22
(Laughter)
(Ketawa)
06:23
We don't know what dark energy is,
Kita tidak tahu apakah tenaga gelap,
06:25
but the best idea is that it's the energy of empty space itself,
tapi idea terbaik adalah, inilah tenaga ruang kosong sendiri,
06:30
the energy of the vacuum.
tenaga vakum.
06:32
Now, if you use good old quantum mechanics to work out
Jika anda menggunakan kuantum mekanik untuk mengetahui
06:34
how strong dark energy should be,
kekuatan sebenar tenaga gelap,
06:36
you get an absolutely astonishing result.
anda akan mendapat keputusan yang mengejutkan.
06:39
You find that dark energy
Anda akan mendapati tenaga gelap
06:41
should be 10 to the power of 120 times stronger
sepatutnya 120 kuasa 10 kali lebih kuat
06:45
than the value we observe from astronomy.
dari nilai yang dijangka oleh astronomi.
06:48
That's one with 120 zeroes after it.
Iaitu 1diikuti 120 sifar.
06:53
This is a number so mind-bogglingly huge
Nombor ini sangat besar dan sukar dibayangkan
06:56
that it's impossible to get your head around.
dan mustahil untuk difahami.
06:58
We often use the word "astronomical" when we're talking about big numbers.
Kita kerap guna perkataan "astronomical" untuk gambarkan nombor besar.
07:01
Well, even that one won't do here.
Kata itu pun tak berguna di sini.
07:03
This number is bigger than any number in astronomy.
Nombor ini lebih besar dari sebarang nombor dalam astronomi.
07:05
It's a thousand trillion trillion trillion times bigger
ia adalah seribu trilion tilion trilion kali lebih besar
07:09
than the number of atoms in the entire universe.
dari nombor atom-atom dalam seluruh alam semesta.
07:12
So that's a pretty bad prediction.
Jadi itu adalah ramalan yang teruk.
07:14
In fact, it's been called the worst prediction in physics,
Ia dikenali ramalan yang paling teruk dalam fizik,
07:17
and this is more than just a theoretical curiosity.
dan ini adalah lebih dari perasaan curiga dari segi teori.
07:20
If dark energy were anywhere near this strong,
Jika tenaga gelap di mana-mana dekat sekuat ini,
07:23
then the universe would have been torn apart,
jadi alam semesta akan terbelah dua,
07:25
stars and galaxies could not form, and we would not be here.
bintang dan galaksi tak mungkin terbentuk, dan kita tidak wujud.
Inilah perkara kedua tentang nombor berbahaya ini,
07:29
So this is the second of those dangerous numbers,
07:31
the strength of dark energy,
kekuatan tenaga gelap,
07:33
and explaining it requires an even more fantastic level of fine-tuning
dan untuk jelaskannya memerlukan lebih penalaan halus
07:36
than we saw for the Higgs field.
dari yang kita lihat untuk medan Higgs.
07:38
But unlike the Higgs field, this number has no known explanation.
Tapi berbeza dengan medan Higgs, nombor ini tiada penjelasan.
07:45
The hope was that a complete combination
Harapannya adalah kombinasi sempurna
07:47
of Einstein's general theory of relativity,
bagi teori umum Einstein tentang relativiti,
07:49
which is the theory of the universe at grand scales,
iaitu teori alam semesta pada skala yang amat besar,
07:52
with quantum mechanics, the theory of the universe at small scales,
dengan kuantum mekanik, teori alam semesta pada skala kecil,
07:55
might provide a solution.
mungkin memberikan penyelesaian.
07:57
Einstein himself spent most of his later years
Einstein sendiri menghabiskan sisa hidupnya
08:00
on a futile search for a unified theory of physics,
dalam pencarian sia-sia untuk satu teori fizik bersepadu
08:03
and physicists have kept at it ever since.
dan ahli-ahli fizik lain menyambung usaha tersebut sejak itu.
08:06
One of the most promising candidates for a unified theory is string theory,
Antara teori yang berpotensi bagi teori bersepadu ialah teori tali,
08:10
and the essential idea is,
dan idea utamanya adalah,
08:12
if you could zoom in on the fundamental particles that make up our world,
jika anda boleh fokus pada partikel asas yang membentuk dunia kita,
08:15
you'd see actually that they're not particles at all,
anda akan dapati ianya bukan partikel,
08:18
but tiny vibrating strings of energy,
tetapi jajaran tenaga kecil yang bergetar,
08:21
with each frequency of vibration corresponding to a different particle,
dengan setiap frekuensi getaran berpadan dengan setiap partikel lain,
08:25
a bit like musical notes on a guitar string.
hampir menyerupai nota-nota muzik pada tali gitar.
08:28
So it's a rather elegant, almost poetic way of looking at the world,
Ia seakan melihat dunia dengan cara yang elegan dan berpuisi
08:32
but it has one catastrophic problem.
tapi ia mempunyai satu masalah yang sangat besar.
08:35
It turns out that string theory isn't one theory at all,
Teori tali bukan satu teori langsung,
08:38
but a whole collection of theories.
tapi satu koleksi teori yang menyeluruh.
08:40
It's been estimated, in fact,
Malah, dianggarkan,
08:42
that there are 10 to the 500 different versions of string theory.
terdapat 10 hingga 500 versi teori tali yang berbeza.
08:46
Each one would describe a different universe
Setiap satu menggambarkan alam semesta berlainan
08:48
with different laws of physics.
dengan hukum fizik yang berlainan.
08:50
Now, critics say this makes string theory unscientific.
Pengkritik berpendapat, ini membuat teori tali tidak saintifik.
08:53
You can't disprove the theory.
Anda tidak boleh menyangkal teori ini.
08:55
But others actually turned this on its head
Tapi yang lain sebenarnya tidak bersependapat
08:57
and said, well, maybe this apparent failure
dan berkata, mungkin kegagalan ketara ini
08:59
is string theory's greatest triumph.
ini adalah kejayaan paling besar teori tali.
09:02
What if all of these 10 to the 500 different possible universes
Apa kata kalau kesemua 10 hingga 500 kemungkinan alam semesta berlainan
09:05
actually exist out there somewhere
sebenarnya wujud di luar sana
09:07
in some grand multiverse?
dalam beberapa alam semesta lain?
09:10
Suddenly we can understand
Tiba-tiba kita boleh faham
09:12
the weirdly fine-tuned values of these two dangerous numbers.
nilai-nilai terperinci dua nombor yang berbahaya ini.
09:15
In most of the multiverse,
Dalam kebanyakan alam lain,
09:17
dark energy is so strong that the universe gets torn apart,
tenaga gelap begitu kuat alam semesta berbelah dua,
09:20
or the Higgs field is so weak that no atoms can form.
atau medan Higgs begitu lemah tiada atom boleh terbentuk.
09:23
We live in one of the places in the multiverse
Kita hidup di satu tempat dalam alam semesta berlainan
09:25
where the two numbers are just right.
di mana dua nombor hampir tepat.
09:28
We live in a Goldilocks universe.
Kita tinggal dalam alam semesta Goldilocks.
09:31
Now, this idea is extremely controversial, and it's easy to see why.
Idea ini sangat kontroversi, dan memahami sebabnya.
09:36
If we follow this line of thinking,
Kalau kita ikut garis pemikiran ini,
09:38
then we will never be able to answer the question,
kita tidak akan berjaya menjawab soalan,
09:40
"Why is there something rather than nothing?"
"Kenapa sesuatu wujud berbanding kosong?"
09:43
In most of the multiverse, there is nothing,
Kebanyakan alam semesta kosong,
09:45
and we live in one of the few places
dan kita hidup dalam satu dari beberapa tempat
09:47
where the laws of physics allow there to be something.
di mana hukum fizik membenarkan sesuatu wujud.
09:51
Even worse, we can't test the idea of the multiverse.
Lebih teruk, kita tak boleh uji kepelbagaian alam semesta.
09:54
We can't access these other universes,
Kita tidak boleh akses alam semesta lain,
09:56
so there's no way of knowing whether they're there or not.
jadi tiada cara mengetahui sama ada mereka wujud atau tidak.
10:01
So we're in an extremely frustrating position.
Jadi kita dalam posisi yang menghampakan.
10:05
That doesn't mean the multiverse doesn't exist.
Ini tidak bererti kepelbagaian alam semesta tidak wujud.
10:07
There are other planets, other stars, other galaxies,
Ada banyak planet, bintang, dan galaksi lain
10:10
so why not other universes?
jadi mengapa tidak alam semesta lain?
10:12
The problem is, it's unlikely we'll ever know for sure.
Masalahnya, sukar untuk kita pastikan.
10:16
Now, the idea of the multiverse has been around for a while,
Idea tentang kepelbagaian alam semesta telah lama wujud,
10:20
but in the last few years, we've started to get the first solid hints
namun sejak beberapa tahun lepas, kita mula mendapat petanda kukuh
10:23
that this line of reasoning may get born out.
bahawa cara pemikiran ini mungkin dapat diluahkan.
10:27
Despite high hopes for the first run of the LHC,
Walaupun harapan tinggi untuk pertama kali LHC dijalankan,
10:30
what we were looking for there --
perkara yang kita cari --
10:32
we were looking for new theories of physics:
kita mencari teori-teori baru fizik:
10:34
supersymmetry or large extra dimensions
dimensi super simetri atau lebih besar
10:36
that could explain this weirdly fine-tuned value of the Higgs field.
yang mungkin boleh menjelaskan nilai terperinci medan Higgs.
10:40
But despite high hopes, the LHC revealed a barren subatomic wilderness
Tapi walaupun harapan tinggi, LHC mendedahkan satu subatom gersang
10:44
populated only by a lonely Higgs boson.
dipopulasi oleh boson Higgs tunggal.
10:48
My experiment published paper after paper
Eksperimen saya diterbitkan naskhah demi naskhah
10:51
where we glumly had to conclude that we saw no signs of new physics.
yang kami dengan kecewa simpulkan tiada tanda penemuan fizik yang baru.
10:56
The stakes now could not be higher.
Kini pertaruhan sudah menjadi amat tinggi.
10:59
This summer, the LHC began its second phase of operation
Musim panas ini, LHC telah memulakan fasa kedua operasi
11:02
with an energy almost double what we achieved in the first run.
dengan tenaga hampir dua kali ganda dari ujian pertama.
11:05
What particle physicists are all desperately hoping for
Partikel yang sangat dicari ahli-ahli fizik
11:07
are signs of new particles, micro black holes,
adalah petanda baru partikel, lubang-lubang hitam mikro,
11:10
or maybe something totally unexpected
atau sesuatu di luar jangkaan
11:12
emerging from the violent collisions at the Large Hadron Collider.
muncul dari akibat perlanggaran hebat di Large Hadron Collider.
11:16
If so, then we can continue this long journey
Dengan itu, kita boleh sambung perjalanan jauh ini
11:18
that began 100 years ago with Albert Einstein
yang bermula satu abad lepas dengan Albert Einstein
11:21
towards an ever deeper understanding of the laws of nature.
terhadap pemahaman yang lebih mendalam tentang hukum alam semulajadi.
11:25
But if, in two or three years' time,
Namun jika dalam masa dua atau tiga tahun,
11:27
when the LHC switches off again for a second long shutdown,
bila suis LHC padam lagi selama sesaat,
11:31
we've found nothing but the Higgs boson,
tiada yang dijumpai selain Higgs Boson,
11:33
then we may be entering a new era in physics:
mungkin kita memasuki era baru dalam fizik:
11:37
an era where there are weird features of the universe that we cannot explain;
satu era ciri-ciri ganjil alam semesta yang tidak boleh dijelaskan;
satu era kita ada petanda kita hidup dalam kepelbagaian alam semesta
11:42
an era where we have hints that we live in a multiverse
11:45
that lies frustratingly forever beyond our reach;
yang sayangnya terletak selama-lamanya di luar jangkauan kita;
11:49
an era where we will never be able to answer the question,
satu era dimana kita tidak akan mendapat jawapan untuk soalannya,
11:52
"Why is there something rather than nothing?"
"Kenapa ada sesuatu berbanding kosong?"
11:55
Thank you.
Terima kasih.
11:56
(Applause)
(Tepukan)
12:03
Bruno Giussani: Harry, even if you just said
Bruno Giussani: Harry, walaupun anda baru sahaja cakap
12:06
the science may not have some answers,
sains mungkin tidak ada jawapan,
12:08
I would like to ask you a couple of questions, and the first is:
Saya ingin bertanya beberapa soalan, pertamanya begini:
12:11
building something like the LHC is a generational project.
membina sesuatu seperti LHC adalah projek beberapa generasi.
12:14
I just mentioned, introducing you, that we live in a short-term world.
Saya baru saja, perkenalkan awak, yang kita hidup dalam dunia singkat.
12:18
How do you think so long term,
Bagaimana anda fikir dalam jangka masa panjang,
12:21
projecting yourself out a generation when building something like this?
fikir lebih dari generasi anda apabila membina sesuatu seperti ini?
12:24
Harry Cliff: I was very lucky
Harry Cliff: Saya amat bertuah
12:26
that I joined the experiment I work on at the LHC in 2008,
kerana sertai eksperimen yang dikaji di LHC pada tahun 2008,
12:28
just as we were switching on,
sebaik kami memasang suis,
12:30
and there are people in my research group who have been working on it
ada rakan kumpulan penyelidikan telah bekerja selama tiga dekad
12:33
for three decades, their entire careers on one machine.
seluruh kerjaya mereka pada sebuah mesin.
Jadi saya rasa perbualan pertama tentang LHC pada 1976,
12:36
So I think the first conversations about the LHC were in 1976,
12:39
and you start planning the machine without the technology
dan anda mula merancang pembinaan mesin tanpa teknologi
12:42
that you know you're going to need to be able to build it.
yang anda tahu anda perlu untuk membinanya.
12:44
So the computing power did not exist in the early '90s
Jadi kuasa pengkomputeran tidak wujud dalam awal 90-an
12:47
when design work began in earnest.
ketika kerja rekaan rancak bermula
12:48
One of the big detectors which record these collisions,
Salah satu pengesan besar yang merekod perlanggaran ini,
12:51
they didn't think there was technology
mereka tidak terfikir ada teknologi
12:52
that could withstand the radiation that would be created in the LHC,
yang boleh bertahan radiasi yang akan dicipta dalam LHC,
12:55
so there was basically a lump of lead in the middle of this object
jadi terdapat seketul plumbum di tengah-tengah objek ini
12:58
with some detectors around the outside,
dengan pengesan di sekelilingya,
13:00
but subsequently we have developed technology.
tapi kemudian kami cipta teknologi.
13:02
So you have to rely on people's ingenuity, that they will solve the problems,
Anda perlu harap pada kepintaran orang, untuk selesaikan masalah,
13:05
but it may be a decade or more down the line.
tetapi ia mungkin ambil masa satu dekad atau lebih lagi.
13:07
BG: China just announced two or three weeks ago
BG: China baru mengumumkan 2 atau 3 minggu lalu
13:09
that they intend to build
mereka berhasrat membina
13:11
a supercollider twice the size of the LHC.
sebuah mesin perlanggaran 2 kali ganda saiz LHC
13:14
I was wondering how you and your colleagues welcome the news.
Saya tertanya penerima anda dan rakan sekerja tentang berita ini.
13:17
HC: Size isn't everything, Bruno. BG: I'm sure. I'm sure.
HC: Saiz bukan penyelesaiannya, Bruno. BG: Saya pasti. Saya pasti.
13:20
(Laughter)
(Ketawa)
13:22
It sounds funny for a particle physicist to say that.
Bunyinya kelakar bagi pakar fizik partikel mengatakannya.
13:24
But I mean, seriously, it's great news.
Tapi saya bermaksud, ini berita bagus.
13:26
So building a machine like the LHC
Untuk membina satu mesin seperti LHC
13:29
requires countries from all over the world to pool their resources.
memerlukan negara-negara seluruh dunia bergabung sumbernya.
13:32
No one nation can afford to build a machine this large,
Tiada negara boleh mampu membina sebuah mesin sebesar ini,
13:34
apart from maybe China,
selain China,
13:35
because they can mobilize huge amounts of resources,
kerana mereka boleh gerakkan sumber yang banyak,
13:37
manpower and money to build machines like this.
tenaga manusia and duit untuk bina mesin sebegini.
13:39
So it's only a good thing.
Jadi, ini adalah bagus.
13:41
What they're really planning to do is to build a machine
Mereka sedang merancang membina sebuah mesin
13:43
that will study the Higgs boson in detail and could give us some clues
yang akan kaji boson Higgs dengan terperinci dan beri beberapa petunjuk
13:46
as to whether these new ideas, like supersymmetry, are really out there,
sama ada idea-idea baru seperti mahasimetri wujud
13:49
so it's great news for physics, I think.
jadi ia berita baik untuk fizik bagi saya.
13:51
BG: Harry, thank you. HC: Thank you very much.
BG: Harry, terima kasih. HC: Terima kasih banyak.
13:53
(Applause)
(Tepukan)
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