Rumi: One of the world's most famous writers - Stephanie Honchell Smith

275,552 views ・ 2024-06-06

TED-Ed


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翻译人员: Jiarong Wang 校对人员: Sue Lu
00:11
“A candle is made to become entirely flame.
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“蜡烛生来就是为了 尽情燃烧。
00:15
In that annihilating moment it has no shadow.”
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在那个毁灭的时刻 它没有影子。”
00:20
According to legend, the renowned scholar, Jalaluddin Muhammad Rumi,
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相传,著名学者 贾拉鲁丁·穆罕默德·鲁米正在讲课,
00:25
was giving a lecture when an older, disheveled man approached
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一位衣衫不整的长者走近,
00:29
and asked him the meaning of his academic books.
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问他所著学术书籍的意义。
00:32
Rumi didn’t know it yet, but this question and this man
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鲁米不知道这个问题和这个人
00:36
would change his life.
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将改变他的人生。
00:38
Annoyed at the interruption, Rumi snapped,
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他因被打断倍感恼火,厉声喝道:
00:41
“They are something that you do not understand!”
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“这是你无法理解的东西!”
00:45
Suddenly, the books caught fire.
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突然,这些书就着火了,
00:47
The man looked back at the astounded Rumi and simply replied:
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那人转头看着震惊的鲁米,回道:
00:51
“You couldn’t possibly understand.”
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“你是不可能明白的。”
00:54
The mysterious figure was Shams of Tabriz,
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这位神秘人物就是大不里士的沙姆斯,
00:57
a charismatic Sufi mystic who would transform Rumi's worldview.
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一位具有超凡魅力的苏菲派神秘主义者, 他将改变鲁米的世界观。
01:02
Rumi, inspired by Shams’ teachings,
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鲁米受到沙姆斯教义的启发,
01:05
would go on to become one of the world’s most celebrated poets
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成为举世闻名的诗人和神秘哲学家之一,
01:09
and mystical philosophers,
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01:11
whose cultural legacy looms large across Türkiye and the Persian-speaking world.
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他的文化遗产在土耳其 和波斯语世界中都占有重要地位。
01:17
Rumi was born in 1207 near the Afghan city of Balkh,
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鲁米于 1207 年出生在 阿富汗城市巴尔赫附近,
01:22
and as a child emigrated to Anatolia, where his father— a preacher and mystic—
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童年时移民到了安纳托利亚, 因为他父亲,一位传教士和神秘主义者,
01:27
hoped to secure a more prestigious position.
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希望在那里获得一个更好的职位。
01:31
By the time of Shams’ arrival,
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当沙姆斯抵达科尼亚城时,
01:33
Rumi was a well-respected scholar of Islamic law in the town of Konya.
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鲁米已是那里备受尊敬的伊斯兰法学者。
01:37
While he had been exposed to Sufism—
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尽管他接触过苏菲主义 ——
01:40
the mystical path within Islam, which focuses on experiencing God’s love—
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伊斯兰教的神秘之路, 侧重于体验真主的爱——
01:45
he’d shown little interest in it.
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但并不感兴趣。
01:47
But this changed in his late thirties, when Shams came into his life.
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在他三十多岁时,一切都改变了, 因为沙姆斯走进了他的生活。
01:52
The academic study of law and theology was no longer Rumi's central focus.
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法律和神学不再是鲁米的研究重点,
01:57
Rather, he saw them as candles guiding the way towards his ultimate goal:
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而是如蜡烛般指引他实现最终目标:
02:02
the reunification of his soul with God through the experience of divine love.
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通过体验神爱,让灵魂与上帝团聚。
02:08
He wrote of this tension in his native Persian,
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他用母语波斯语写下了这种矛盾,
02:11
“Love resides not in learning, not in knowledge, not in pages and books.
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“爱不在于学习,知识,或书籍。
02:18
Wherever the debates of men may lead, that is not the lover’s path.”
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无论争辩指向何处,那都不是爱之路。”
02:24
While Sufism had been part of Islamic observance for centuries,
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尽管几个世纪以来, 苏菲派一直是伊斯兰仪式一部分,
02:28
the practices of some Sufis— from ecstatic dancing to composing poetry—
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但一些苏菲派的习俗, 不论是狂喜的舞蹈还是诗歌创作,
02:33
were looked down upon by conservative religious elites.
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保守的宗教精英们都看不上。
02:36
As Rumi increasingly embraced Sufism under Shams’ influence,
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沙姆斯的影响令鲁米越来越信奉苏菲派,
02:41
many of his earlier followers disapproved.
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许多鲁米早期追随者对此持反对意见。
02:44
When Shams suddenly disappeared, suspicions arose that he'd been murdered.
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当沙姆斯突然失踪时, 人们怀疑他被谋杀了。
02:48
Rumi expressed his devastation through poetry:
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鲁米通过诗歌道出了他的悲痛:
02:52
“He bathed us like a candle in his light; in thin air vanished, left us!”
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“他像蜡烛一样照亮了我们; 凭空消失,离我们而去!”
02:58
Rather than turning away from Sufism, Rumi became more devoted,
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鲁米没有远离苏菲派,反而更加投入。
03:03
participating in ritualized dancing and preaching the religion of love
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他参与仪式化舞蹈,
03:07
through lectures, poetry, and prose.
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并通过讲座、诗歌和散文宣扬宗教之爱。
03:10
And while Shams would never return, Rumi continued to share his teachings,
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尽管沙姆斯永远不会回来, 但鲁米继续分享着他的教义,
03:15
seeing himself as the moon reflecting the light of Shams’ sun.
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视自己为反射沙姆斯阳光的月亮。
03:20
While in his mystical states, he composed the “Divan-i-Shams,”
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在神秘的状态下, 他创作了《Divan-i-Shams》。
03:25
a sprawling collection of lyrical poems
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这是一本庞大的抒情诗集,
03:28
that included many of the sayings for which he is famous today.
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其中包括许多今天闻名遐迩的箴言。
03:32
The work expresses intense feelings of love and longing,
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这部作品表达了强烈的爱与渴望,
03:36
not only for his vanished mentor, but for the divine creator.
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不仅是对他消失的导师, 也是对神圣造物者。
03:41
Over time, Rumi's poetry matured.
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随着时间的推移,鲁米的诗歌逐渐成熟。
03:45
He no longer saw himself as a reflection of Shams,
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他不再把自己看作是沙姆斯的影子,
03:48
but as a beacon of light on his own.
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而是能自发光亮的灯塔。
03:51
In his early fifties, Rumi wrote “Masnavi,”
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在五十多岁时,鲁米写了《Masnavi》,
03:54
which shifts from ecstatic expressions of divine love
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从狂喜地表达神爱,
03:58
to verses that guide others to discover it for themselves.
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转为引导他人自己发现神爱。
04:01
The poems are complex and layered,
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这些诗歌复杂而层次分明,
04:04
incorporating ideas, stories, and quotes from Islamic religious texts,
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融合了伊斯兰宗教经文里的 思想、 故事和名言、
阿拉伯和波斯文学、 以及早期苏菲派著作和诗歌。
04:10
Arabic and Persian literature, and earlier Sufi writings and poetry.
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04:15
In one story, he invokes the well-known characters of Layla
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他的一个故事援引了家喻户晓的莱拉
04:20
and the love-crazed Majnun.
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和陷入狂爱的马杰农。
04:22
In Rumi’s version, the king,
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在鲁米的版本中,
04:24
hearing Majnun’s musings on Layla’s unsurpassed beauty,
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国王听说马杰农沉沦于莱拉的绝色美貌,
04:28
demands to see her.
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于是提出要见她。
04:30
But when Layla arrives, he’s confused,
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但是当看到莱拉时,他感到了困惑,
04:32
as her beauty pales in comparison to Majnun's praises.
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因其美貌较之马杰农的赞誉大为逊色。
04:36
To this, Layla replies, “I am Layla. The problem is you are not Majnun.”
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对此,莱拉回答道: “我是莱拉,但你不是马杰农。”
04:43
For Rumi, experiencing love meant opening his heart to all of God’s creation—
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对鲁米来说,体验爱 意味着向所有上帝的创造物敞开心扉,
04:49
looking at everything and everyone like Majnun gazing upon Layla.
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就像马杰农凝视莱拉那样 去看待一切的人事物。
04:54
In this way, he saw romantic love as an expression—
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所以,浪漫的爱情对他来说
04:58
on a smaller scale— of divine love.
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就是格局小一些的神圣之爱。
05:01
Following Rumi’s death, the Mevlevi Sufi order was established around his teachings
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鲁米死后,围绕其教义建立的 梅夫列维苏菲教派,
05:07
and still exists in Türkiye today.
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至今仍存在于土耳其境内。
05:10
His poems and other writings were copied and dispersed across the Islamic world,
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他的诗歌和著作被复制 并传播遍伊斯兰世界,
05:15
inspiring and shaping Persian poetry,
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激发、塑造了波斯诗歌,
05:17
before being introduced to the West in the 19th century.
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并在 19 世纪被引入西方。
05:21
For generations, his works have been read and reread,
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多年来,他的作品被一读再读、
05:25
translated and reinterpreted, drawing admirers from around the world.
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翻译和重释,吸引着世界各地的崇拜者。
05:31
While Rumi's words reflect his specific historical context and Islamic worldview,
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尽管鲁米的言语反映了他特定的 历史背景和伊斯兰世界观,
05:36
for many, his message feels universal:
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对大众而言,他传达的信息深具普遍性:
05:39
“If you have lost heart in the Path of Love,
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“如果你在爱之路上迷失了方向,
05:43
flee to me without delay:
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不要迟疑,逃到我的身边:
05:46
I am a fortress invincible.”
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我是一座无敌的堡垒。”
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