How quinoa can help combat hunger and malnutrition | Cedric Habiyaremye

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2020-12-10・ 2112    28


Visit http://TED.com to get our entire library of TED Talks, transcripts, translations, personalized talk recommendations and more. On a mission to create a hunger-free world, agricultural entrepreneur Cedric Habiyaremye makes the case for cultivating quinoa -- and other versatile, nutrient-rich grains -- in places experiencing malnutrition, like his native Rwanda. He shares a model to help smallholder farmers across Africa diversify their fields with nutritious and indigenous crops, taking a step towards ensuring healthy foods are available and affordable for all. The TED Talks channel features the best talks and performances from the TED Conference, where the world's leading thinkers and doers give the talk of their lives in 18 minutes (or less). Look for talks on Technology, Entertainment and Design -- plus science, business, global issues, the arts and more. You're welcome to link to or embed these videos, forward them to others and share these ideas with people you know. Follow TED on Twitter: http://twitter.com/TEDTalks Like TED on Facebook: http://facebook.com/TED Subscribe to our channel: http://youtube.com/TED TED's videos may be used for non-commercial purposes under a Creative Commons License, Attribution–Non Commercial–No Derivatives (or the CC BY – NC – ND 4.0 International) and in accordance with our TED Talks Usage Policy (https://www.ted.com/about/our-organization/our-policies-terms/ted-talks-usage-policy). For more information on using TED for commercial purposes (e.g. employee learning, in a film or online course), please submit a Media Request at https://media-requests.ted.com

Instruction

Double-click on the English captions to play the video from there.

Prevodilac: Dusan Dimic Lektor: Ivana Korom
00:13
Like so many of you,
Kao mnogi od vas,
00:14
when I'm hungry, I open the fridge
kada sam gladan, ja otvorim frižder
00:16
and get myself something to eat any time I want.
i uzmem nešto da jedem kad god to poželim.
00:20
This is something most of us who live in a developed country
To je nešto o čemu većina nas koji živimo u razvijenim zemljama
00:23
don't think much about.
ne razmišljamo mnogo.
00:25
However, it is a luxury that I didn't think I would ever have in my life
Ipak, to je luksuz koji nisam mislio da ću imati u svom životu
00:30
when I lived in a refugee camp in Tanzania 23 years ago,
kada sam živeo u izbegličkom kampu u Tanzaniji pre 23 godine
00:33
or even seven years ago,
ili čak pre sedam godina,
00:35
when I was living in my home country of Rwanda
kada sam živeo u mojoj rodnoj zemlji Ruandi
00:37
before I moved to the USA.
pre nego što sam se preselio u SAD.
00:39
I was only seven years old
Imao sam samo sedam godina
00:41
when my home country of Rwanda went through the tragedy of the genocide
kada je moja rodna Ruanda prošla kroz tragediju genocida
00:45
that took so many lives,
koji je oduzeo brojne živote
00:47
and they made us flee the country, and we became refugees.
i naterao nas da pobegnemo i postanemo izbeglice.
00:50
Life in a refugee camp -- it wasn't life.
Život u kampu - nije bio život.
00:55
It was survival.
Bilo je to preživljavanje.
00:57
I saw a lot of people dying from disease, poor sanitation,
Video sam kako mnogi umiru od bolesti, loše higijene,
01:02
hunger.
gladi.
01:03
Food became a rare commodity.
Hrana je postala retkost.
01:06
There were bad days.
Bilo je loših dana.
01:07
My family and I would survive on the leaves and grasses from the forest.
Moja porodica i ja bismo preživljavali na listovima i travi šume.
01:12
There were also worse times,
Bilo je još gorih vremena,
01:14
when we would go two or three days without anything to eat at all,
kada bismo prošli dva-tri dana, a da pritom ništa nismo jeli,
01:20
only drinking water from the swamp.
samo pijući vodu iz močvare.
01:22
After three years in a refugee camp,
Nakon tri godine u kampu,
01:24
we decided to return back to Rwanda.
odlučili smo da se vratimo u Ruandu.
01:27
And our struggle with food continued.
I naše muke sa hranom su se nastavile.
01:30
However, farming proved to be the only reliable source of food.
Ipak, poljoprivreda je dokazano bila jedini siguran način dolaska do hrane.
01:35
But our food lacked the nutritional diversity,
Ali našoj hrani je nedostajala nutriciona raznovrsnost,
01:38
and we continued to depend on food assistance
i nastavili smo da se oslanjamo na pomoć sa hranom
01:40
from the United Nations World Food Program
od Svetskog programa hrane UN-a
01:44
to balance our diet.
da bismo imali balansiranu ishranu.
01:45
Still today, more than 70 percent of Rwandans,
Čak i danas, više od 70 procenata građana Ruande
01:50
they work in the agriculture sector.
radi u agrikulturalnom sektoru.
01:52
But malnutrition and stunting remain rampant.
Ali neuhranjenost i zaostalost ostaju sveprisutni.
01:56
I came to realize that food insecurity and malnutrition
Shvatio sam da se nesigurnost u ishrani i neuhranjenost
01:59
were not happening because people were not farming enough;
nisu dešavale zato što ljudi nisu dovoljno proizvodili;
02:03
it was because people were not farming the right crops.
bilo je to zato što ljudi nisu uzgajali prave biljke.
02:07
I eventually left Rwanda
Jednog dana sam napustio Ruandu
02:09
and moved to the USA for graduate school
i preselio se u SAD za studije
02:12
and discovered the possible solution to that problem.
i otkrio moguće rešenje problema.
02:16
And that solution is quinoa.
I to rešenje je bila kinoa.
02:20
Quinoa is indigenous to the Indian regions of South America,
Kinoa je domaća u indijanskim regijama južne Amerike,
02:24
in countries like Bolivia, Peru ...
u zemljama kao što su Bolivija, Peru...
02:27
And it's very well-known for its powerhouse nutrient,
I tamo je veoma poznata po svojim nutrijentima,
02:31
and the crop has all the nine essential amino acids,
i biljka ima svih devet neophodnih amino kiselina,
02:34
making it a complete protein.
koji je čine kompletnim proteinom.
02:36
But unfortunately, quinoa is not cultivated as much
Ali na žalost, kinoa nije mnogo uzgajana
02:39
in different parts of the world.
u ostalim mestima na svetu.
02:42
In Rwanda, for example,
U Ruandi, na primer,
02:43
beans are the only thing that kept so many of us alive
pasulj je jedina stvar koja je mnoge od nas održala živim
02:47
during those times of hunger and starvation.
tokom tih vremena gladi i neuhranjenosti.
02:51
As a matter of fact,
Postoji podatak o tome
02:52
Rwanda is the number one beans-consuming country
kako je Ruanda zemlja broj jedan u svetu
02:54
in the world per capita.
po upotrebi pasulja po stanovniku.
02:57
In this part of Africa,
U ovom delu Afrike,
02:58
beans are one of the only crops that provide immediate food source,
pasulj je jedina biljka koja predstavlja dostupan izvor hrane,
03:04
because you can eat beans at every stage of growth.
zato što se pasulj može jesti u svakoj fazi razvoja.
03:07
We eat beans, leaves and green beans before harvest.
Jedemo mahune, lišce i zeleni pasulj pre berbe.
03:11
Unfortunately, you cannot cultivate beans
Na žalost, ne možete kultivisati pasulj
03:14
in the same field season after season.
u istom polju sezonu nakon sezone.
03:16
You need to ensure there is regular rotation
Mora se osigurati česta rotacija
03:19
to avoid disease and pests.
da bi se izbegle bolesti i štetočine.
03:22
Like beans, farmers can enjoy the nutritious quinoa leaves.
Kao kod pasulja, farmeri mogu da uživaju u nutritivnim listovima kinoe.
03:27
While beans are considered nutritious,
Iako se pasulj smatra nutritivnim,
03:30
quinoa has far more micronutrients,
kinoa ima mnogo više miktonutrijenata,
03:32
and with quinoa, you can make many [more] different food products and drinks
i sa kinoom, možete stvoriti mnogo više različitih jela i pića
03:36
than beans.
nego sa pasuljem.
03:38
In 2015,
U 2015,
03:39
alongside my research team at Washington State University,
zajedno sa mojim timom na Vašingtonskom državnom fakultetu,
03:43
we introduced quinoa in Rwanda for the first time.
uveli smo kinou u Ruandu po prvi put.
03:46
We tested 20 varieties of quinoa
Testirali smo 20 vrsta kinoe
03:49
to see the adaptability in three ecological zones of Rwanda.
da bismo proverili njihovu adaptabilnost u tri ekološke zone Ruande.
03:54
And the results were astonishing.
I rezultati su bili neverovatni.
03:56
Among the 20 varieties we tested,
Od 20 testiranih vrsta,
03:58
15 of them showed the potential to grow well in Rwanda's climate.
15 je pokazalo potencijal da dobro raste u ruandanskoj klimi.
04:03
And later, we started Quinoa Model Farmers Program.
I kasnije, započeli smo Program uzornih uzgajivača kinoe.
04:07
We gave those potential varieties to farmers
Dali smo te potencijalne vrste farmerima
04:09
to grow in their farm and community.
da uzgajaju na njihovoj farmi i zajednici.
04:12
We started with 12 farmers,
Započeli smo sa 12 farmera,
04:13
and three years later,
i sada, tri godine kasnije,
04:15
we are now working with around 500 farmers,
radimo sa oko 500 farmera,
04:18
including my mother,
uključujući i moju majku,
04:19
who is locally known as "the queen of quinoa"
koja je lokalno poznata kao "kraljica kinoe"
04:22
because of her work in helping other farmers adopt this crop.
zbog njenog udela u pomaganju drugim farmerima da prihvate ovu biljku.
04:27
We give them seeds,
Damo im semena,
04:29
train them how to grow it and how to cook it.
treniramo ih kako da uzgajaju i kako da je pripreme.
04:32
And farmers are pretty creative,
I farmeri su prilično kreativni,
04:33
coming up with recipes of their own.
pronalazeći sopstvene recepte.
04:36
And we've started seeing remarkable changes in their lives,
I počinjemo da vidimo neverovatne promene u njihovim životima,
04:39
including success stories
uključujući priče o uspehu
04:41
that many of them can now have access to nutritious food three times a day.
kako mnogi od njih sada imaju pristup nutritivnoj hrani tri puta na dan.
04:46
I'd like to note that quinoa
Voleo bih da napomenem da kinoa
04:48
is not meant to entirely [push out] other crops.
nema cilj da u potpunosti odstrani ostale biljke.
04:52
We introduced quinoa as a supplement
Uveli smo kinou kao suplement,
04:55
to create overall health and nutrition,
kako bismo stvorili pretežno zdravlje i uhranjenost,
04:58
rounding out diet to combat chronic malnutrition.
popunjavajući ishranu kako bi se izborili sa neuhranjenošću.
05:01
We have started this model with quinoa in Rwanda,
Započeli smo ovaj model sa kinoom u Ruandi,
05:04
but it can be replicated in different countries
ali ga je moguće replikovati u drugim zemljama
05:08
experiencing hunger and malnutrition.
u kojima je prisutna glad i neuhranjenost.
05:11
About one in nine people in the world suffer from chronic malnutrition.
Jedan od devet ljudi na svetu pati od hronične neuhranjenosti.
05:17
We have started research collaboration
Započeli smo zajednički istraživački rad
05:19
with institutions in countries like Kenya, Malawi, Uganda
sa institucijama u zemljama poput Kenije, Malavija i Ugande
05:23
and other countries experiencing hunger and malnutrition.
i ostalim zemljama koje imaju problema sa glađu i neuhranjenošću.
05:27
And quinoa isn't the only magic crop.
I kinoa nije jedina magična biljka.
05:30
There are several crops with high adaptability
Postoje mnoge biljke sa visokom adaptabilnošću
05:33
and nutritional value,
i nutricionom vrednošću,
05:36
crops like millet, sorghum, fonio, barley, oat, to name a few.
biljke poput prosa, sirka, fonia, ječma i zoba, da nabrojim neke.
05:42
These crops have high adaptability and respond well to climate change.
Ove biljke imaju veliku adaptabilnost i dobru reakciju na promenu klime.
05:46
You can grow these magic crops in different parts of the world,
Ove biljke možete uzgajati u različitim mestima na svetu,
05:50
bridging the gap, so that there is accessible nutritious food for everyone.
prelazeći jaz, tako da ima dostupne nutritivne hrane za sve.
05:57
I know how it feels to be hungry.
Znam kakav je to osećaj kada si gladan.
05:59
I've been there.
Bio sam u toj situaciji.
06:01
And I know how it feels to be malnourished,
I znam kakav je to osećaj kada si neuhranjen,
06:03
because I've been there, too.
zato što sam i to osetio.
06:05
Introducing crops with high biodiversity, adaptability and nutritional value
Uvođenje biljaka sa visokim diverzitetom, adaptabilnošću i nutricionom vrednošću
06:11
will play an important role in creating food security,
će igrati bitnu ulogu u stvaranju sigurnosti sa hranom,
06:15
seed sovereignty and sustainable production
dostupnosti semenja i održive produkcije
06:19
in communities and countries that are experiencing hunger and malnutrition.
u zajednicama i zemljama koje doživljavaju glad i neuhranjenost.
06:24
Having nutritious food should not be a luxury.
Nutritivna hrana ne bi trebalo da bude luksuz.
06:28
There is a need to ensure that there is accessible and affordable nutritious food
Postoji potreba da osiguramo da postoji lako dostupna, nutritivna hrana
06:33
for everyone.
za sve.
06:35
And this is a step towards making it a reality.
I ovo je korak prema tome da to napravimo realnošću.
06:39
Thank you.
Hvala.
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