How quinoa can help combat hunger and malnutrition | Cedric Habiyaremye

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2020-12-10・ 2112    28


Visit http://TED.com to get our entire library of TED Talks, transcripts, translations, personalized talk recommendations and more. On a mission to create a hunger-free world, agricultural entrepreneur Cedric Habiyaremye makes the case for cultivating quinoa -- and other versatile, nutrient-rich grains -- in places experiencing malnutrition, like his native Rwanda. He shares a model to help smallholder farmers across Africa diversify their fields with nutritious and indigenous crops, taking a step towards ensuring healthy foods are available and affordable for all. The TED Talks channel features the best talks and performances from the TED Conference, where the world's leading thinkers and doers give the talk of their lives in 18 minutes (or less). Look for talks on Technology, Entertainment and Design -- plus science, business, global issues, the arts and more. You're welcome to link to or embed these videos, forward them to others and share these ideas with people you know. Follow TED on Twitter: http://twitter.com/TEDTalks Like TED on Facebook: http://facebook.com/TED Subscribe to our channel: http://youtube.com/TED TED's videos may be used for non-commercial purposes under a Creative Commons License, Attribution–Non Commercial–No Derivatives (or the CC BY – NC – ND 4.0 International) and in accordance with our TED Talks Usage Policy (https://www.ted.com/about/our-organization/our-policies-terms/ted-talks-usage-policy). For more information on using TED for commercial purposes (e.g. employee learning, in a film or online course), please submit a Media Request at https://media-requests.ted.com

Instruction

Double-click on the English captions to play the video from there.

譯者: Lilian Chiu 審譯者: Melody Tang
00:13
Like so many of you,
和許多人一樣,
00:14
when I'm hungry, I open the fridge
當我餓了,我會去開冰箱,
00:16
and get myself something to eat any time I want.
任何時候都能找到東西來吃。
00:20
This is something most of us who live in a developed country
住在已開發國家的人,
對此多半不會多想什麼。
00:23
don't think much about.
00:25
However, it is a luxury that I didn't think I would ever have in my life
然而,二十三年前, 我住在坦尚尼亞的難民營時,
我根本不敢想像 在我有生之年能享受這種奢侈,
00:30
when I lived in a refugee camp in Tanzania 23 years ago,
00:33
or even seven years ago,
或者甚至七年前, 我住在盧安達的家中,
00:35
when I was living in my home country of Rwanda
00:37
before I moved to the USA.
還沒搬來美國時也是如此。
00:39
I was only seven years old
我才七歲時,
00:41
when my home country of Rwanda went through the tragedy of the genocide
我的母國盧安達 經歷了大屠殺的悲劇,
00:45
that took so many lives,
許多人喪命,
00:47
and they made us flee the country, and we became refugees.
我們被迫逃出國,成了難民。
00:50
Life in a refugee camp -- it wasn't life.
在難民營的生活——那不是生活,
00:55
It was survival.
那是生存。
00:57
I saw a lot of people dying from disease, poor sanitation,
我看到很多人因為疾病、
衛生條件不佳、飢餓而死。
01:02
hunger.
01:03
Food became a rare commodity.
食物是很罕見的東西。
01:06
There were bad days.
有些日子很糟糕,我和我的家人
01:07
My family and I would survive on the leaves and grasses from the forest.
為了存活得要吃森林裡的葉子和草。
01:12
There were also worse times,
還有更糟糕的時候,
01:14
when we would go two or three days without anything to eat at all,
我們可能會有兩、三天
完全沒有東西可吃,
01:20
only drinking water from the swamp.
只能喝沼澤中的水。
01:22
After three years in a refugee camp,
在難民營待了三年之後,
01:24
we decided to return back to Rwanda.
我們決定返回盧安達。
01:27
And our struggle with food continued.
我們的食物困境仍然持續著。
01:30
However, farming proved to be the only reliable source of food.
然而,事實證明農耕 是唯一可靠的食物來源。
01:35
But our food lacked the nutritional diversity,
但我們的食物缺乏營養多樣性,
01:38
and we continued to depend on food assistance
我們持續仰賴世界糧食計劃署
01:40
from the United Nations World Food Program
提供的食物協助
01:44
to balance our diet.
來平衡我們的飲食。
01:45
Still today, more than 70 percent of Rwandans,
至今,仍然有超過 70% 的盧安達人
01:50
they work in the agriculture sector.
從事農業方面的工作。
01:52
But malnutrition and stunting remain rampant.
但營養不良和發育遲緩 仍然無所不在。
01:56
I came to realize that food insecurity and malnutrition
我漸漸了解,糧食不安全和營養不良
01:59
were not happening because people were not farming enough;
發生的原因並非因為人民耕作不足;
02:03
it was because people were not farming the right crops.
而是因為人民沒有耕作對的作物。
02:07
I eventually left Rwanda
我最終離開了盧安達,
02:09
and moved to the USA for graduate school
搬到美國,就讀研究所,
02:12
and discovered the possible solution to that problem.
發現了這個問題的可能解決方案。
02:16
And that solution is quinoa.
解決方案就是藜麥。
02:20
Quinoa is indigenous to the Indian regions of South America,
藜麥是南美洲 印地安區域的原生作物,
02:24
in countries like Bolivia, Peru ...
在玻利維亞、秘魯等國家都有。
02:27
And it's very well-known for its powerhouse nutrient,
它因為超級營養而聞名,
02:31
and the crop has all the nine essential amino acids,
必需胺基酸共九種, 這種作物通通都有,
02:34
making it a complete protein.
因此它是完整的蛋白質。
02:36
But unfortunately, quinoa is not cultivated as much
但,不幸的是,在世界的其他地方,
02:39
in different parts of the world.
藜麥的栽種就沒那麼常見。
02:42
In Rwanda, for example,
比如,在盧安達,
02:43
beans are the only thing that kept so many of us alive
在饑荒挨餓的時候,讓我們許多人
02:47
during those times of hunger and starvation.
能活下去的就只有豆類。
02:51
As a matter of fact,
事實上,
02:52
Rwanda is the number one beans-consuming country
全世界人均豆類消費排名 第一名的國家就是盧安達。
02:54
in the world per capita.
在非洲的這個地區,
02:57
In this part of Africa,
02:58
beans are one of the only crops that provide immediate food source,
能立即提供食物源僅有幾種作物, 豆類是其中之一,
03:04
because you can eat beans at every stage of growth.
因為豆類在生長的 任何一個階段都可以食用。
03:07
We eat beans, leaves and green beans before harvest.
我們會在收穫之前吃 豆子、葉子和青豆。
03:11
Unfortunately, you cannot cultivate beans
不幸的是,無法在同一塊田地上
03:14
in the same field season after season.
一季接著一季栽種豆類。
03:16
You need to ensure there is regular rotation
必須要用輪耕的方式
確保不會有疾病和害蟲。
03:19
to avoid disease and pests.
03:22
Like beans, farmers can enjoy the nutritious quinoa leaves.
和豆類一樣,
農民也能享有藜麥葉的營養。
03:27
While beans are considered nutritious,
雖然豆類被認為很營養,
03:30
quinoa has far more micronutrients,
藜麥的微量營養素多更多,
03:32
and with quinoa, you can make many [more] different food products and drinks
且用藜麥能製造出 多種食物產品和飲料,
03:36
than beans.
比豆類多很多。
03:38
In 2015,
2015 年,
03:39
alongside my research team at Washington State University,
我和我在華盛頓州立大學的研究團隊
03:43
we introduced quinoa in Rwanda for the first time.
初次在盧安達推動藜麥。
03:46
We tested 20 varieties of quinoa
我們測試了二十種不同的藜麥,
03:49
to see the adaptability in three ecological zones of Rwanda.
想知道它們在盧安達 三個生態區的適應性如何。
03:54
And the results were astonishing.
結果很驚人。
03:56
Among the 20 varieties we tested,
在我們測試的二十種品種當中,
03:58
15 of them showed the potential to grow well in Rwanda's climate.
有十五種都有潛力可以 在盧安達的氣候下生長良好。
04:03
And later, we started Quinoa Model Farmers Program.
後來,我們展開了藜麥示範農民計劃。
04:07
We gave those potential varieties to farmers
我們給農民那些有潛力的藜麥,
04:09
to grow in their farm and community.
讓他們種在他們的農田和社區中。
04:12
We started with 12 farmers,
一開始只有十二名農民,三年後,
04:13
and three years later,
04:15
we are now working with around 500 farmers,
現在和我們合作的農民有五百名左右,
04:18
including my mother,
包括我母親,
04:19
who is locally known as "the queen of quinoa"
在當地她被稱為「藜麥女王」,
04:22
because of her work in helping other farmers adopt this crop.
因為她致力於協助 其他農民採用這種作物。
04:27
We give them seeds,
我們提供種子給他們,
04:29
train them how to grow it and how to cook it.
訓練他們如何種植、如何烹飪。
04:32
And farmers are pretty creative,
農民都很有創意,
04:33
coming up with recipes of their own.
想出他們自己的食譜。
04:36
And we've started seeing remarkable changes in their lives,
我們看到他們的生活 開始出現重大改變,
04:39
including success stories
包括一些成功故事,
04:41
that many of them can now have access to nutritious food three times a day.
許多農民現在一天可以 吃到三餐有營養的食物。
04:46
I'd like to note that quinoa
我想要強調,種藜麥的本意
04:48
is not meant to entirely [push out] other crops.
並不是要排擠其他作物。
04:52
We introduced quinoa as a supplement
我們是把藜麥當作補充食品來推動,
04:55
to create overall health and nutrition,
目的是創造全面的健康和營養,
04:58
rounding out diet to combat chronic malnutrition.
讓飲食更豐富, 以對抗長期的營養不良。
05:01
We have started this model with quinoa in Rwanda,
我們在盧安達開始用這個藜麥模式,
05:04
but it can be replicated in different countries
但可以將它複製到
經歷饑荒和營養不良的其他國家。
05:08
experiencing hunger and malnutrition.
05:11
About one in nine people in the world suffer from chronic malnutrition.
全世界九個人中大約就有一個人
受到長期營養不良所苦。
05:17
We have started research collaboration
我們展開了一些研究合作,
05:19
with institutions in countries like Kenya, Malawi, Uganda
合作的機構遍及各國, 包括肯亞、馬拉威、烏干達,
05:23
and other countries experiencing hunger and malnutrition.
及其他經歷饑荒 和營養不良的其他國家。
05:27
And quinoa isn't the only magic crop.
藜麥不是唯一的神奇作物。
05:30
There are several crops with high adaptability
還有數種作物都有極強的適應力
05:33
and nutritional value,
和極高的營養價值,
05:36
crops like millet, sorghum, fonio, barley, oat, to name a few.
包括小米、高粱、 福尼奧米(蒸粗麥粉)、
大麥、燕麥等。
05:42
These crops have high adaptability and respond well to climate change.
這些作物的適應力極強, 且很能因應氣候變遷。
05:46
You can grow these magic crops in different parts of the world,
可以在世界上不同地區 種植這些神奇的作物,
05:50
bridging the gap, so that there is accessible nutritious food for everyone.
縮小差距,讓人人都能 取得有營養的食物。
05:57
I know how it feels to be hungry.
我知道飢餓的感覺。
05:59
I've been there.
我曾感受過。
06:01
And I know how it feels to be malnourished,
我知道營養不良的感覺,
06:03
because I've been there, too.
因為我也經歷過。
06:05
Introducing crops with high biodiversity, adaptability and nutritional value
推動具有高生物多樣性、
高適應力,及高營養價值的作物,
06:11
will play an important role in creating food security,
在創造糧食安全、種子自主權,
06:15
seed sovereignty and sustainable production
及永續生產上都將扮演重要的角色,
06:19
in communities and countries that are experiencing hunger and malnutrition.
協助經歷營養不良 和饑荒的社區及國家。
06:24
Having nutritious food should not be a luxury.
吃得到有營養的食物不該是種奢侈。
06:28
There is a need to ensure that there is accessible and affordable nutritious food
必須要確保人人都能取得且負擔
06:33
for everyone.
營養的食物。
06:35
And this is a step towards making it a reality.
這是朝向實現這個理想 邁進一步的方法。
06:39
Thank you.
謝謝。
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