How quinoa can help combat hunger and malnutrition | Cedric Habiyaremye

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2020-12-10・ 2112    28


Visit http://TED.com to get our entire library of TED Talks, transcripts, translations, personalized talk recommendations and more. On a mission to create a hunger-free world, agricultural entrepreneur Cedric Habiyaremye makes the case for cultivating quinoa -- and other versatile, nutrient-rich grains -- in places experiencing malnutrition, like his native Rwanda. He shares a model to help smallholder farmers across Africa diversify their fields with nutritious and indigenous crops, taking a step towards ensuring healthy foods are available and affordable for all. The TED Talks channel features the best talks and performances from the TED Conference, where the world's leading thinkers and doers give the talk of their lives in 18 minutes (or less). Look for talks on Technology, Entertainment and Design -- plus science, business, global issues, the arts and more. You're welcome to link to or embed these videos, forward them to others and share these ideas with people you know. Follow TED on Twitter: http://twitter.com/TEDTalks Like TED on Facebook: http://facebook.com/TED Subscribe to our channel: http://youtube.com/TED TED's videos may be used for non-commercial purposes under a Creative Commons License, Attribution–Non Commercial–No Derivatives (or the CC BY – NC – ND 4.0 International) and in accordance with our TED Talks Usage Policy (https://www.ted.com/about/our-organization/our-policies-terms/ted-talks-usage-policy). For more information on using TED for commercial purposes (e.g. employee learning, in a film or online course), please submit a Media Request at https://media-requests.ted.com

Instruction

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Translator: Nurpatria Kusworini Reviewer: Nathaniel Luis Reyhan Soesilo
00:13
Like so many of you,
Seperti Anda semua,
00:14
when I'm hungry, I open the fridge
saat lapar, saya membuka kulkas
00:16
and get myself something to eat any time I want.
dan mengambil makanan kapan pun itu.
00:20
This is something most of us who live in a developed country
Untuk kita yang tinggal di negara maju,
00:23
don't think much about.
hal ini tidak terlalu kita pikirkan.
00:25
However, it is a luxury that I didn't think I would ever have in my life
Ternyata, ini adalah kemewahan yang saya kira tak akan pernah dapatkan
00:30
when I lived in a refugee camp in Tanzania 23 years ago,
saat tinggal di kamp pengungsi di Tanzania 23 tahun lalu,
00:33
or even seven years ago,
atau bahkan 7 tahun lalu,
00:35
when I was living in my home country of Rwanda
saat saya tinggal di negara asal saya Rwanda
00:37
before I moved to the USA.
sebelum pindah ke AS.
00:39
I was only seven years old
Usia saya hanya tujuh tahun
00:41
when my home country of Rwanda went through the tragedy of the genocide
saat Rwanda dilanda tragedi genosida yang memakan banyak korban jiwa,
00:45
that took so many lives,
00:47
and they made us flee the country, and we became refugees.
sehingga kita harus kabur dan menjadi pengungsi.
00:50
Life in a refugee camp -- it wasn't life.
Kehidupan di kamp pengungsian bukanlah kehidupan.
00:55
It was survival.
Itu hanya bertahan hidup.
00:57
I saw a lot of people dying from disease, poor sanitation,
Banyak orang sekarat karena sakit, sanitasi yang buruk,
01:02
hunger.
kelaparan.
01:03
Food became a rare commodity.
Makanan menjadi komoditas langka.
01:06
There were bad days.
Ada hari-hari buruk.
01:07
My family and I would survive on the leaves and grasses from the forest.
Saya dan keluarga akan bertahan hidup dari dedaunan dan rerumputan dari hutan.
01:12
There were also worse times,
Kadang ada masa yang lebih buruk
01:14
when we would go two or three days without anything to eat at all,
saat kami sama sekali tidak makan selama dua atau tiga hari,
01:20
only drinking water from the swamp.
hanya minum air dari rawa.
01:22
After three years in a refugee camp,
Setelah tiga tahun di kamp pengungsian,
01:24
we decided to return back to Rwanda.
kami memutuskan untuk kembali ke Rwanda.
01:27
And our struggle with food continued.
Perjuangan kami dalam mendapatkan makanan berlanjut.
01:30
However, farming proved to be the only reliable source of food.
Namun, bertani ternyata menjadi satu-satunya sumber makanan yang andal.
01:35
But our food lacked the nutritional diversity,
Tetapi, makanan kami kurang beragam nutrisinya
01:38
and we continued to depend on food assistance
dan kami terus bergantung pada bantuan pangan
01:40
from the United Nations World Food Program
dari Program Pangan Dunia PBB
01:44
to balance our diet.
agar mendapat gizi yang seimbang.
01:45
Still today, more than 70 percent of Rwandans,
Sampai kini, lebih dari 70 persen warga Rwanda
01:50
they work in the agriculture sector.
bekerja di sektor pertanian.
01:52
But malnutrition and stunting remain rampant.
Tetapi, malnutrisi dan gangguan pertumbuhan
masih merajalela.
01:56
I came to realize that food insecurity and malnutrition
Saya baru menyadari bahwa kerawanan pangan dan malnutrisi
01:59
were not happening because people were not farming enough;
tidak terjadi karena rakyatnya kurang bercocok tanam,
02:03
it was because people were not farming the right crops.
tetapi karena kita salah memilih tanaman.
02:07
I eventually left Rwanda
Akhirnya saya meninggalkan Rwanda
02:09
and moved to the USA for graduate school
dan pindah ke AS untuk melanjutkan S2
02:12
and discovered the possible solution to that problem.
dan menemukan solusi memungkinkan untuk masalah tersebut.
02:16
And that solution is quinoa.
Solusinya adalah biji kinoa.
02:20
Quinoa is indigenous to the Indian regions of South America,
Kinoa adalah tanaman asli wilayah Suku Indian di Amerika Selatan,
02:24
in countries like Bolivia, Peru ...
di negara seperti Bolivia, Peru...
02:27
And it's very well-known for its powerhouse nutrient,
Ia terkenal akan keunggulan nutrisinya,
02:31
and the crop has all the nine essential amino acids,
dan bijinya mengandung sembilan asam amino esensial,
02:34
making it a complete protein.
menjadikannya protein yang lengkap.
02:36
But unfortunately, quinoa is not cultivated as much
Namun sayangnya, kinoa tidak banyak dibudidayakan
02:39
in different parts of the world.
di berbagai belahan dunia lain.
02:42
In Rwanda, for example,
Di Rwanda, misalnya,
02:43
beans are the only thing that kept so many of us alive
kacang-kacangan adalah satu-satunya yang memberi kami makan
02:47
during those times of hunger and starvation.
pada masa kelaparan dan starvasi.
02:51
As a matter of fact,
Faktanya,
02:52
Rwanda is the number one beans-consuming country
Rwanda adalah negara pengonsumsi kacang tertinggi
02:54
in the world per capita.
di dunia per kapita.
02:57
In this part of Africa,
Di sisi Afrika ini,
02:58
beans are one of the only crops that provide immediate food source,
kacang adalah satu-satunya tanaman yang menyediakan sumber pangan langsung
03:04
because you can eat beans at every stage of growth.
karena kita bisa memakan kacang di tiap tahap panennya.
03:07
We eat beans, leaves and green beans before harvest.
Kita makan kacang, daun, dan kacang mudanya sebelum panen.
03:11
Unfortunately, you cannot cultivate beans
Sayangnya, kita tidak bisa menanam kacang
03:14
in the same field season after season.
di ladang yang sama tiap musim.
03:16
You need to ensure there is regular rotation
Kita perlu memastikan adanya rotasi tanaman
03:19
to avoid disease and pests.
untuk menghindari penyakit dan hama.
03:22
Like beans, farmers can enjoy the nutritious quinoa leaves.
Seperti kacang, petani dapat menikmati daun kinoa yang bergizi.
03:27
While beans are considered nutritious,
Walaupun kacang dianggap bergizi,
03:30
quinoa has far more micronutrients,
kinoa lebih banyak mengandung nutrisi mikro,
03:32
and with quinoa, you can make many [more] different food products and drinks
dan dengan kinoa, kita bisa membuat [lebih banyak] makanan dan minuman
03:36
than beans.
daripada kacang.
03:38
In 2015,
Pada 2015,
03:39
alongside my research team at Washington State University,
bersama tim riset saya di Washington State University,
03:43
we introduced quinoa in Rwanda for the first time.
kami mengenalkan kinoa di Rwanda untuk pertama kalinya.
03:46
We tested 20 varieties of quinoa
Kami mengetes 20 varietas kinoa
03:49
to see the adaptability in three ecological zones of Rwanda.
untuk melihat adaptabilitasnya terhadap tiga zona ekologis di Rwanda.
03:54
And the results were astonishing.
Hasilnya mencengangkan.
03:56
Among the 20 varieties we tested,
Dari 20 varietas yang dites,
03:58
15 of them showed the potential to grow well in Rwanda's climate.
15 di antaranya berpotensi untuk tumbuh dengan baik di iklim Rwanda.
04:03
And later, we started Quinoa Model Farmers Program.
Selanjutnya, kami memulai Quinoa Model Farmers Program.
04:07
We gave those potential varieties to farmers
Kami memberikan varietas potensial kepada petani
04:09
to grow in their farm and community.
untuk mereka tanam di ladang dan komunitasnya.
04:12
We started with 12 farmers,
Kami mulai dengan 12 petani
04:13
and three years later,
dan tiga tahun kemudian,
04:15
we are now working with around 500 farmers,
kini kami bekerja dengan sekitar 500 petani,
04:18
including my mother,
termasuk ibu saya
04:19
who is locally known as "the queen of quinoa"
yang dikenal warga sebagai "ratu kinoa"
04:22
because of her work in helping other farmers adopt this crop.
karena dia bekerja membantu petani lain mengadopsi tanaman ini.
04:27
We give them seeds,
Kami memberi mereka benih,
04:29
train them how to grow it and how to cook it.
melatih cara menanam dan memasaknya.
04:32
And farmers are pretty creative,
Para petani sangat kreatif,
04:33
coming up with recipes of their own.
menciptakan resep mereka sendiri.
04:36
And we've started seeing remarkable changes in their lives,
Kami mulai melihat perubahan menakjubkan di hidup mereka,
04:39
including success stories
termasuk kisah sukses
04:41
that many of them can now have access to nutritious food three times a day.
bahwa mereka sekarang bisa makan bergizi tiga kali sehari.
04:46
I'd like to note that quinoa
Saya perlu menekankan bahwa kinoa
04:48
is not meant to entirely [push out] other crops.
tidak lantas menggantikan tanaman lain.
04:52
We introduced quinoa as a supplement
Kami mengenalkan kinoa sebagai suplemen
04:55
to create overall health and nutrition,
untuk menciptakan pola makan
04:58
rounding out diet to combat chronic malnutrition.
yang sehat dan bergizi untuk melawan malnutrisi kronis.
05:01
We have started this model with quinoa in Rwanda,
Kami sudah memulai pengenalan kinoa dengan model ini di Rwanda,
05:04
but it can be replicated in different countries
tetapi ini bisa juga direplikasi di negara lain
05:08
experiencing hunger and malnutrition.
yang mengalami kelaparan dan malnutrisi.
05:11
About one in nine people in the world suffer from chronic malnutrition.
Sekitar satu dari sembilan orang di dunia mengalami malnutrisi kronis.
05:17
We have started research collaboration
Kami sudah memulai kolaborasi riset
05:19
with institutions in countries like Kenya, Malawi, Uganda
dengan institusi dari negara seperti Kenya, Malawi, Uganda,
05:23
and other countries experiencing hunger and malnutrition.
dan negara lain yang mengalami kelaparan dan malnutrisi.
05:27
And quinoa isn't the only magic crop.
Kinoa bukanlah satu-satunya tanaman ajaib.
05:30
There are several crops with high adaptability
Ada beberapa tanaman dengan adaptabilitas
05:33
and nutritional value,
dan nilai gizi yang tinggi.
05:36
crops like millet, sorghum, fonio, barley, oat, to name a few.
Contohnya, jawawut, sorgum, fonio, beras jali, gandum, dan lain-lain.
05:42
These crops have high adaptability and respond well to climate change.
Mereka mudah beradaptasi dan merespons perubahan iklim dengan baik.
05:46
You can grow these magic crops in different parts of the world,
Anda bisa menanam tanaman ajaib ini di beragam tempat di dunia,
05:50
bridging the gap, so that there is accessible nutritious food for everyone.
membangun jembatan, sehingga tiap orang mendapat akses kepada makanan bergizi.
05:57
I know how it feels to be hungry.
Saya tahu bagaimana rasanya kelaparan.
05:59
I've been there.
Saya pernah merasakannya.
06:01
And I know how it feels to be malnourished,
Saya tahu rasanya mengalami malnutrisi
06:03
because I've been there, too.
karena saya juga pernah mengalaminya.
06:05
Introducing crops with high biodiversity, adaptability and nutritional value
Mengenalkan tanaman
dengan nilai keanekaragaman hayati, adaptabilitas, dan nutrisi yang tinggi
06:11
will play an important role in creating food security,
akan berperan penting dalam menciptakan ketahanan pangan,
06:15
seed sovereignty and sustainable production
kedaulatan biji-bijian, dan produksi yang berkesinambungan
06:19
in communities and countries that are experiencing hunger and malnutrition.
di komunitas dan negara yang mengalami kelaparan dan malnutrisi.
06:24
Having nutritious food should not be a luxury.
Mendapatkan makanan bergizi tidak seharusnya menjadi kemewahan.
06:28
There is a need to ensure that there is accessible and affordable nutritious food
Kita perlu memastikan tersedianya akses pada makanan bergizi dan terjangkau
06:33
for everyone.
untuk setiap orang.
06:35
And this is a step towards making it a reality.
Ini satu langkah untuk menjadikannya sebuah kenyataan.
06:39
Thank you.
Terima kasih.
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