One of the world’s oldest condiments - Dan Kwartler

510,575 views ・ 2024-03-12

TED-Ed


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翻译人员: Gia Hwang 校对人员: Carol Wang
00:07
In the mid-18th century, England was crazy for ketchup.
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在十八世纪中叶,英国痴迷番茄酱。
00:11
The sauce was a staple,
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这种酱汁是常规食品,
00:13
and countless cookbooks encouraged adding ketchup
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无数食谱鼓励
00:15
to stews, vegetables, and even desserts.
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在炖菜、蔬菜甚至甜点中加入番茄酱。
00:18
If these seem like odd places for ketchup’s tangy tomato flavor,
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若其浓郁番茄风味在此显得很怪异,
00:23
that’s because this ketchup wasn’t the ubiquitous red goop you’re thinking of.
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是因为此番茄酱并非你脑海里
那无处不在的红色粘稠物。
00:27
In fact, this sweet and savory brown sauce didn't even have tomatoes in it.
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其实,此款甜美可口的棕色酱汁里
根本就没有西红柿。
00:33
So where did this early ketchup come from?
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那么,这款早期番茄酱出自何方呢?
00:35
And how did it become the dip we know and love today?
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而它又是如何演变为
我们今天所熟知和喜爱的蘸料呢?
00:40
To answer these questions,
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要回答这些问题,
00:41
we’ll need to turn to ketchup’s condiment cousin: fish sauce.
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我们需要提及番茄酱的同族调味品:
鱼露。
00:46
As early as 300 BCE, Chinese fishermen routinely caught batches of small fish
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早在公元前 300 年,
中国渔民经常捕获成批的小鱼,
00:52
that were too plentiful to eat all at once,
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这些小鱼多得无法一次全部吃完,
00:55
but too time consuming to individually preserve.
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单独保存因过于耗时而不现实。
00:59
So often, the day’s catch would be salted and stored together.
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因此,当天捕的小鱼通常一起腌制储存。
01:04
Over several months, the fish would ferment
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几个月后,
当鱼体内的酶分解其蛋白质时,会发酵。
01:06
as their internal enzymes broke down their bodies’ proteins.
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01:10
The result was a rich, salty liquid
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产生浓郁的咸味液体,
01:12
which would be strained and stored as fish sauce.
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过滤后作为鱼露储存。
01:16
Chinese fishermen weren’t the only ones to figure out this savory seasoning.
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中国渔民并非唯一制出此美味调料的人,
01:20
Ancient Greeks, and later the Romans that conquered them,
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古希腊人以及后来征服希腊的罗马人 ,
01:23
built their entire cuisine around fish sauce’s strong umami flavor.
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他们的全部美食
都是围绕鱼露浓郁的鲜味制作的。
01:29
The sauce, which they called garum,
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他们称为鱼酱(garum)的酱汁,
01:31
traveled with every soldier to the Empire’s front lines.
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随每位士兵前往帝国的前线。
01:35
And they constructed dozens of fish sauce factories throughout the Mediterranean,
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他们在地中海建造了数十家鱼露工厂,
01:40
each capable of producing thousands of gallons of garum.
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每家工厂能生产数千加仑的鱼酱。
01:44
But when the Roman Empire collapsed, so did their condiment business.
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但是当罗马帝国崩溃时,
其调味品业务也随之崩塌。
01:48
Most Europeans continued to cook without fish sauce for a thousand years,
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在随后的一千年里,
多数欧洲人一直无法用鱼露做饭,
01:52
until the Dutch East India Company arrived in Southeast Asia in the early 1600s.
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直到荷兰东印度公司
在十七世纪初进入东南亚。
01:59
The Dutch and English exploited this region for countless goods,
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荷兰人和英国人
在该地区牟取了无数货物,
02:03
including barrels of their most common local condiment.
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包括桶装的当地最常见的调味品。
02:07
This familiar, fishy liquid had many names,
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这种熟悉的鱼腥味液体有很多名字,
02:11
including “ke-tsiap” and “koe-cheup.”
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包括 “ke-tsiap” 和 “koe-cheup”,
02:13
But upon arrival in British ports, its title was bastardized into ketchup,
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但是在抵达英国港口后,
它的名字就变成了番茄酱(ketchup),
02:19
thus beginning Europe’s second wave of fish sauce supremacy.
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由此开启了欧洲第二波鱼露霸主浪潮。
02:23
European ships supplied ketchup throughout the Western Hemisphere
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欧洲船只向整个西半球供应番茄酱,
02:27
until they were kicked out of Asian trade hubs in the mid-1700s.
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直到十八世纪中期被逐出亚洲贸易中心。
02:32
But the public refused to let ketchup go the way of garum.
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但公众拒绝让番茄酱随鱼酱退出而消失,
02:36
A whole crop of British cookbooks emerged with recipes for knockoff ketchups,
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英国涌现了一大批烹饪书,
里面都有山寨番茄酱的食谱,
02:41
containing everything from oysters and anchovies to mushrooms and walnuts.
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从牡蛎和凤尾鱼到蘑菇核桃,应有尽有。
02:47
Soon, ketchup became a catch-all name for any brown sauce.
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很快,番茄酱成为任何红酱的统称。
02:51
And this great ketchup hunt produced some of England’s most enduring condiments,
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这场番茄酱大尝试比拼
产生了一些英国最经久不衰的番茄酱,
02:56
including Worcestershire, A1, and HP sauce.
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包括伍斯特酱、A1 酱和 HP 酱。
03:00
But it was a chef across the Atlantic
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但是,大西洋彼岸的一位厨师
03:02
who would introduce a new color to the equation.
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为番茄酱引入了一种新颜色。
03:06
While tomatoes varied in popularity across Europe,
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虽然西红柿在欧洲各国受欢迎程度不一,
03:09
American chefs were putting the New World fruit in all kinds of dishes.
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但美国厨师
却将这种新大陆水果烹制成各种菜肴。
03:14
And in 1812, Philadelphian physician and food hobbyist James Mease
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1812 年,费城医生兼美食爱好者 詹姆斯·梅斯(James Mease)
推出了首款以番茄为原料的番茄酱——
03:20
debuted the first tomato-based ketchup—
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03:23
a thin, watery concoction of tomato pulp, spices, raw shallots, and brandy.
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由番茄果肉、香料、生青葱和白兰地
混合而成的稀薄含水混合物。
03:30
This was a far-cry from fish sauce,
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它与鱼露相去甚远,
03:32
but tomatoes have high levels of glutamate—
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但西红柿含有大量谷氨酸钠,
03:36
the same chemical responsible for fish sauce’s rich umami flavor.
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这种化学物质也是鱼露浓郁鲜味的来源。
03:40
And Mease’s timing was perfect.
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而且梅斯的时机把握得恰到好处。
03:43
The back half of the 1800s saw a surge in bottled foods,
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十九世纪后半叶,瓶装食品激增,
03:47
and tomato ketchup was adopted by several burgeoning bottle businesses.
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几家新兴瓶装企业采用生产番茄酱。
03:52
By the 1870s, most tomato ketchups had dropped the shallots and brandy
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到了十九世纪七十年代,
多数番茄酱不再使用香葱和白兰地,
03:57
for sugar, salt, and sodium benzoate—
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而是改用糖、盐和苯甲酸钠——
04:00
a questionable preservative found in most bottled foods.
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一种存疑的防腐剂,多数瓶装食品都有。
04:04
But the most important change to this recipe was yet to come.
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但是,这种配方最重要的改变还在后面。
04:08
After a slow start selling pickled vegetables,
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亨利·J·亨氏腌制菜的销售起步缓慢,
04:11
Henry J. Heinz began selling a wide variety of popular ketchups.
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遂开始销售各种广受欢迎的番茄酱。
04:16
And at the turn of the 20th century,
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在二十世纪之交,
04:18
his desire to use healthier, natural ingredients
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亨氏渴望使用更健康、天然食材,
04:21
led Heinz to swap the sodium benzoate
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于是他将苯甲酸钠换成了
04:24
for riper tomatoes and a huge amount of vinegar.
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更成熟的番茄和大量的醋。
04:28
The resulting thick, goopy formula was an instant best seller—
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尽管这种粘稠的配方更难从瓶中取出,
04:32
despite being much harder to get out of the bottle.
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但一经推出便大受欢迎。
04:35
Over the 20th century, this salty red sauce covered the globe—
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二十世纪以来,这种咸味红酱遍布全球,
04:40
pairing perfectly with the ambassadors of American cuisine.
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与美国美食大使完美结合。
04:44
Today, 90% of American households have ketchup in their kitchens,
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如今,90% 的美国家庭 厨房里都有番茄酱,
04:48
and Heinz’s recipe has even become the base
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亨氏的配方甚至成为
其他数十种酱汁和调味料的基础,
04:51
for dozens of other sauces and dressings—
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04:54
all descendants of the same fishy family tree.
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所有这些都是鱼味家族的后代。
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