Kathy Hannun: How to heat your home without hurting the planet | TED Fellows

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2021-06-28・ 1918    99


Visit http://TED.com/shapeyourfuture to watch more groundbreaking talks from the TED Fellows. Of all the mundane yet astonishing marvels of human ingenuity, knowing what it takes to heat a room to a comfortable temperature is TED Fellow Kathy Hannun's favorite. She takes us on a journey across the planet and under the sea to emphasize the dangers of modern heating, and offers a safer, planet-friendly alternative that taps into the geothermal energy right below our feet. The TED Talks channel features the best talks and performances from the TED Conference, where the world's leading thinkers and doers give the talk of their lives in 18 minutes (or less). Look for talks on Technology, Entertainment and Design -- plus science, business, global issues, the arts and more. You're welcome to link to or embed these videos, forward them to others and share these ideas with people you know. Become a TED Member: http://ted.com/membership Follow TED on Twitter: http://twitter.com/TEDTalks Like TED on Facebook: http://facebook.com/TED Subscribe to our channel: http://youtube.com/TED TED's videos may be used for non-commercial purposes under a Creative Commons License, Attribution–Non Commercial–No Derivatives (or the CC BY – NC – ND 4.0 International) and in accordance with our TED Talks Usage Policy (https://www.ted.com/about/our-organization/our-policies-terms/ted-talks-usage-policy). For more information on using TED for commercial purposes (e.g. employee learning, in a film or online course), please submit a Media Request at https://media-requests.ted.com

Instruction

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Traductor: Myriam Huertas Revisor: Sebastian Betti
00:14
[SHAPE YOUR FUTURE]
[MOLDEA TU FUTURO]
00:17
One of the hallmarks of living in a technologically advanced society
Una característica de la vida en una sociedad avanzada en tecnología
00:20
is even the little details of life that seem mundane
es que los detalles corrientes y diarios
00:24
end up being astonishing,
terminan siendo impresionantes como el hecho de que
00:25
like the fact that it takes five gallons of water to produce a walnut,
se necesitan más de 20 litros de agua para producir una nuez
00:29
or that half the plastic that's ever been made
o que la mitad del plástico que se ha fabricado
00:32
has been made in the past 15 years.
se ha realizado en los últimos 15 años.
00:34
My favorite of these examples is what it takes
Mi ejemplo favorito es:
¿qué se necesita para mantener la temperatura ambiental?
00:37
to keep a room room temperature.
00:39
Allow me to explain.
Deja que te explique.
00:41
Heating is generally done by combusting a fossil fuel.
La calefacción se genera al quemar combustibles fósiles.
00:44
So first, we have to find the fuel.
Entonces, necesitamos el combustible.
00:46
Unfortunately, it tends to be buried
Por desgracia, suele estar enterrado
00:48
more than a kilometer under the earth's surface,
a más de un kilómetro bajo tierra
00:50
and all too often, in inconvenient places,
y casi siempre en lugares inoportunos:
00:52
like the Arctic Circle, nations in conflict
como el círculo polar ártico, países en guerra
00:54
or under the bottom of the ocean.
o en el fondo del océano.
00:56
Then there's the fact that the substance takes 60 to 600 million years
Además, esta sustancia se forma en 60 a 600 millones de años
01:01
to form from dead plankton.
a partir del plancton muerto.
01:03
So there's that issue.
Ese es el problema.
01:04
We drill these incredibly deep holes to get it.
Se perforan agujeros muy profundos para conseguirlo.
01:07
Then we pipe it, truck it
Luego se canaliza, se transporta
01:09
and ship it in tankers across the world to refineries,
y se transporta en camiones por el mundo hasta las refinerías
01:12
which are these incredibly expensive industrial facilities
que son instalaciones industriales carísimas
01:15
that take in crude oil and gas,
que absorben petróleo crudo y gas,
01:17
which are just a bunch of different hydrocarbon molecules,
que son solo un montón de diferentes moléculas de hidrocarburos,
01:20
in order to sort those molecules into refined products.
para clasificar estas moléculas en sustancias refinadas.
01:23
Refined natural gas is then delivered to homes and businesses
El gas natural refinado se transporta a empresas y hogares
01:27
via an invisible interstate highway system millions of miles long.
a través de un sistema de inmensas rutas internacionales que no se ven.
01:32
It's invisible because it's underground.
No se ven porque están bajo tierra.
01:34
There's so much pipeline in this system that entire steel mills have been built
Hay tantas tuberías en el sistema que existen fábricas siderúrgicas enteras
01:39
only to produce pipeline for this system.
que solo producen tuberías para este sistema.
01:42
And because there are millions of miles of gas
Y debido a los millones de kilómetros de gas
01:46
getting pumped beneath us at high pressure at all times,
que fluyen bajo nuestros pies, siempre con tanta presión,
01:49
engineers send these intelligent robots called "smart pigs"
los ingenieros tienen unos robots llamados “cerdos listos”
01:53
through the pipelines to check for safety defects.
que comprueban defectos de seguridad en las tuberías.
01:56
Doing this is called "pigging the pipeline."
Lo llaman “cerdeo de tuberías”
01:58
(Pig snort sound)
(Gruñido de cerdo)
01:59
Yeah, that's a real thing.
Sí, como lo oyes.
02:00
But even with these precautions, there are accidents.
Pero, incluso con tanta seguridad, se producen accidentes.
02:03
In 2010, the San Bruno natural gas pipeline exploded in California.
En 2010, las tuberías de gas natural de San Bruno en California explotaron.
02:08
Eight people died.
Ocho personas murieron
02:10
Eyewitnesses reported the blast looked like a wall of fire 1,000 feet tall.
Los testigos dijeron que la explosión parecía un muro de fuego de 300 metros.
02:15
More recently, in 2018, excess pressure in natural gas pipelines in Massachusetts
En 2018, la presión excesiva de las tuberías de gas natural de Massachusetts
02:20
resulted in explosions that killed somebody
provocaron explosiones que dejaron muertos
02:23
and forced 50,000 others from their homes.
y obligó a 50 000 personas a abandonar sus casas.
02:25
But, you know, despite all of this,
Pero, como sabes, a pesar de todo,
02:27
we're actually jealous of people who live close enough to these insane pipelines
estamos celosos de los que viven tan cerca de estas tuberías
02:32
to get gas into their homes,
como para introducir gas en sus hogares
02:34
because everyone else is stuck with even worse options,
ya que el resto vive al lado de opciones peores
02:38
like fuel oil and propane.
como fuelóleos o propano.
02:39
These fuels don't have pipelines in place for delivery,
Estos combustibles no disponen de tuberías para su transporte,
02:42
so instead, tens of thousands of trucks go from home to home
en su lugar, cientos de miles de camiones van de casa en casa
02:46
in neighborhoods throughout the country,
a lo largo de todo el país
02:48
pumping these fuels into tanks in homeowners' basements and yards.
suministrando estos combustibles en los tanques de sótanos y jardines.
02:52
And regardless of what heating fuel you use -- gas, propane or oil --
Y sin importar qué combustible para la calefacción uses
02:56
you better have a carbon monoxide detector
mejor ten un detector de monóxido de carbono
02:58
so your heating system doesn't accidentally kill you in the night,
para que la calefacción no te mate por la noche
03:01
because hundreds of Americans die in exactly that way each year.
porque cada año cientos de estadounidenses mueren de esta manera.
03:05
So that's the system we have today.
Y ese es el sistema de hoy.
03:08
Safe to say, it has some downsides.
Sin embargo, tiene inconvenientes.
03:11
Don't get me wrong -- it's a marvel of human ingenuity,
No me malinterpretes, es una genialidad del ser humano,
03:13
but with some pretty serious drawbacks.
pero con grandes desventajas.
03:16
And the rigamarole of conventional heating feels even more over the top
Y el lío de la calefacción convencional parece todavía peor
03:20
when you consider that every home
si consideramos que cada casa
03:21
is already sitting right on top of a vast reservoir of renewable energy:
está construida justo encima de una reserva grande de energía renovable:
03:26
geothermal energy.
la energía geotérmica.
03:28
Let's talk about geothermal energy.
Vamos a hablar de la energía geotérmica.
03:30
Starting a few feet under the earth's surface,
A unos cuantos metros bajo la superficie de la Tierra
03:32
the ground is awash in thermal energy.
el terreno está repleto de energía térmica.
03:35
This is why caves and wine cellars, they never get too hot or too cold.
Por eso las cuevas o las bodegas nunca son demasiado calientes ni demasiado frías.
03:38
They're just bathed in this low-grade heat.
Están sometidas a una temperatura baja.
03:41
Geothermal heating systems draw on this heat,
Los sistemas geotérmicos reciben este calor
03:43
using what are called "ground loops,"
al usar “bucles de tierra”
03:45
which are just simple plastic pipes buried under the yard.
que son simples tubos de plástico enterrados en el jardín.
03:48
These ground loops are then connected to a heat pump that sits inside the home,
Estos bucles de tierra están conectados a una bomba de calor dentro de la casa
03:52
typically where a furnace once was.
donde solía estar la caldera.
03:54
More and more homeowners are choosing geothermal over fuel-based options.
Los propietarios prefieren cada vez más la energía geotérmica que los combustibles.
03:59
I see this shift up close every day,
Veo esta tendencia día a día
04:01
because I cofounded a company to create a new kind of ground-up utility
ya que he cofundado una empresa para crear nuevos materiales desde cero
04:05
by making it as easy and inexpensive as possible
que hace fácil y lo más barato posible
04:08
to switch from conventional heating to geothermal.
cambiar la calefacción convencional por una geotérmica.
04:11
We've done this by creating a service
Lo conseguimos al crear un servicio
04:13
where homeowners can fill out a form on our website,
en el que se rellena un formulario en la web,
04:15
we design a geothermal heating system for them,
diseñamos la calefacción geotérmica a medida
04:17
and then we install that system using purpose-built tools and equipment.
y luego lo instalamos usando las herramientas y equipo adecuados.
04:21
Once the installation is done,
Cuando la instalación termina,
04:22
that home will have moved on from fossil heating forever,
la casa habrá dejado los combustibles para siempre
04:25
because those ground loops, they'll last as long as the home itself.
pues esos bucles de tierra duran tanto como el edificio.
04:28
As each home switches over, a new kind of utility is taking hold --
Con cada cambio, se establece un nuevo suministro...
04:32
a distributed utility,
uno más equilibrado
04:34
made up of homes exchanging renewable energy with the ground.
a partir de la energía renovable que intercambian los hogares por el suelo.
04:38
This new infrastructure is simple, local and inexpensive to operate,
Esta infraestructura nueva es barata, local y fácil administrar
04:43
and it represents a permanent and wholesale shift
y se aleja a pasos enormes
04:45
away from fossil fuels.
de los combustibles fósiles.
04:47
The groundwork is being laid, so to speak,
Las bases ya están sentadas, por así decirlo,
04:49
for the idea that maybe we don't need to destroy the world
sobre la idea de que quizá no necesitemos destruir el planeta
04:52
in order to keep our rooms at a comfortable temperature.
para mantener calentitas nuestras casas.
04:55
Let's leave the Arctic Circle and the seafloor alone,
Debemos dejar en paz el Círculo Ártico y el fondo marino,
04:58
bypass the refineries and the pipelines
evitar las refinerías y las tuberías,
05:00
and stop worrying that our families will accidentally be poisoned in the night.
y dejar de preocuparnos de que nuestras familias mueran envenenadas por la noche.
05:04
Instead, let's use the massive amounts of energy
Debemos usar las inmensas cantidades de energía
05:07
that are already right there for the taking,
que ya están a nuestro alcance,
05:10
right beneath every building on earth.
justo debajo de cada edificio del mundo.
05:13
Thank you.
Gracias.
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