How we could make carbon-negative concrete | Tom Schuler

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2021-01-04・ 3229    51


Take action on climate change at http://countdown.ted.com. Concrete is all around us: we use it to build our roads, buildings, bridges and much more. Yet over the last 2,000 years, the art of mixing cement and using it to bind concrete hasn't changed very much -- and it remains one of the world's biggest emitters of carbon. Entrepreneur Tom Schuler previews an innovative way to create concrete, potentially turning it into a carbon sink that traps CO2 from the atmosphere -- while producing a viable building material. This talk was part of the Countdown Global Launch on 10.10.2020. (Watch the full event here: https://youtu.be/5dVcn8NjbwY.) Countdown is TED's global initiative to accelerate solutions to the climate crisis. The goal: to build a better future by cutting greenhouse gas emissions in half by 2030, in the race to a zero-carbon world. Get involved at https://countdown.ted.com/sign-up Follow Countdown on Twitter: http://twitter.com/tedcountdown Follow Countdown on Instagram: http://instagram.com/tedcountdown Subscribe to our channel: http://youtube.com/TED TED's videos may be used for non-commercial purposes under a Creative Commons License, Attribution–Non Commercial–No Derivatives (or the CC BY – NC – ND 4.0 International) and in accordance with our TED Talks Usage Policy (https://www.ted.com/about/our-organization/our-policies-terms/ted-talks-usage-policy). For more information on using TED for commercial purposes (e.g. employee learning, in a film or online course), please submit a Media Request at https://media-requests.ted.com

Instruction

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00:00
Transcriber: TED Translators Admin Reviewer: Rhonda Jacobs
Translator: Nathaniel Luis Reyhan Soesilo Reviewer: Yolanda Raintina
00:13
Concrete is all around us,
Beton ada di sekitar kita,
00:14
but most of us don't even notice that it's there.
namun kita kebanyakan tak memperhatikannya.
00:17
We use concrete to build our roads, buildings, bridges, airports;
Kita membuat jalan, bangunan, jembatan, bandara menggunakan beton;
00:21
it's everywhere.
di mana-mana.
00:23
The only resource we use more than concrete is water.
Sumber daya yang kami gunakan lebih dari beton adalah air.
00:26
And with population growth and urbanization,
Dengan pertumbuhan populasi dan urbanisasi,
00:28
we're going to need concrete more than ever.
kita akan butuh lebih banyak beton.
00:30
But there's a problem.
Tapi, ada satu masalah.
00:32
Cement's the glue that holds concrete together.
Semen adalah perekat yang menyatukan beton.
00:35
And to make cement,
Untuk membuat semen,
00:37
you burn limestone with other ingredients in a kiln at very high temperatures.
batu kapur dan bahan lain dibakar pada tungku dengan suhu yang amat tinggi.
00:42
One of the byproducts of that process is carbon dioxide, or CO2.
Salah satu produk sampingannya, yaitu karbon dioksida, atau CO2.
00:46
For every ton of cement that's manufactured,
Setiap ton semen yang diproduksi, hampir satu ton CO2 lepas ke atmosfer.
00:49
almost a ton of CO2 is emitted into the atmosphere.
00:53
As a result,
Hasilnya, industri semen sebagai penghasil CO2 terbesar kedua,
00:55
the cement industry is the second-largest industrial emitter of CO2,
00:59
responsible for almost eight percent of total global emissions.
menghasilkan hampir 8% dari total emisi dunia.
01:03
If we're going to solve global warming,
Jika kita ingin mengatasi pemanasan global,
01:06
innovation in both cement production and carbon utilization
inovasi dalam produksi semen dan pemanfaatan karbon sangat penting.
01:10
is absolutely necessary.
01:13
Now, to make concrete, you mix cement with stone, sand, and other ingredients,
Untuk membuat beton, semen dicampur dengan batu, pasir, dan bahan lain;
01:19
throw in a bunch of water, and then wait for it to harden or cure.
kemudian masukkan air, dan tunggu hingga mengeras.
01:23
With precast products like pavers and blocks,
Pengerasan produk pabrikan, seperti aspal dan balok,
01:26
you might shoot steam into the curing chamber
dapat dipercepat dengan memasukkan uap ke ruang pengawetan.
01:28
to try to accelerate the curing process.
01:30
For buildings, roads, and bridges,
Untuk bangunan, jalan, dan jembatan, kami menuang beton cair
01:33
we pour what's called ready-mix concrete into a mold on the job site
ke dalam cetakan, dan menunggunya hingga mengering.
01:37
and wait for it to cure over time.
01:39
Now, for over 50 years, scientists believed
Selama lebih dari 50 tahun, para ilmuwan mempercayai
01:43
that if they cured concrete with CO2 instead of water,
jika beton dikeringkan dengan CO2, bukan air,
01:47
it would be more durable,
beton akan lebih tahan lama.
01:49
but they were hamstrung by Portland cement's chemistry.
namun, mereka terhalang oleh kimia semen Portland.
01:51
You see, it likes to react with both water and CO2,
Beton bereaksi dengan air dan CO2,
01:55
and those conflicting chemistries just don't make for very good concrete.
dan campuran bahan kimia itu tidak menghasilkan beton yang bagus.
01:59
So we came up with a new cement chemistry.
Kami menemukan bahan kimia semen baru.
02:01
We use the same equipment and raw materials,
Kami menggunakan peralatan dan bahan baku yang sama,
02:04
but we use less limestone,
tetapi kami gunakan sedikit batu kapur,
02:06
and we fire the kiln at a lower temperature,
suhu alat pembakaran dibuat lebih rendah, hasilnya emisi CO2 berkurang hingga 30%.
02:08
resulting in up to a 30 percent reduction in CO2 emissions.
02:12
Our cement doesn't react with water.
Semen kami tak bereaksi dengan air.
02:14
We cure our concrete with CO2,
Kami mengeringkan beton dengan CO2 yang diambil dari sisa gas industri,
02:17
and we get that CO2 by capturing waste gas
02:20
from industrial facilities like ammonia plants or ethanol plants
seperti pabrik amonia atau etanol yang biasanya dilepas ke atmosfer.
02:25
that otherwise would've been released into the atmosphere.
02:28
During curing, the chemical reaction with our cement breaks apart the CO2,
Selama pengeringan, reaksi kimia pada semen kami memecah CO2,
02:33
capturing the carbon to make limestone,
menangkap karbonnya untuk membuat batu kapur yang merekatkan beton.
02:36
and that limestone's used to bind the concrete together.
02:40
Now, if a bridge made out of our concrete were ever demolished,
Jika sebuah jembatan yang dibuat dari beton kami dihancurkan,
02:43
there's no fear of the CO2 being emitted because it doesn't exist any longer.
jangan khawatir karena tidak akan ada emisi CO2.
02:49
When you combine the emissions reduction during cement production
Ketika Anda menggabungkan pengurangan emisi saat produksi semen
02:52
with the CO2 consumption during concrete curing,
dengan pemanfaatan CO2 saat pengeringan beton,
02:56
we reduce cement's carbon footprint by up to 70 percent.
jejak karbon dari semen berkurang sampai 70%.
03:00
And because we don't consume water, we also save trillions of liters of water.
Kami juga menghemat triliunan liter air karena ini tak memakai air.
03:05
Now, convincing a 2,000-year-old industry
Meyakinkan sebuah industri yang berusia 2.000 tahun,
03:08
that hasn't evolved much over the last 200 years,
yang belum banyak berkembang selama 200 tahun terakhir tidaklah mudah.
03:11
is not easy;
03:12
but there are lots of new and existing industry players
Ada banyak industri baru yang mengkritik tantangan itu.
03:16
that are attacking that challenge.
03:18
Our strategy is to ease adoption
Strategi kami adalah untuk mempermudah pemakaian,
03:20
by seeking solutions that go beyond just sustainability.
dengan mencari solusi yang melampaui keberlanjutan.
03:24
We use the same processes, raw material, and equipment
Kami memakai proses, bahan mentah, dan alat yang sama dengan beton biasa,
03:27
that's used to make traditional concrete,
03:29
but our new cement makes concrete cured with CO2
namun, semen baru kami membuat beton yang dikeringkan oleh CO2,
03:33
that is stronger, more durable, lighter in color,
menjadi lebih kuat, tahan lama, cerah, dan kering dalam 24 jam, bukan 28 hari.
03:37
and it cures in 24 hours instead of 28 days.
03:41
Our new technology for ready-mix
Teknologi beton cair baru kami dalam pengujian dan aplikasi prasarana,
03:43
is in testing and infrastructure applications,
03:46
and we've pushed our research even further
dan riset kami sedang mengembangkan beton yang mungkin menyerap CO2.
03:48
to develop a concrete that may become a carbon sink.
03:51
That means that we will consume more CO2 than is emitted during cement production.
Maksudnya, konsumsi CO2 akan lebih banyak daripada emisinya selama produksi.
03:57
Since we can't use CO2 gas at a construction site,
Kami tak bisa memakai gas CO2 di tempat konstruksi.
04:00
we knew we had to deliver it to our concrete
Kami harus mengantarnya dalam bentuk beton padat atau cair.
04:02
in either a solid or liquid form.
04:04
So we've been partnering with companies that are taking waste CO2
Kami telah berkerja sama dengan perusahaan yang menerima limbah CO2,
04:09
and transforming it into a useful family of chemicals
dan mengubahnya menjadi zat kimia yang berguna,
04:12
like oxalic acid or citric acid,
seperti asam oksalat atau asam sitrat, zat yang terkandung dalam jus jeruk.
04:15
the same one you use in orange juice.
Saat asam itu bereaksi dengan semen kami,
04:17
When that acid reacts with our cement,
04:19
we can pack in as much as four times more carbon into the concrete,
kita dapat memasukkan karbon sebanyak empat kali lebih banyak ke dalam beton,
04:23
making it carbon negative.
menjadikannya karbon negatif.
04:25
That means that for a one-kilometer road section, we would consume more CO2
Artinya, untuk setiap kilometer jalan, kita akan mengonsumsi lebih banyak CO2
04:30
than almost a 100,000 trees do during one year.
daripada hampir 100.000 pohon selama satu tahun.
04:33
So thanks to chemistry and waste CO2,
Jadi, berkat bahan kimia dan limbah CO2,
kami berusaha mengubah industri beton, bahan kedua yang digunakan terbanyak,
04:37
we're trying to convert the concrete industry,
04:39
the second-most-used material on the planet,
04:42
into a carbon sink for the planet.
menjadi penyerap karbon bagi bumi.
04:46
Thank you.
Terima kasih.
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