Stop Making Mistakes with Relative Clauses! [Which & That]

350,151 views

2019-07-19・ mmmEnglish

Stop Making Mistakes with Relative Clauses! [Which & That]

350,151 views・2019-07-19

mmmEnglish


Please double-click on the English subtitles below to play the video.

00:00
Well hey there I'm Emma from mmmEnglish!
0
20
3800
00:03
Today we're going to talk about two words that are
1
3860
2920
00:06
pretty similar. Two words that I know
2
6780
2880
00:09
many of you have been confused about:
3
9660
2100
00:11
which or that?
4
11760
2660
00:14
Now these words are exactly what we're going to talk
5
14700
2640
00:17
about today, 'which' or 'that' in relative clauses.
6
17340
4260
00:21
And I'll check that you've been listening at the
7
21680
3140
00:24
end of this lesson because I've got a mini quiz
8
24820
2760
00:27
to test you, right?
9
27580
1720
00:29
Ten questions in a little over two minutes.
10
29300
2720
00:32
So make sure you pay attention.
11
32020
1920
00:42
Guys I'd like to take a moment to offer a big warm
12
42000
2980
00:44
shout out to our friends at Lingoda
13
44980
2200
00:47
who are sponsoring this lesson for you today.
14
47180
2320
00:49
Now most of you already know that I've been taking
15
49500
2000
00:51
Spanish lessons with Lingoda
16
51500
2320
00:53
every single day for the last month.
17
53820
2440
00:57
I'll show you.
18
57020
1020
01:22
No - one day I'll remember which one is which.
19
82300
2740
01:27
In the meantime, here are three things
20
87640
2720
01:30
that I love about Lingoda and why I
21
90360
2360
01:32
highly recommend you check them out.
22
92720
1680
01:34
Number one.
23
94400
1060
01:35
They have small classes
24
95460
1860
01:37
with no more than five students in each class.
25
97480
2440
01:39
I always have the chance to join in.
26
99940
2360
01:42
In fact, quite a few of the classes I've had
27
102300
2940
01:45
were just me and the teacher which I was like
28
105240
2580
01:47
"Yes! Private lesson!"
29
107820
1740
01:50
Number two. They have native teachers.
30
110140
3040
01:53
So for you, wanting to learn English, that includes
31
113180
2620
01:55
teachers from the US and the UK.
32
115800
2740
01:58
And number three. They're really, really affordable.
33
118540
3280
02:01
Their group classes start from just eight euros a class.
34
121860
3680
02:05
So if getting results quickly is important to you
35
125860
2920
02:08
right now, you should definitely check them out.
36
128780
2540
02:11
The link to have a look at Lingoda is
37
131320
2200
02:13
in the description below.
38
133520
1520
02:15
And you'll be supporting me and the mmmEnglish
39
135320
2020
02:17
Channel if you use it.
40
137340
1640
02:19
Plus, if you use my code at the checkout, you'll get
41
139340
2960
02:22
twenty percent off your first purchase.
42
142300
2100
02:24
So which one is it?
43
144400
1840
02:26
Which or that?
44
146240
1700
02:28
These words are super, super common.
45
148180
2640
02:30
They have lots of different uses and meanings
46
150820
2820
02:33
which causes confusion.
47
153640
2540
02:36
Which cat?
48
156880
1140
02:38
That cat!
49
158440
980
02:41
Did you see that?
50
161540
1040
02:45
Which way do I need to go?
51
165040
1780
02:48
But we're not going to go over all of the different uses
52
168000
3220
02:51
of 'which' and 'that' in this video today.
53
171220
3320
02:54
There's loads!
54
174540
1120
02:56
Today we'll focus on those times when it's confusing
55
176060
3540
02:59
or it's unclear which one you should be using.
56
179600
3340
03:02
Which or that?
57
182940
1300
03:05
And that's when they're used in relative clauses
58
185020
3240
03:08
to introduce adjective clauses.
59
188400
2720
03:11
Wait, wait, wait, wait, wait.
60
191780
1760
03:13
Just pause for a second here.
61
193780
2000
03:15
Relative clause, adjective clause,
62
195860
2820
03:18
what are we talking about? That sounds confusing!
63
198980
2620
03:21
Let's look at a few examples.
64
201600
1540
03:23
It's much easier than it sounds.
65
203140
2380
03:25
So take a look at this sentence here.
66
205820
2060
03:28
My car, which is brand new, is making strange noises.
67
208040
5480
03:33
Now can you see that this sentence has two parts?
68
213520
3260
03:36
Two separate bits of information about the car.
69
216780
3140
03:40
My car which is brand new.
70
220440
2580
03:43
My car is making strange noises.
71
223020
3900
03:47
See how each of these clauses has a subject and a verb
72
227020
4020
03:51
That's what makes it a clause.
73
231040
2520
03:53
Now look at the clause that starts with 'which'.
74
233860
4000
03:57
That clause gives us more information
75
237860
2680
04:00
about the subject.
76
240540
1360
04:02
It's not just my car, it's my brand new car.
77
242160
4280
04:07
So 'which' and 'that' are often used at the beginning
78
247180
2960
04:10
of clauses that give us
79
250140
1500
04:11
more information about the subject.
80
251640
2420
04:14
And these are the adjective clauses that we talked
81
254360
2640
04:17
about earlier. They describe the subject in more detail.
82
257000
5100
04:23
But there is an important difference
83
263060
2380
04:25
that you need to remember.
84
265440
1440
04:27
'That' is used for essential clauses.
85
267100
2900
04:30
Now essential means you need it, it's necessary.
86
270000
3280
04:33
You need to use 'that' when you are adding information
87
273380
3320
04:36
that's important.
88
276700
1400
04:38
Okay without it, we wouldn't know exactly
89
278360
2800
04:41
what you're talking about.
90
281160
1660
04:43
We use 'which' when the information is not essential.
91
283440
4540
04:47
It's nice to have extra information but we don't
92
287980
3240
04:51
have to have it to understand the meaning.
93
291220
2520
04:53
Without it, we're still going to understand
94
293740
3240
04:56
the clause in the sentence.
95
296980
1620
04:59
Let's look at a few examples together.
96
299000
2540
05:02
Remember my car? My brand new car.
97
302220
3300
05:06
I'm using 'which' in this sentence because
98
306100
2600
05:08
the information that my car is brand new
99
308700
3280
05:11
is not essential to the meaning in this sentence.
100
311980
2960
05:14
I only have one car.
101
314940
2000
05:17
If I take that part of the sentence out,
102
317020
2740
05:19
then the sentence still makes sense, right?
103
319960
2660
05:22
My car is making strange noises.
104
322840
2420
05:25
Same car, same problem.
105
325800
2120
05:28
Just lacking a bit of detail.
106
328320
2080
05:30
But now let's look at a different example.
107
330700
2940
05:33
The car that I hired last week
108
333840
2700
05:36
was making strange noises.
109
336540
2140
05:38
Now I used 'that' because it's important,
110
338840
3000
05:41
essential information.
111
341840
1860
05:44
I'm trying to be specific about the car because it's not
112
344000
3760
05:47
clear which one I'm talking about.
113
347760
2240
05:50
There are lots of cars for hire.
114
350000
2040
05:52
Maybe I've even driven more than one.
115
352160
2460
05:54
So that is introducing information that helps me
116
354820
4060
05:58
to be specific about which car, alright?
117
358880
3820
06:02
We can't take that part of the sentence out
118
362980
3140
06:06
because then the sentence isn't clear, right?
119
366500
2620
06:10
It just doesn't make sense.
120
370720
1500
06:12
Which car was making noises?
121
372220
2000
06:15
For any of you who are sitting exams and writing
122
375040
3160
06:18
essays - that kind of thing,
123
378200
1980
06:20
there's another really important tip that I've got for you.
124
380180
3060
06:23
Do you notice the difference
125
383640
1900
06:25
between these two sentences?
126
385540
2220
06:28
What's the difference? Apart from 'which' and 'that'.
127
388500
3040
06:32
Yeah it's the commas, right?
128
392680
2120
06:35
This difference in punctuation is absolutely necessary.
129
395040
4960
06:41
So when you have an adjective clause that's starting
130
401000
3100
06:44
with 'that' you don't need to use commas.
131
404100
3220
06:47
This information is essential, right?
132
407320
2960
06:50
It's part of the meaning of the sentence.
133
410280
2440
06:52
It can't be taken out.
134
412720
1460
06:54
If the adjective clause starts with 'which',
135
414180
3480
06:57
then you need to put a comma
136
417760
1520
06:59
before and after the clause.
137
419280
2000
07:01
This makes it seem like it's an extra,
138
421280
2980
07:04
inserted piece of information, which it is, right?
139
424260
3680
07:07
It's got the commas to show you that you can pick it up
140
427940
3220
07:11
and remove it and your sentence still makes sense.
141
431160
3720
07:15
Alright one more example and then you're going to be
142
435040
3100
07:18
more than ready to take the quiz at the end.
143
438140
3480
07:21
Imagine that I have three dogs.
144
441920
2460
07:24
Right, one of my dogs has spots.
145
444820
3020
07:27
The other two don't.
146
447840
1620
07:29
And my dog that has spots is missing.
147
449620
3600
07:34
So if I tell you my dog is missing,
148
454280
2420
07:36
it's not very helpful because you don't know which dog
149
456700
3300
07:40
I'm talking about, right?
150
460000
1560
07:42
My dog that has spots is missing.
151
462260
2860
07:45
The fact that the dog has spots,
152
465700
3260
07:48
it's not the brown one, it's not the white one.
153
468960
2940
07:52
This information is essential,
154
472240
1700
07:53
it's important information, right?
155
473940
2440
07:57
So let's compare it to my brother's dog
156
477040
2000
07:59
because my brother has just one dog.
157
479040
2840
08:01
He got the dog for his birthday and his dog is sick.
158
481920
3720
08:05
My brother's dog is sick.
159
485900
2160
08:09
We don't need to know any more information about this,
160
489100
2940
08:12
right? We know which dog because he's only got one.
161
492040
3480
08:15
But if I wanted to give some extra information
162
495520
3120
08:18
to tell you a little bit more about the dog,
163
498760
2340
08:21
I can use 'which'.
164
501100
2000
08:23
My brother's dog, which he got for his birthday, is sick.
165
503700
4120
08:28
So that's extra information right? It's not essential
166
508840
3720
08:32
So we used 'which' and we used commas.
167
512560
4180
08:36
Okay how are you feeling? Are you ready to
168
516740
3000
08:39
test yourself a little?
169
519740
1600
08:41
I think you are, I think you are more than ready.
170
521720
3520
08:45
I'll be back after this super quick break with a quiz
171
525240
3260
08:48
to check what you learned during this lesson.
172
528500
2580
08:51
Don't go anywhere.
173
531080
1800
08:53
Okay are you ready? All you need to do
174
533760
3140
08:56
is decide
175
536900
1460
08:58
is 'which' or 'that' the correct word to use.
176
538820
3140
09:02
This quiz is going to get faster as we go so you'll have
177
542540
3520
09:06
less and less time to answer each question.
178
546060
2740
09:08
So you've got to be ready, right?
179
548800
2000
09:10
Make sure you keep track of how many questions
180
550800
2140
09:12
you get right so that you can tell me
181
552940
1880
09:14
how you did at the end.
182
554820
2000
09:17
Up here I'm going to show you two sentences
183
557060
2920
09:19
but only one of those sentences is correct.
184
559980
3300
09:23
Right you just need to choose the correct one.
185
563280
2320
09:25
You ready?
186
565600
1180
09:27
Number one.
187
567500
1040
09:28
I have one house that has a green door.
188
568540
3440
09:32
So which of these sentences is the correct sentence?
189
572560
4440
09:39
The answer's B:
190
579500
1220
09:40
My house, which has a green door
191
580720
2820
09:43
is at the end of the street.
192
583540
1680
09:45
I've only got one house, right?
193
585220
2000
09:47
So the detail about the door is not essential information.
194
587220
4760
09:52
So number two.
195
592820
1280
09:54
Shoes that have cheap soles make my feet hurt.
196
594560
4420
09:59
Or:
197
599700
1000
10:00
Shoes, which have cheap soles, make my feet hurt.
198
600700
4320
10:08
A is the right answer here.
199
608720
2160
10:10
Not all shoes have cheap soles, right? And they don't
200
610880
2980
10:13
all hurt my feet, only the shoes with cheap soles.
201
613860
4880
10:18
So I'm being specific, it's essential information.
202
618740
3740
10:22
Number three.
203
622800
1420
10:26
Which one of these is correct?
204
626460
2000
10:30
The ring that my grandma gave me
205
630660
1980
10:32
is worth a lot of money.
206
632640
2000
10:34
Or: The ring which my grandma gave me
207
634640
3780
10:38
is worth a lot of money.
208
638560
2220
10:42
Actually both of them could work here.
209
642860
2380
10:45
So I guess you're right! It would depend if the listener
210
645240
3720
10:48
knew which ring they were talking about, right?
211
648960
4180
10:53
If we both knew that we were talking about this ring,
212
653680
3900
10:57
if I only had one ring on,
213
657580
1780
10:59
then it's just extra information, right?
214
659360
2520
11:02
But if you didn't know which ring,
215
662320
2620
11:04
then I can be specific and say:
216
664940
3080
11:08
"The ring that my grandma gave me."
217
668020
3080
11:11
Number four.
218
671660
1240
11:18
What do you think?
219
678580
1420
11:23
It's definitely A.
220
683200
1280
11:24
He's not allergic to all food, just specifically food
221
684480
3880
11:28
cooked with soy oil.
222
688360
2140
11:30
So see how if we remove this clause,
223
690680
3660
11:34
it changes completely, right?
224
694340
2360
11:36
Food can give him an allergic reaction.
225
696820
3640
11:40
It's a completely different meaning.
226
700460
1540
11:42
The information is essential.
227
702360
2220
11:45
I have one pair of sunglasses and they're pink.
228
705880
3700
11:50
So number five.
229
710760
1660
11:53
B makes more sense. The fact that they're pink
230
713140
2560
11:55
is not really essential information, is it?
231
715700
2880
11:58
So we would choose B.
232
718580
2000
12:01
Number six.
233
721060
1280
12:03
I've had my computer for six years. It's the
234
723660
3360
12:07
only computer that I have.
235
727020
2600
12:11
B. Yes!
236
731260
1280
12:12
Again, this information is not essential because
237
732720
3740
12:16
we know that I only have one computer, right?
238
736460
2980
12:20
Music makes me want to dance
239
740300
1700
12:22
but only music with a good beat
240
742000
2840
12:24
not any other types of music.
241
744840
2100
12:28
Yes it's A, you're right.
242
748400
2260
12:31
My shirt that has a stain on it needs to be washed.
243
751500
4040
12:36
Or: My shirt, which has a stain on it, needs to be washed
244
756040
4720
12:40
A, right? It's essential information.
245
760760
3160
12:43
I need to know which shirt, out of all of my shirts,
246
763920
3780
12:47
which is the one that needs to be washed.
247
767900
2440
12:50
The one with the stain.
248
770820
1520
12:54
I forgot my jacket that's purple on the bus.
249
774160
4340
12:59
I forgot my jacket, which is purple, on the bus.
250
779100
3660
13:02
The answer's B.
251
782760
1360
13:04
Okay the last one now.
252
784640
1640
13:06
The picture that was taken at sunset is my favourite.
253
786760
4140
13:11
The picture, which was taken at sunset, is my favourite.
254
791840
4940
13:17
Yeah! The picture that was taken at sunset
255
797020
2760
13:19
is my favourite.
256
799780
1480
13:21
Perfect! Nice work!
257
801400
1640
13:24
That got really, really fast towards the end,
258
804160
2580
13:26
don't you think?
259
806740
1620
13:28
How did you do?
260
808700
1300
13:30
How many did you get right?
261
810000
1460
13:31
Did you make any mistakes?
262
811900
2420
13:35
Share your results in the comments so I can see
263
815500
2160
13:37
how you did. I love creating new lessons for you
264
817660
3400
13:41
every single week so if you did enjoy this lesson,
265
821060
3160
13:44
then make sure you hit the subscribe button down there.
266
824220
2960
13:47
And let me know if there are any English lessons you are
267
827180
3340
13:50
dying for me to teach.
268
830520
1900
13:52
Right now, I think it's time to head over
269
832900
2320
13:55
here and check out this lesson. I'll see you in there!
270
835220
2900
About this site

This site will introduce you to YouTube videos that are useful for learning English.

Double-click on the English subtitles displayed on each video page to play the video from there.

The subtitles scroll in sync with the video playback.

If you have any comments or requests, please contact us using this contact form.